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REPORTS  OF  THE  IMMIGRATION  COMMISSION 


EMIGRATION  CONDITIONS  IN 
EUROPE 


PRESENTED  BY  MR.  DILLINGHAM 

DECEMBER  5,  1910. — Referred  to  the  Committee. on  Immigration 
and  ordered  to  be  printed,  with  illustrations 


WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT    PRINTING    OFFICE 
1911 


THE  IMMIGRATION  COMMISSION. 


Senator  WILLIAM  P.  DILLINGHAM,  Representative  BENJAMIN  F.  HOWELL. 

Chairman.  Representative  WILLIAM  S.  BENNET. 

Senator  HENRY  CABOT  LODGE.  Representative  JOHN  L.  BURNETT. 

Senator  ASBURY  C.  LATIMER.«  Mr.  CHARLES  P.  NEILL. 

Senator  ANSELM  J.  MCLAURIN.*  Mr.  JEREMIAH  W.  JENKS. 

Senator  LE  ROY  PERCY.°  Mr.  WILLIAM  R.  WHEELER. 

Secretaries: 

MOBTON   E.   CRANE.  W.   W.   HUSBAND. 

C.  S.  ATKINSON. 

Chief  Statistician: 
FBED  C.  CROXTON. 


Extract  from  act  of  Congress  of  February  20,  1907,  creating  and  defining  the 
duties  of  the  Immigration  Commission. 

Thnt  a  commission  is  hereby  created,  consisting  of  three  Senators,  to  be  ap- 
pointed by  the  President  of  the  Senate,  and  three  Members  of  the  House  of 
Representatives,  to  be  appointed  by  the  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives, and  three  persons  to  be  appointed  by  the  President  of  the  United  States. 
Said  commission  shall  make  full  inquiry,  examination,  and  investigation,  by 
subcommittee  or  otherwise,  into  the  subject  of  immigration.  For  the  purpose 
of  said  inquiry,  examination,  and  investigation  said  commission  is  authorized 
to  send  for  persons  and  papers,  make  all  necessary  travel,  either  in  the  United 
States  or  any  foreign  country,  and,  through  the  chairman  of  the  commission, 
or  any  member  thereof,  to  administer  oaths  and  to  examine  witnesses  and 
papers  respecting  all  matters  pertaining  to  the  subject,  and  to  employ  neces- 
sary clerical  and  other  assistance.  Said  commission  shall  report  to  Congress 
the  conclusions  reached  by  it,  and  make  such  recommendations  as  in  its  judg- 
ment may  seem  proper.  Such  sums  of  money  as  may  be  necessary  for  the  said 
inquiry,  examination,  and  investigation  are  hereby  appropriated  and  authorized 
to  be  paid  out  of  the  "  immigrant  fund  "  on  the  certificate  of  the  chairman  of 
said  commission,  including  all  expenses  of  the  commissioners,  and  a  reasonable 
compensation,  to  be  fixed  by  the  President  of  the  United  States,  for  those 
members  of  the  commission  who  are  not  Members  of  Congress;  *  *  *. 

0  Died  February  20,  1908. 

6  Appointed  to  succeed  Mr.  Latimer,  February  25,  1908.     Died  December  22, 
1909. 
0  Appointed  to  succeed  Mr,  McLaurin,  M*arch  16,  1910, 

U 


LIST  OF  REPORTS  OF  THE  IMMIGRATION  COMMISSION. 


Volumes  1  and  2.  Abstracts  of  Reports  of  the  Immigration  Commission,  with  Conclusions  and  Recom- 
mendations and  Views  of  the  Minority.  (These  volumes  include  the  Commission's  complete  reports 
on  the  following  subjects:  Immigration  Conditions  in  Hawaii;  Immigration  and  Insanity;  Immi- 
grants in  Charity  Hospitals;  Alien  Seamen  and  Stowaways;  Contract  Labor  and  Induced  and  Assisted 
Immigration;  The  Greek  Padrone  System  in  the  United  States;  Peonage.)  (S.  Doc.  No.  747,  61st 
Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Volume  3.  Statistical  Review  of  Immigration,  1819-1910— Distribution  of  Immigrants,  1850-1900.  ( S .  Doc. 
No.  756, 61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Volume  4.  Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.    (S.  Doc.  No.  748,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Volume  5.  Dictionary  of  Races  or  Peoples.    (S.  Doc.  No.  662,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Volumes  6  and  7.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  1,  Bituminous  Coal  Mining.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633, 61st  Cong., 
2d  sess.) 

Volumes  8  and  9.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  2,  Iron  and  Steel  Manufacturing.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633,  61st 
Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volume  10.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  3,  Cotton  Goods  Manufacturing  in  the  North  Atlantic  States— 
Pt.  4,  Woolen  and  Worsted  Goods  Manufacturing.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633,  61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volume  11.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  5,  Silk  Goods  Manufacturing  and  Dyeing— Pt.  6,  Clothing 
Manufacturing— Pt.  7,  Collar,  Cuff,  and  Shirt  Manufacturing.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633, 61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volume  12.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  8,  Leather  Manufacturing — Pt.  9,  Boot  and  Shoe  Manufac- 
turing—Pt.  10,  Glove  Manufacturing.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633,  61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volume  13.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  11,  Slaughtering  and  Meat  Packing.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633,  61st 
Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volume  14.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  12,  Glass  Manufacturing— Pt«  13,  Agricultural  Implement 
and  Vehicle  Manufacturing.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633,  61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volume  15.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  14,  Cigar  and  Tobacco  Manufacturing— Pt.  15,  Furniture  Man- 
ufacturing—Pt.  16,  Sugar  Refining.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633,  61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volume  16.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  17,  Copper  Mining  and  Smelting— Pt.  18,  Iron  Ore  Mining— 
Pt.  19,  Anthracite  Coal  Mining— Pt.  20,  Oil  Refining.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633,  61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volume  17.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  21,  Diversified  Industries,  Vol.  I.    (S.  Doc.  No.  633,  61st  Cong., 


Volume  18.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  21,  Diversified  Industries,  Vol.  II— Pt.  22,  The  Floating  Immi- 
grant Labor  Supply.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633,  61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volumes  19  and  20.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  23,  Summary  Report  on  Immigrants  in  Manufacturing 
and  Mining.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633,  61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volumes  21  and  22.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  24,  Recent  Immigrants  in  Agriculture.  (S.  Doc.  No. 
633,  61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volumes  23-25.  Immigrants  in  Industries:  Pt.  25,  Japanese  and  Other  Immigrant  Races  in  the  Pacific 
Coast  and  Rocky  Mountain  States.  (S.  Doc.  No.  633,  61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volumes  26  and  27.  Immigrants  in  Cities.    (S.  Doc.  No.  338,  61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volume  28.  Occupations  of  the  First  and  Second  Generations  of  Immigrants  in  the  United  States— Fe- 
cundity of  Immigrant  Women.  (S.  Doc.  No.  282,  61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volumes  29-33.  The  Children  of  Immigrants  in  Schools.    (S.  Doc.  No.  749,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Volumes  34  and  35.  Immigrants  as  Charity  Seekers.    (S.  Doc.  No.  665,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Volume  36.  Immigration  and  Crime.    (S.  Doc.  No.  750,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Volume  37.  Steerage  Conditions — Importation  and  Harboring  of  Women  for  Immoral  Purposes — Immi- 
grant Homes  and  Aid  Societies— Immigrant  Banks.  (S.  Doc.  No.  753,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Volume  38.  Changes  in  Bodily  Form  of  Descendants  of  Immigrants.    (S.  Doc.  No.  208, 61st  Cong.,  2d  sess.) 

Volume  39.  Federal  Immigration  Legislation— Digest  of  Immigration  Decisions— Steerage  Legislation, 
1819-1908— State  Immigration  and  Alien  Laws.  (S.  Doc.  No.  758,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Volume  40.  The  Immigration  Situation  in  Other  Countries:  Canada— Australia— New  Zealand— Argen- 
tina—Brazil.  (S.  Doc.  No.  761, 61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Volume  41.  Statements  and  Recommendations  Submitted  by  Societies  and  Organizations  Interested  in 
the  Subject  of  Immigration.  (S.  Doc.  No.  764,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Volume  42.  Index  of  Reports  of  the  Immigration  Commission.    (S.  Doc.  No.  785,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

Ill 


LETTER  OF  TRANSMITTAL. 


THE  IMMIGRATION  COMMISSION, 
Washington,  D.  C.,  December  5,  1910. 
To  the  Sixty -first  Congress: 

I  have  the  honor  to  transmit  herewith,  on  behalf  of  the  Immigra- 
tion Commission,  a  report  entitled  "  Emigration  Conditions  in 
Europe." 

Respectfully,  WILLIAM  P.  DILLINGHAM, 

Chairman. 


CONTENTS. 


PART  I.— GENERAL  SURVEY  OF  EMIGRATION  CONDITIONS. 

CHAPTER  I. — Introductory:  Page. 

Scope  of  the  inquiry 3 

Statistical  review  of  European  immigration,  1819-1910 5 

Old  and  new  European  immigration 12 

Chart  showing  European  immigration  to  the  United  States  in  each  fifccul 

year  1882  to  1907,  inclusive,  by  class 18 

Attitude  of  European  countries  toward  emigration 19 

CHAPTER  II. — Character  of  European  immigration: 

Sex..: 22 

Age 24 

Occupations 26 

Literacy 29 

Literacy  in  Europe 31 

Money  shown  by  immigrants 35 

CHAPTER  III. — Permanent  and  temporary  emigration: 

Extent  and  character  of  the  return  movement 41 

Third-class  passenger  movement,  1899-1909 42 

Sex  and  age  of  emigrant  aliens 44 

Length  of  residence  in  the  United  States 45 

Occupations  of  emigrant  aliens 47 

Destination  of  emigrant  aliens 49 

Permanence  of  the  return  movement 51 

Effects  of  the  return  movement  in  Europe 52 

CHAPTER  IV. — Causes  of  emigration  from  Europe: 
Primary  causes — 

Economic  conditions  in  Europe 53 

Wages  in  European  countries 54 

Cost  of  living  in  Europe , 55 

Desire  for  better  conditions 56 

Political  and  religious  causes 56 

Contributory  causes — 

Letters  from  friends  in  the  United  States 57 

Influence  of  returned  emigrants 58 

Mutual  savings  societies 58 

Joining  friends  in  the  United  States 59 

Contracts  to  labor  in  the  United  States 60 

Assistance  of  friends 61 

Steamship  ticket  agents 61 

Assisted  emigration 64 

Jewish  emigration  societies 65 

Emigration  of  criminals 67 

CHAPTER  V. — Inspection  of  emigrants  abroad  : 

Effect  of  United  States  immigration  laws 69 

Immigrants  rejected  at  United  States  ports 71 

The  United  States  quarantine  law 

Inspection  of  emigrants  in  Europe 76 

Inspection  at  ports  and  control  stations — 

Antwerp 

.               British  ports 82 

Glasgow 84 

Liverpool 

Londonderry 

Queenstown : 

Southampton 89 

Cherbourg 90 

Christiania...                                          91 


vin  The  Immigration  Commission. 

PART  III—  THE  EMIGRATION  SITUATION  IN  RUSSIA, 

CHAPTER  I.  —  Immigration  to  the  United  States  from  Russia:  Paee 

Immigration  by  years,  1820  to  1910  .....................................  239 

Immigration  by  sex  and  decades,  1871  to  1910  ..........................  240 

Russian  and  other  European  immigration  ................................  241 

Natives  of  Russia  in  the  United  States,  1850  to  1900.  .  ....................  242 

CHAPTER  II.  —  The  agrarian  question  —  Migration  to  Siberia: 

The  agrarian  question  in  Russia  ........................................  245 

Migration  to  Siberia  ....................................................  249  , 

CHAPTER  III.  —  Russia's  attitude  toward  emigration: 

Russian  law  and  emigration  ............................................  251 

CHAPTER  IV.  —  Causes  of  emigration  from  Russia: 

Causes  of  peasant  emigration  ..........................................  265 

The  large  agricultural  population  ...................................  266 

Unequal  distribution  of  the  population  ..............................  267 

Distribution  of  ownership  of  land  ..................................  267 

Land  holdings  of  peasants  ..........................................  268 

Antiquated  system  of  agriculture  ..................................  269 

Wages  of  agricultural  laborers  ......................................  270 

Causes  of  the  Hebrew  emigration  .......................................  271 

Emigration  as  a  result  of  the  legal  situation  of  the  Jews  in  Russia  .....  272 

Restriction  in  habitation  .......................................  276 

Restrictions  on  occupation  ....................................  276 

Restrictions  in  education  ......................................  277 

Isolation  from  local  self-governing  bodies  ........................  277 

Economic  condition  of  the  Jews  in  Russia  ..................  281 

Introduction  ...................................                        "".  281 

Jewish  population  ..........................  ......"......]  281 

Occupations  ...........................................  '.'.'.'.'.'.  289 

Agriculture  — 

Agricultural  colonies  ................................  294 

Truck  farming  .................................  '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.  300 

Independent  farming  ...................  30] 

Artisans  — 

Number  of  workers  ................................  302 

Women  and  children  in  the  hand  trades.  .  .  .".  .".  ".  .  304 

Marketing  of  the  products  .....................  .,[',  305 

Conditions  of  work  ...................  306 

Wages  and  earnings  ..........  ................  307 

ganizations  of  artisans.  .  .  <*nq 

Fed  laborers  .............                                            .......  310 

Manufacturing  industry  — 

Jewish  branches  or  industry  ............  313 

Jewish  industries  in  Poland  ......  ..".".".  ....... 

Jewish  activity  in  the  textile  industry.  . 
Factory  labor  ................. 

Female  and  child  labor  in  the  factories  "  "  S2o 

Wages  of  factory  workers  ____  oon 

Labor  organizations  ..............  ™  V 

Commercial  pursuits  ........                                                         ----  ooi 

Professional  service  .............                                                 ----  oon 

Pauperism  and  charity  — 

Pauperism  ..............  «q9 

Charitable  institutions...                                             .........  004 

CHAPTER  V.—  Character  of  Russian  immigration  •"  "                       .............  66 

•   Russia's  population  ....... 

Races  entering  the  United  State's.".'  ".  "                                       .............  jS 

Rate  of  immigration  among  various  races.  . 

Sex  of  immigrants  .......                                                        ..............  dc59 

Occupations  of  immigrants  "  "                                   ...................  *v  •  34° 

Illiteracy  in  Russia—                                                       "  ..................  341 

Educational  opportunities... 

[literacy  among  immigrants  from  Russia  ."  ."  ."  ."  ."  ."  '.  ."  ]  .*  '.[..[,  347 


Orga 
UnskilFed 


Contents.  ix 


PART  IV —THE  EMIGRATION  SITUATION  IN  AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, 

CHAPTER  I. — Immigration  to  the  United  States  from  Austria-Hungary:  Page. 

Immigration  by  years,  1820-1910 351 

Immigration  by  sex  and  decades,  1871-1910 352 

Austro-Hungarian  and  other  European  immigration 352 

Emigration  from  Austria-Hungary 353 

Natives  of  Austria-Hungary  in  the  United  States,  1850  to  1900 354 

CHAPTER  II. — Attitude  of  Austria  and  Hungary  toward  emigration:     . 

Austria 357 

Hungary , 357 

CHAPTER  III. — Causes  of  emigration  from  Austria-Hungary: 
The  agricultural  situation — 

Austria 362 

Hungary 364 

Methods  of  cultivation 365 

The  industrial  situation — 

Austria 365 

Size  of  industrial  establishments 367 

Hungary 367 

Industrial  wages 368 

Hours  of  labor : 368 

Contributory  causes  of  emigration 369 

Standard  of  living 370 

CHAPTER  IV. — Character  of  Austro-Hungarian  immigration: 

Ethnical  elements  in  the  population 371 

Racial  composition  of  immigration  from  Austria-Hungary 372 

Sex  of  immigrants 375 

Occupations  of  immigrants * 3? 6 

Illiteracy  in  Austria-Hungary 377 

Austria 377 

Illiteracy  among  immigrants  from  Austria-Hungary 379 

Causes  of  illiteracy 380 

Hungary 382 

Illiteracy  and  race 383 

Elementary  schools 383 

CHAPTER  V. — Effect  of  emigration  on  Austria-Hungary: 

Economic  effects * 385 

Effect  on  morality 1 387 

Living  conditions 387 

Effect  on  character 388 

PART  V  — THE  EMIGRATION  SITUATION  IN  GREECE, 

CHAPTER  I. — Immigration  to  the  United  States  from  Greece: 

Immigration  by  years,  1820-1910 391 

Immigration  by  sex  and  decades,  1871-1910 

Immigration  from  Greece  and  other  European  immigration 

Natives  of  Greece  in  the  United  States,  1850  to  1900 

Other  emigration  from  Greece 395 

CHAPTER  II.— Attitude  of  the  Government  toward  emigration 397 

CHAPTER  III.— Causes  of  emigration  from  Greece: 

The  agricultural  situation - 401 

Methods  of  cultivation 402 

Wages  of  agricultural  laborers 402 

The  industrial  situation 

Industrial  wages - 

Living  conditions '. 4"4 

CHAPTER  IV. — Character  of  emigration  from  Greece: 

Racial  composition  of  the  population '. 

Homogeneity  of  the  immigration  from  Greece 

Occupations  of  immigrants 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


CHAPTER  V.— The  effect  of  emigration  on  Greece:  Page- 
Effect  on  population 411 

Economic  effects 412 

Social  effects 414 

Returning  emigrants 414 

Listoftables , 417-424 


PART  I.— GENERAL  SURVEY  OF  EMIGRATION  CONDITIONS. 


PART  L— GENERAL  SURVEY  OF  EMIGRATION  CONDITIONS, 


CHAPTER  I. 
INTRODUCTORY. 

SCOPE  OF  THE  INQUIRY. 

In  the  summer  of  1907  Commissioners  Dillingham  (chairman), 
Latimer,  Howell,  Bennet,  Burnett,  and  Wheeler  visited  Europe  for 
the  purpose  of  making  a  general  survey  of  emigration  causes  and 
conditions  in  countries  which  are  the  chief  sources  of  the  present 
immigration  to  the  United  States.  The  Commissioners  sailed  from 
Boston  May  18  for  Naples  and,  with  the  exception  of  Mr.  Wheeler 
who  conducted  supplemental  investigations  for  about  two  months, 
reached  New  York  on  the  return  voyage  September  6. 

The  Commission  landed  at  Naples  May  30  and  immediately  pro- 
ceeded to  an  investigation  of  conditions  surrounding  emigration  from 
Italy  to  the  United  States.  Naples  being  the  chief  port  of  embarka- 
tion for  Italian  emigrants,  several  days  were  spent  in  studying  the 
system  of  handling  and  examining  emigrants  in  operations  there. 
On  June  5  Commissioners  Latimer.  Bennet.  and  Burnett  went  to 
southern  Italy  and  Sicily,  where  emigration  conditions  were  studied 
at  the  ports  of  Messina  and  Palermo,  and  at  several  interior  cities 
and  villages  which  are  centers  of  territory  contributing  largely  to 
the  Italian  emigration  movement.  So  far  as  time  permitted  the  Com- 
missioners visited  country  districts  and  the  homes  of  the  peasantry, 
which  class  furnishes  the  greater  part  of  Italian  emigration.  While 
the  above-named  gentlemen  were  in  southern  Italy,  Commissioners 
Dillingham,  Howell,  and  Wheeler,  representing  the  Senate,  House  of 
Representatives,  and  the  noncongressional  groups  composing  the 
Commission,  .proceeded  to  Home  to  officially  visit  and  confer  with  emi- 
gration and  other  officials  of  the  Italian  Government.  These  Commis- 
sioners later  returned  to  Naples  for  further  conferences  with  Ameri- 
can consular  officers  and  other  officials  and  again  went  to  Rome  to 
join  Commissioners  Latimer,  Bennet,  and  Burnett  on  their  return 
from  southern  Italy.  All  members  of  the  committee  assembled  in 
Rome  on  June  IT/ and  on  June  18  a  meeting  was  held  to  perfect 
plans  for  continuing  the  investigation  in  other  parts  of  Europe.  At 
this  time  subcommittees  were  appointed,  and  the  territory  to  be 
covered  was  assigned  as  follows :  Austria,  Hungary,  and  Russia,  Com- 
missioners Dillingham  and  Wheeler;  northern  Italy,  France,  and 
Germany,  including  ports  of  embarkation  and  the  German  control 
stations,  Commissioners  Latimer  and  Burnett;  Greece,  Turkey,  Asia 
Minor,  and  the  Balkan  States,  Commissioners  Howell  and  Bennet. 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


Mr.  Howell  was  later  assigned  to  the  subcommittee  having  charge  of 
the  inquiry  in  northern  Italy,  France,  and  Germany,  and  their  terri- 
tory was  increased  to  include  England,  Ireland,  and  Scotland.  By 
the  terms  of  the  resolution  adopted  for  carrying  on  the  work  as  above 
indicated  each  subcommittee  was  responsible  for  the  investigation  in 
the  territory  assigned.  No  further  meeting  of  the  Commission  was 
held  until  August  18,  in  London. 

In  the  meantime  the  various  subcommittees  visited  practically 
every  part  of  Europe  from  which  immigrants  come  to  the  United 
States.  In  addition  to  the  itinerary  outlined  above,  Commissioner 
Bennet  spent  some  time  in  the  interior  of  Russia,  while  Commissioner 
Wheeler  visited  Finland,  Sweden,  Denmark,  and  the  ports  of  Ham- 
burg, Bremen,  Rotterdam,  Amsterdam,  and  Antwerp,  and  after  the 
return  of  the  other  members  of  the  Commission  continued  the  inves- 
tigation in  Great  Britain,  Russia,  Germany,  and  the  Scandinavian 
countries. 

The  general  plan  of  the  Commission,  which  was  also  followed  by 
the  various  subcommittees,  included  a  study  of  the  causes  of  emigra- 
tion, natural  and  artificial ;  classes  emigrating  and  the  character  of 
emigrants;  the  attitude  of  European  governments  toward  emigra- 
tion; the  effects  of  emigration  on  various  European  countries;  emi- 
gration control  and  the  inspection  of  emigrants  abroad ;  the  emigration 
of  criminals  and  other  classes  debarred^by  the  United  States  immi- 
gration law,  and  the  effect  of  that  law  on  European  emigration. 

The  capital  of  each  country,  the  principal  ports  at  which  emigrants 
for  the  United  States  embark,  and,  wherever  feasible,  the  chief  emi- 
grant-furnishing districts,  were  visited.  Much  of  the  time  available 
was  necessarily  given  to  consultation  with  officials  of  the  various 
countries  included  in  the  inquiry  and  with  American  diplomatic  and 
consular  officers  and  others  acquainted  with  the  emigration  situation 
in  Europe.  In  the  course  of  the  investigation  the  Commissioners 
prepared  memoranda  covering  all  phases  of  the  question  in  countries 
visited.  Whenever  deemed  necessary  hearings  were  resorted  to;  in- 
terviews were  recorded  in  detail  or  in  substance;  considerable  care- 
fully prepared  information,  with  expressions  of  opinion  by  govern- 
ment officials  and  others,  was  secured,  and  a  large  number  of  official 
and  other  documents  and  exhibits  were  collected.  All  of  this  material 
was  carefully  considered  in  the  preparation  of  detailed  reports  upon 
the  various  topics  presented  herewith. 

In  addition  to  data  secured  by  the  Commission  there  was  made 
available,  by  courtesy  of  the  Bureau  of  Immigration,  a  digest  of  un- 
published reports  by  Robert  Watchorn,  then  commissioner  of  immi- 
gration at  New  York ;  Dr.  George  W.  Stoner,  surgeon,  Public  Health 
and  Marine-Hospital  Service,  in  charge  of  medical  examination  of 
immigrants  at  New  York ;  T.  V.  Powderly,  now  Chief  of  the  Division 
of  Information,  Bureau  of  Immigration ;  and  Philip  Cowan,  Roman 
Dobler,  Samuel  A.  Eppler,  Charles  Sempsey,  and  John  J.  D.  Trenor, 
immigrant  inspectors,  who  visited  Europe  in  1906  to  investigate 
various  phases  of  emigration  and  immigration,  and  this  information 
has  been  freely  used  and  duly  accredited.  Immediately  following  the 
Commission's  visit  to  Italy,  the  Royal  Italian  Agricultural  Commis- 
sion .investigated  emigration  conditions  in  Basilicata  and  Calabria, 
and  the  report  resulting  from  this  inquiry  was  placed  at  the  disposal 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


of  the  Immigration  Commission  by  the  Italian  authorities.  This  re- 
port has  been  largely  used  in  discussing  conditions  in  Italy.  Pub- 
lished data,  chiefly  official,  statistical,  and  other  reports  of  foreign 
countries,  and  in  some  cases  unofficial  publications,  when  considered 
entirely  reliable,  have  been  employed  in  the  preparation  of  the  report. 
This  course  was  adopted  because  of  the  desire  of  the  Commission 
that  the  study  of  the  questions  involved  be  as  complete  and  exhaus- 
tive as  was  possible. 

The  report  is  divided  into  two  parts,  the  first  being  a  discussion 
of  recent  European  immigration  to  the  United  States  and  the  more 
general  features  of  the  emigration  situation  in  Europe,  as  a  whole, 
while  the  second  part  deals  with  emigration  from  and  emigration  con- 
ditions in  Italy,  Russia,  Austria-Hungary,  and  Greece,  which  coun- 
tries have  been  the  source  of  much  of  the  recent  immigration  to  the 
United  States.  It  is  the  purpose  of  the  report  to  show,  as  briefly  as 
may  be  practicable,  the  character  of  the  present  movement  of  popula- 
tion from  Europe  to  the  United  States,  the  causes  of  the  movement, 
and  other  matters  necessary  to  an  understanding  of  the  situation. 

STATISTICAL  REVIEW  OF  EUROPEAN  IMMIGRATION,   1819-1910. 

The  act  of  March  2,  1819,  entitled  "  An  act  regulating  passenger 
ships  and  vessels,"  contained  a  provision  to  the  effect  that  the  cap- 
tain or  master  of  any  ship  -bringing  passengers  from  a  foreign  port 
to  the  United  States  should  deliver  to  the  proper  official  at  the  port 
of  arrival  a  list  or  manifest  stating  the  age,  sex,  occupation,  country 
of  origin,  and  country  of  intended  future  residence  of  each  passen- 
ger. This  provision  of  the  law  became  effective  July  1,  1819,  and 
official  immigration  statistics  date  from  that  time.  During  the  period 
between  the  last-mentioned  date  and  June  30,  1910,  a  total  of  27,- 
918,992  immigrants  were  Admitted  to  the  United  States.  Of  this 
number  25,421,929,  or  92.3  per  cent,  of  all  immigrants  for  whom 
country  of  origin  was  reported  came  from  Europe. 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


The  yearly  movement  of  population  from  the  various  countries  of 
Europe  during  the  entire  period  is  shown  by  the  following  table : 

TABLE  1. — European  immigration  to  the  United  States,  by  country  of  origin,  for 
years  ending  June  30,  1820  to  1910.° 

[Compiled  from  official  sources.  For  1820  to  1867  the  figures  are  for  alien  passengers  arriving;  for  1868  they 
are  for  immigrants  arriving.  The  years  from  1820  to  1831  and  from  1844  to  1849,  inclusive,  are  those  ending 
September  30;  1833  to  1842  and  1851  to  1867,  inclusive,  those  ending  December  31.] 


Country. 

1820 

1821 

1822 

1823 

1824 

1825 

1826 

1827 

1828 

Europe: 

Belgium                 

1 

2 

10 

2 

1 

1 

2 

7 

2 

Bulgaria,    Servia,    and 

Denmark             

20 

12 

18 

6 

11 

14 

10 

15 

50 

France,includingCorsica. 
German  Empire  

371 
968 

370 
383 

351 
148 

460 
183 

377 
230 

515 
450 

545 
511 

1,280 
432 

2,843 
1,851 

5 

4 

7 

Italy,   including   Sicily 
and  Sardinia  , 

30 

63 

35 

33 

45 

75 

57 

35 

34 

Netherlands  

49 

56 

51 

19 

40 

37 

176 

245 

263 

Norway  & 

3 

12 

10 

1 

9 

4 

16 

13 

10 

Poland    

5 

1 

3 

3 

4 

1 

1 

1 

Portugal,  including  Cape 
Verde     and     Azores 
Islands  

35 

'  18 

28 

24 

13 

13 

16 

7 

14 

Roumania  

Russian  Empire 

14 

7 

10 

7 

7 

10 

4 

19 

7 

Spain,  including  Canary 
and  Balearic  Islands.  .  . 
Sweden  c 

139 

191 

152 

220 

359 

273 

436 

414 

209 

Switzerland      

31 

93 

110 

47 

253 

166 

245 

297 

1,592 

Turkey  in  Europe 

1 

4 

2 

2 

2 

1 

6 

United  Kingdom- 
England  

1,782 

1,036 

856 

851 

713 

1,002 

1,459 

2,521 

2,735 

Ireland    ......... 

3,614 

1,518 

2,267 

1,908 

2,345 

4,888 

5,408 

9,766 

12,488 

Scotland  

268 

293 

198 

180 

257 

113 

230 

460 

1,041 

Wales 

11 

13 

69 

33 

11 

6 

17 

Not  specified 

300 

1,870 

154 

261 

969 

624 

1,205 

1,559 

Other  Europe  <* 

1 

1 

1 

Total  Europe.  ..... 

7,691 

5,936 

4,418 

4,016 

4,965 

8,543 

9,751 

16,719 

24,729 

o  For  detailed  statistics  concerning  immigration  to  the  United  States  from  all  sources  see  Statistica* 
Review  of  Immigration,  1819-1910.  Reports  of  the  Immigration  Commission,  vol.  3.  (S.  Doc.  No.  756, 
61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

b  Including  Sweden. 

c  Included  in  Norway. 

d  Malta. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


TABLE  1.— European  immigration  to  the  United  States,  by  country  of  origin,  for 
years  ending  June  80,  1820  to  1910 — Continued. 


Country. 

1829 

1830 

1831 

1832  a 

1833 

1834 

1835 

1836 

1837 

Europe: 
Austria-Hungary  

Belgium  

Bulgaria,     Servia,    and 
Montenegro  

1 

3 

1 

Denmark  

17 

582 
597 
1 

23 
169 
13 

ie 

1,174 
1,976 
3 

9 
22 
3 
2 

3 

23 
2,038 
2,413 

21 
5,361 
10,  194 
1 

3 

205 
313 
34 

5 

173 

4,682 
6,988 
1 

1,699 
39 
16 

1 

633 

24 

2,989 
17,686 

37 
2,696 
8,311 
7 

60 
124- 
31 
54 

29 

416 
4,443 
20,707 
28 

115 
301 
57 
53 

29 

109 
5,074 
23,740 
5 

36 
312 
290 
81 

34 

France,  including  Corsica 
German  Empire  

wreece  

Italy,    including    Sicily 
and  Sardinia  

28 
175 
13 

105 
87 
42 
54 

44 

Netherlands  

Norway 

Poland  

Portugal,  including  Cape 
Verde     and      Azores 
Islands  

9 

Roumania  

Russian  Empire  

1 

202 

3 
21 

1 
37 

52 
106 

159 
516 

15 

107 

9 
183 

2 

180 

19 
230 

Spain,  including  Canary 
and  Balearic  Islands  .  .  . 
Sweden  

Switzerland 

314 
1 

2,149 
7,415 
111 
3 
916 

109 
2 

733 
2,721 
29 
7 
384 

63 

129 

634 
1 

2,966 
8,648 
1,921 
•    29 

1,389 

1,129 
24,  474 
110 
1 
9,250 

548 

468 
20,927 
63 
16 
8,423 

445 
3 

420 
30,578 
106 
2 
12,578 

383 

Turkey  in  Europe  
United  Kingdom  — 
England  

251 

5,772 
226 
131 
1,867 

944 
12,436 
158 

896 
28,508 
14 
6 
11,302 

Ireland  .       ... 

Scotland  

Wales  ... 

Not  specified  
Other  Europe 

4,229 
2 

5 

Total  Europe 

12,523 

7,217 

13,039 

34,  193 

29,  111 

57,510 

41,987 

70,  465 

71,039 

Country. 

1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

• 
1842 

1843& 

1844 

1845 

1846 

Europe: 
Austria-Hungary  

Belgium  

14 

1 

2 

106 

44 

135 

165 

541 

43 

Bulgaria,    Servia,    and 
Montenegro  

Denmark 

52 
3,675 
11,683 
4 

86 
27 
60 
41 

24 

56 

7,198 
21,028 

i52 

7,419 
29,704 
3 

37 
57 
55 
5 

12 

31 

5,006 
15,291 

35 
4,504 
20,370 
1 

100 
330 
553 
10 

15 

29 
3,346 
14,441 
4 

117 
330 
1,748 
17 

32 

25 

3,155 
20,731 
3 

141 
184 
1,311 
36 

16 

54 
7,663 
34,355 
2 

137 
791 

928 
6 

14 

114 

10,583 
57,561 
3 

151 
979 
1,916 
4 

2 

France,including  Corsica. 
German  Empire    

Greece 

Italy,    including    Sicily 
and  Sardinia 

84 
85 
324 
46 

19 

179 
214 
195 
15 

7 

Netherlands  

Norway 

Poland  I  

Portugal,  including  Cape 
Verde,     and     Azores 
Islands 

13 

202 

7 
428 

174 

215 

28 
122 

6 
145 

13 
270 

1 

304 

248 
73 

Spain,  including  Canary 
and  Balearic  Islands.  .  . 

136 

Switzerland  

123 

607 
1 

62 
23,963 

500 
1 

318 
39,430 
21 

751 
6 

147 
37,  772 
35 
55 
15,951 
66 

483 
2 

1,743 
51,342 
24 
38 
20,200 
1 

553 
5 

3,517 
19,  670 
41 

839 
10 

1,357 
33,490 
23 
3 
12,970 
3 

471 
3 

1,710 
44,821 
368 
11 
17,  121 

698 
4 

2,854 
51,752 
305 
147 
18,874 
4 

Turkey  in  Europe 

United  Kingdom- 
England  

157 
12,  645 
48 

Ireland      .  . 

Scotland 

Wales 

Not  specified 

5,215 
1 

10,209 
30 

2,274 

4,872 
5 

Other  Europe  

Total 

34,070 

64,148 

80,  126 

76,216 

99,945 

49,013 

74,745 

09,301 

146,315 

a  Fifteen  months  ending  Dec.  31. 
79524°— VOL  4—11 2 


fc  Nine  months  ending  Sept.  30. 


8 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  1. — European  immigration  to  the  United  States,  by  country  of  origin,  for 
years  ending  June  30,  1820  to  1910— Continued. 


Country. 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850a 

1851 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 

Europe: 
Austria-Hungary  

Belgium 

1  473 

897 

590 

1  080 

g 

87 

266 

1  506 

Bulgaria,    Servia,    and 
Montenegro  

Denmark  

13 

210 

8 

20 

14 

3 

32 

691 

528 

France,  includingCorsica  . 
German  Empire 

20,  040 
74  281 

7,743 
58  465 

5,841 
60  235 

9,381 
78  896 

20,  126 
72  482 

6,763 
145  918 

10,770 
141  946 

13,317 
215  009 

6,044 
71  918 

Greece  

1 

2 

10 

12 

1 

Italy,    including    Sicily 
and  Sardinia 

164 

241 

209 

431 

447 

351 

555 

1  263 

1  052 

Netherlands  ............ 

2,631 

918 

1,190 

684 

352 

1  719 

600 

1,534 

2,588 

Norway 

1  307 

903 

3  473 

1  569 

2  424 

4  103 

3  364 

3  531 

821 

Poland  

8 

4 

5 

10 

110 

33 

208 

462 

Portugal,  including  Cape 
Verde      and      Azores 
Islands  

5 

67 

26 

366 

50 

68 

95 

72 

205 

Roumania       .  

Russian  Empire  

5 

1 

44 

31 

1 

2 

3 

2 

13 

Spain,  including  Canary 
and  Balearic  Islands.  .  . 
Sweden 

158 

164 

329 

429 

435 

391 

1,091 

1,433 

951 

Switzerland          ......  . 

192 

319 

13 

325 

427 

2  788 

2  748 

7  953 

4  433 

Turkey  in  Europe  
United  Kingdom- 
England     

2 
3,476 

3 

4,455 

9 
6,036 

15 

6,797 

2 
5  306 

3 

30  007 

15 

28  867 

7 
48  901 

9 
38  871 

Ireland 

105  536 

112  934 

159  398 

164  004 

221  253 

159  548 

162  649 

101  606 

49  627 

Scotland  

337 

659 

1,060 

860 

966 

8  148 

6  006 

4  605 

5  275 

Wales 

145 

*    348 

272 

242 

211 

741 

222 

816 

1  176 

Not  specified  

19,  344 

29,  697 

47,  764 

43,  186 

45,004 

1,803 

2,481 

4,325 

2  250 

Other  Europe 

2 

Total  Europe  

229,  117 

218,  025 

286,501 

308,  323 

369,  510 

362  484 

361  576 

405  542 

187  729 

Country. 

1856 

1857 

1858 

1859 

1860 

1861 

1862 

1863 

1864 

Europe: 
Austria-Hungary 

51 

111 

85 

230 

Belgium 

1  982 

627 

184 

25 

53 

153 

169 

301 

389 

Bulgaria,    Servia,    and 
Montenegro 

Denmark 

173 

1  035 

232 

499 

542 

234 

1  658 

1  492 

712 

France,  including  Corsica 
German  Empire 

7,240 
71,028 

2,397 
91,781 

3,155 
45,310 

2,579 
41  784 

3,961 
54  491 

2,326 
31  661 

3^142 
27  529 

1,838 
33  162 

3,128 
57  276 

Greece 

2 

4 

1 

1 

5 

4 

5 

Italy,   including    Sicily 
and  Sardinia     

1,365 

1,007 

1,240 

932 

1  019 

811 

566 

547 

600 

Netherlands  

1,395 

1,775 

185 

290 

351 

283 

432 

416 

708 

Norway 

1  157 

1  712 

2  430 

1  091 

298 

616 

892 

1  627 

2  249 

Poland  

20 

124 

9 

106 

82 

48 

63 

'  94 

'l65 

Portugal,  including  Cape 
Verde  and  Azores  Is- 
lands   

128 

92 

177 

46 

\  122 

47 

72 

86 

240 

Roumania  

Russian  Empire 

g 

25 

246 

91 

65 

34 

79 

77 

256 

Spain,  including  Canary 
and  Balearic  Islands... 
Sweden  

786 

714 

1,282 

1,283 

932 

448 

348 

500 

917 

Switzerland  

1,780 

2,080 

1,056 

833 

913 

1,007 

643 

690 

1  396 

Turkey  in  Europe  .  .  . 

5 

11 

17 

10 

4 

5 

11 

16 

11 

United  Kingdom- 
England 

25,904 

27  804 

14  638 

13  826 

13  001 

8  970 

10  947 

24  065 

26  096 

Ireland 

54  349 

54  361 

26  873 

35  216 

48  637 

23*  797 

23  35] 

CC     QIC 

fis'  ^23 

Scotland 

3,297 

4,182 

1,946 

2,293 

1  613 

*767 

657 

1  940 

3  476 

Wales 

1,126 

769 

316 

332 

610 

461 

536 

705 

628 

Not  specified 

14  331 

25  724 

12  056 

9  712 

14  513 

9  477 

12  499 

40  172 

oq   090 

Other  Europe        

2 

1 

3 

Total  Europe 

186  083 

216,224 

111  354 

110  949 

141  209 

81  200 

83  710 

163  733 

ice   oqo 

o  Fifteen  months  ending  Dec.  31. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


TABLE  I.— European  immigration  to  the  United  States,  by  country  of  origin,  for 
years  ending  June  30,  1820  to  1910 — Continued. 


Country. 

1865 

1866 

1867 

1868  a 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1873 

Europe: 
Austria-Hungary  

422 

93 

692 

192 

1  499 

4  425 

4  887 

4  410 

7  112 

Belgium                   

741 

1,254 

789 

14 

1  922 

1  002 

774 

700 

1    lyc 

Bulgaria,    Servia,    and 
Montenegro  

Denmark 

1,149 

1,862 

1  436 

819 

3  649 

4  083 

2  015 

3  690 

4  Q31 

France,  including  Corsica 
German  Empire  
Greece 

3,583 
83,424 

6,855 
115,892 
10 

5,237 
133,426 
10 

1,989 
55,831 

3,880 
131,042 
g 

4,009 
118,  225 
22 

3,138 
82,554 
11 

9,317 
141,  109 
12 

14,  798 
149,671 

00 

Italy,    including    Sicily 
and  Sardinia  

924 

1,382 

1,624 

891 

1  489 

2  891 

2  816 

4  190 

8  757 

Netherlands 

779 

1  716 

2  223 

345 

1  134 

1  066 

993 

1  909 

3  811 

Norway  

6,109 

12,633 

7,055 

11,  166 

16  068 

13  216 

9  418 

11  421 

16  247 

Poland  

528 

412 

310 

184 

223 

535 

1,647 

3  33S 

Portugal,  including  Cape 
Verde  and  Azores  Is- 
lands   
Roumania  

365 

344 

126 

174 

507 

697 

887 

1,306 

1,  185 

Russian  Empire  
Spain,  including  Canary 
and  Balearic  Islands.  .  . 
Sweden  

183 
692 

287 
718 

205 

904 

141 

384 

343 

1,123 
24,  224 

907 

663 
13,443 

673 

558 
10,699 

1,018 

595 
13  464 

I,f34 

541 
14  303 

Switzerland 

2,889 

3,823 

4,168 

1,945 

3  650 

3  075 

2  269 

3  650 

3  107 

Turkey  in  Europe  
United  Kingdom- 
England 

14 

15,038 

18 
3,559 

26 
36,  972 

4 

(6) 

18 
35,  673 

6 
60,957 

23 

56  530 

20 

69  764 

53 
74  $01 

Ireland  

29,772 

36,  690 

72,  879 

32,  068 

40,  786 

56,996 

57,439 

68,  732 

77  344 

Stotland  

3,037 

1,038 

7,582 

(6) 

7,751 

12,521 

11,984 

13,916 

13  841 

Wales 

146 

23 

143 

W 

660 

1  Oil 

899 

1  214 

840 

Not  specified  

64,  244 

90,304 

7,944 

24,  127 

40,353 

29.  216 

16,042 

18 

18 

Other  Europe 

2 

3 

15 

10 

Total  Europe  

214,048 

278,  916 

283,  751 

130,090 

315,963 

328,  654 

265,  145 

352,  155 

397.541 

Country. 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

Europe: 
Austria-Hungary  
Belgium  

Bulgaria,    Servia,    and 
Montenegro 

8,850 
817 

7,658 
615 

6,276 
515 

5,396 
488 

5,150 
354 

5,963 
512 

17,  267 
1,232 

27,935 
1,766 

29,150 
1,431 

Denmark.  . 

3,082 

2,656 

1,547 

1,695 

2,105 

3,474 

6,576 

9,117 

11,618 

France,  including  Corsica 
German  Empire  

9,644 
87,291 

8,321 
47,769 

8,004 
31,937 

5,856 
29,  298 

4,159 
29,313 

4,655 
34,602 

4,314 
84,638 

5,227 
210,485 

6,004 
250,630 

Greece 

36 

25 

19 

24 

16 

21 

23 

19 

126 

Italy,    including    Sicily 
and  Sardinia  

7,666 

3,631 

3,015 

3,195 

4,344 

5,791 

12,354 

15,401 

32,  159 

Netherlands              , 

2,444 

1  237 

855 

591 

608 

753 

3,340 

8,597 

9,517 

Norway 

10,  384 

5,993 

5,173 

4,588 

4,759 

7,  345 

19,895 

22,705 

29,  101 

Poland 

1,795 

984 

925 

533 

547 

489 

2,177 

5,614 

4,672 

Portugal,  including  Cape 
Verde  and  Azores  Is- 
lands 

1,611 

1,939 

1,277 

2,363 

1,332 

1,374 

808 

1,215 

1,436 

Roumania 

11 

30 

65 

Russian  Empire  

4,073 

7,997 

4,775 

6,599 

3,048 

4,453 

5,014 

5,041 

16,918 

Spain,  including  Canary 
and  Balearic  Islands.. 
Sweden  

485 
5,712 

601 
5,573 

518 
5,603 

665 

4,991 

457 
5,390 

457 
11,001 

389 

39,  186 

484 
49,760 

378 

64,607 

Switzerland 

3,093 

1,814 

1,549 

1,686 

1,808 

3,161 

6,156 

11,293 

10,844 

Turkey  in  Europe 

62 

27 

38 

32 

29 

29 

24 

72 

69 

United  Kingdom- 
England            .  .. 

50,  905 

40,130 

24,373 

19,  161 

18,405 

24,183 

59,454 

65,177 

82,394 

Ireland 

53,  707 

37,  957 

19,575 

14,569 

15,  932 

20,013 

71,603 

72,342 

76,432 

Scotland 

10  429 

7,310 

4,582 

4,135 

3,502 

5,225 

12,640 

15,168 

18,  937 

Wales 

665 

449 

324 

281 

243 

543 

1,173 

1,027 

1,656 

Not  specified 

22 

16 

12 

4 

4 

6 

4 

4 

Other  Europe  

10 

259 

28 

45 

111 

211 

411 

66 

38 

Total  Europe  

262,  783 

182,  961 

120,920 

106,  195 

101,612 

134,259 

348,691 

528,545 

648,186 

a  Six  months  ending  June  30. 


6  Included  in  United  Kingdom  not  specified. 


10 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  I.— European  immigration  to  the  United  States,  by  country  of  origin,  for 
years  ending  June  30,  1820  to  1910— Continued. 


Country. 

1883 

1884 

1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

Europe: 
Austria-Hungary 

27,625 
1,450 

36,  571 
1,576 

27,309 
1,653 

28,680 
1,300 

40,265 
2,553 

45,811 
3,215 

34,174 
2,562 

56,199 
2,671 

71,042 
3,037 

Belgium  

Bulgaria,    Servia,    and 
Montenegro 

Denmark  '.  

10,319 

4,821 
194,  786 
73 

31,792 
5,249 
23,398 
2,011 

1,573 

77 
9,909 

262 
38,277 
12,  751 
86 

63,  140 
81,486 
11,859 
1.597 
10 
36 

9,202 
3,608 
179,676 
37 

16,510 
4,198 
16,  974 
4,536 

1,927 
238 
12,689 

300 
26,552 
9,386 
150 

55,918 
63,344 
9,060 
901 
71 
262 

6,100 
3,495 
124,  443 
172 

13,642 
2,689 
12,356 
3,085 

2,024 
803 
17,  158 

350 

22,248 
5,895 
138 

47,332 
51,795 
9,226 
1,127 
28 
15 

6,225 
3,318 

84,  403 
104 

21,315 
2,314 
12,759 
3,939 

1,194 
494 
17,800 

344 

27,  751 
4,805 
176 

49,  767 
49,619 
12,  126 
1,027 
9 
60 

8,524 
5,034 
106,  865 
313 

47,622 
4,506 
16,269 
6,128 

1,360 
2,045 
30,766 

436 

42,836 
5,214 
206 

72,855 
68,370 
18,699 
1,820 
4 
139 

8,962 
6,454 
109,717 

782 

51,558 
5,845 
18,264 
5,826 

1,625 
1,186 
33,487 

526 

54,698 
7,737 
207 

82,  574 
73,513 
24,  457 
1,654 
7 
26 

8,699 
5,918 
99,538 
158 

25,307 
6,460 
13,390 
4,922 

2,024 
893 
33,916 

526 
35,415 
7,070 
252 

68,  503 
65,557 
18,  296 
1,181 
12 
17 

9,366 
6,585 
92,427 
524 

52,003 
4,326 
11,370 
11,073 

2,600 
517 
35,  598 

813 
29,  632 
6,993 
206 

57,  020 
53,  024 
12,041 
.    650 
19 
23 

10,659 
6,770 
113,554 
1,105 

76,055 
5,206 
12,568 
27,497 

2,999 
957 
47,426 

905 
36,880 
6,811 
265 

53,600 
55,706 
12,557 
424 
24 
38 

France,  including  Corsica 
German  Empire 

Greece  

Italy,    including   Sicily 
and  Sardinia 

Netherlands  

Norway  

Poland 

Portugal,  including  Cape 
Verde  and  Azores  Is- 
lands 

Roumania  

Russian  Empire. 

Spain,  including  Canary 
and  Balearic  Islands.  .  . 
Sweden     .      .  . 

Switzerland 

Turkey  in  Europe  
United  Kingdom- 
England 

Ireland  

Scotland 

Wales 

Not  specified  

Other  Europe     .  . 

Total  Europe  

522,  587 

453,686 

353,083 

329,529 

482,829 

538,  131 

434,790 

445,  680 

546,  085 

Country. 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1900 

Europe: 
Austrifv-TT  nn  gftfy 

76,  937 
4,026 

57,420 
3,324 

38,  638 
1,709 

33,  401 
1,058 

65,103 
1,261 

33,  031 
760 

39,  797 
695 

62,  491 
1,101 

52 
2,690 
1,694 
17,  476 
2,333 

77,  419 
1,029 
6,705 

(0) 

2,054 
1,606 
60,982 

385 
12,797 
1,326 
80 

(b) 
(0) 
(0) 
(ft) 
45,  123 
6 

114,847 
1,196 

108 
2,926 
1,739 
18,507 
3,771 

100,  135 
1,735 
9.575 
(a) 

4,234 
6,459 
90,787 

355 

18,650 
1,152 

285 

9,951 
35,  730 
1,792 
764 

Belgium 

Bulgaria,    Servia,    and 
Montenegro.  .  . 

Denmark 

16,  i25 
4,678 
119,168 
660 

61,631 
6,141 
14,325 
40,536 

3,400 

7,720 
3,621 
78,756 
1,072 

72,145 
6,199 
15,  515 
16,374 

4,631 

5,003 
3,080 
53,989 
1,356 

42,977 
1,820 
9,111 
1,941 

2,196 
729 
39,  278 

925 

18,  286 
2,905 
298 

17,747 
30,  231 
3,772 
1,001 

3,910 
2,628 
32,  173 
597 

35,427 
1,388 
7,580 
791 

1,452 
523 
35,907 

501 
15,361 
2,239 
245 

23,  443 
46,  304 
3,788 
1,602 

3,167 
2,463 
31,885 
2,175 

68,060 
1,583 
8,855 
691 

2,766 
785 
51,  435 

351 
21,177 
2,304 
169 

19,  492 
40,262 
3,483 
1,581 
9 

2,085 
2,107 
22,533 
571 

59,  431 
890 
5,842 
4,165 

1,874 
791 
25,816 

448 
13,  162 
1,566 
152 

9,974 
28,421 
1,883 
870 
25 

i,946 
1,990 
17,111 
2,339 

58,613 
767 
4,938 
4,726 

1,717 

900 
29,828 

577 
12,398 
1,246 
176 

9,877 
25,  128 
1,797 
1,219 
1 

France,  including  Corsica  . 
German  Empire 

Greece  

Italy,    including    Sicily 
and  Sardinia  

Netherlands 

Norway  

Poland 

Portugal,  including  Cape 
Verde  and  Azores  Is- 
lands         

Roumania 

Russian  Empire  ,  

81,511 

4,078 
41,845 
6,886 
1,331 

34,  309 
7,177 
51,383 
729 

42,310 

206 
35,  710 
4,744 
625 

27,931 
43,  578 
6,215 
1,043 

Spain,  including  Canary 
and  Balearic  Islands.  .  . 
Sweden 

Switzerland  

Turkey  in  Europe  
United  Kingdom- 
England 

Ireland        

Scotland 

Wales  

Not  specified     ...  . 

Other  Europe 

60 

24 

2 

Total  Europe  

570,876 

429,139 

277,  052 

250,342 

329,  057 

216,397 

217,786  297,349 

424,  700 

o  Included  under  Austria-Hungary,  German  Empire,  and  Russian  Empire. 
6  Not  reported  separately.    Included  in  total  for  United  Kingdom  not  specified. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


11 


TABLE  I. — European  immigration  to  the  United  States,  by  country  of  origin,  for 
years  ending  June  30,  1820  to  1910— Continued. 


Country. 


1901 


1902 


1904 


1905 


1906 


Europe: 

Austria-Hungary  .................... 

Belgium  .............................. 

Bulgaria,  Servia,  and  Montenegro  ____ 

Denmark  ............................ 

France,  including  Corsica  ............ 

German  Empire  ..................... 

Greece  ............................... 

Italy,  including  Sicily  and  Sardinia.  . 
Netherlands  ......................... 

Norway  .............................. 

Poland  ............................... 

Portugal,  including  Cape  Verde  and 
Azores  Islands  ..................... 

Roumania  ........................... 

Russian  Empire  .................... 

Spain,  including  Canary  and  Balearic 
Islands  ............................. 

Sweden  .............................. 

Switzerland  .......................... 

Turkey  in  Europe 
United  K 

Engl 

Ireland 

Scotland 


Not  specified 
Other  Europe 


Total  Europe. 


113,390 

1,579 

657 

3,655 

3.150 

21,651 

5,910 

135,996 

2,349 

12,248 

(a) 

4,165 

7,155 

85,257 

592 

23,331 

2,201 

387 

12,214 

30,561 

2,070 

701 


171,989 

2,577 

851 

5.660 

3,117 

28,304 

8,104 

178,375 

2,284 

17,484 


5,307 

7,196 

107,347 

975 

30,894 

2,344 

187 

13,  575 

29,138 

2,560 

763 


206,011 

3,450 

1,761 

7,158 

5, 578 

40,086 

14,090 

230,622 

3,998 

24,461 

(o) 

9,317 

9,310 

136,093 

2,080 

46,028 

3,983 

1,529 

26,219 

35,310 

6,143 

1,275 


18 


37 


177, 156 

3,976 

1,325 

8,525 

9,406 

46,380 

11,343 

193,296 

4,916 

23,808 

(a) 

6,715 

7',  087 
145, 141 

3,996 

27, 763 

5,023 

4,344 


36,142 

11,092 

1,730 

143 


275,693 

5,302 

2,043 

8,970 

10,168 

40,574 

10,515 

221,479 

4,954 

25,064 


5,028 
4,437 

184,897 

2,600 

26,  591 

4,269 

4,542 

64,709 
52,945 
16,977 
2,503 


265, 138 
5,099 
4,666 
7,741 
9,386 

37,564 

19,489 

273, 120 

4,946 

21,730 

(o) 

8,517 

4,476 

215,665 

1,921 

23,310 

3,846 

9,510 

49, 491 

34,995 

15,866 

1,841 


13 


469,237 


619,068 


814,507 


767,933 


974,273 


1,018,365 


Country. 


1907 


1908 


1910 


1820  to  1910. 


Europe: 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

Bulgaria,  Servia,  and  Montenegro.. 

Denmark 

France,  including  Corsica 

German  Empire 

Greece 

Italy,  including  Sicily  and  Sardinia. 
Netherlands... 


338,452 


Norway . 
Poland. 


11,359 
7,243 
9,731 

37,807 

36,580 

285,731 

6,637 

22,133 


Portugal,  including  Cape  Verde  and  Azores 


Roumania 

Russian  Empire 

Spain,  including  Canary  and  Balearic  Islands.. 

Sweden , 

Switzerland 

Turkey  in  Europe 

United  Kingdom- 
England 

Ireland 

Scotland 

Wales 

Not  specified 

Other  Europe 


4,384 
258,943 

5,784 
20,589 

3,748 
20,767 

56,637 
34,530 
19,740 
2,660 


168,509 

4,162 

10,827 

4,954 

8,788 

32,309 

21,489 

128,503 

5,946 

12,412 


7,307 
5,228 
156,711 
3,899 
12,809 
3,281 
11,290 

47,031 
30,556 
13,506 
2,287 


170,191 


1,054 

4,395 

6,672 

25,540 

14,  111 

183,218 

4,698 

13,627 

(a) 

4,956 

1,590 

120,460 

2,616 

14,474 

2,694 

9,015 

32,809 
25,033 
12,400 
1,584 


258,737 
5,402 
4,737 


7,383 

31,283 

25,888 

215,537 

7,534 

17,53s 


8,229 

2,145 
186,  792 

3,472 
23,745 

3,533 
18,405 

46,706 
29,855 
20,115 
2,120 


107 


97 


46 


151 


3,172,461 

103,796 

39,440 

258,053 

470,868 

5,351,746 
186,204 

3,086,356 
175,943 

6665,189 

c 165, 182 

132,989 

72,117 

2,359,048 

69,296 

d  1,021, 165 

237, 401 

85,800 

2,212,071 

4,212,169 

488,749 

59,540 

793,801 

2,545 


Total  Europe 1,199, 


654,875 


926,291 


25,421,929 


a  Included  under  Austria-Hungary.  German  Empire,  and  Russian  Empire. 
b  Including  natives  of  Sweden  who  arrived  1820  to  1868. 

c  Not  including  natives  of  Poland  who  arrived  1899  to  1910  and  were  included  under  Austria-Hungary. 
German  Empire,  and  Russian  Empire. 
«  Not  Including  natives  of  Sweden  who  arrived  1820  to  1868  and  were  included  under  Norway. 


12  The  Immigration  Commission. 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  foregoing  table  that  during  the  ninety -one 
years  considered  the  United  Kingdom  furnished  more  immigrants 
than  any  of  the  continental  countries,  and  that  Ireland  led  England 
by  approximately  2,000,000.  Germany,  although  leading  every  single 
country,  stands  second  to  the  United  Kingdom  as  a  source  of  immi- 
gration, while  Austria -Hungary,  Italy,  and  Russia  follow  in  the 
order  named. 

OLD    AND    NEW   EUROPEAN    IMMIGRATION. 

The  movement  from  the  three  countries  last  named  is  almost 
entirely  a  development  of  the  past  thirty  years,  during  which  time 
the  source  of  the  principal  European  immigration  to  the  United 
States  shifted  from  northern  and  western  Europe  to  the  southern 
and  eastern  countries.  In  studying  the  emigration  situation  in 
Europe  the  Commission  was  not  unmindful  of  the  fact  that  the 
widespread  apprehension  in  the  United  States  relative  to  immigra- 
tion is  chiefly  due  to  this  change  in  the  character  of  the  movement 
of  population  from  Europe  in  recent  years.  Because  of  this,  Euro- 
pean immigration,  for  the  purposes  of  this  report,  is  divided  into 
two  general  classes,  which  for  convenience  of  reference  may  be  des- 
ignated as  the  old  and  the  new  immigration.  The  former  class 
includes  immigrants  from  England,  Ireland,  Scotland,  Wales,  Bel- 
gium, Denmark,  France,  Germany,  the  Netherlands,  Norway,  Sweden, 
and  Switzerland,  which  countries  from  1819  to  1880  furnished  more 
than  95  per  cent  of  the  movement  of  population  from  Europe  to  the 
United  States.  The  latter  class,  or  new  immigration,  includes  immi- 

f rants  from  Austria-Hungary,  Bulgaria,  Greece,  Italy,  Montenegro, 
oland,  Portugal,  Roumania,  Russia,  Servia,  Spain,  and  Turkey, 
which  countries  in  the  decade  1901-1910  furnished  about  77  per  cent 
of  the  total  number  of  European  immigrants  admitted  to  the  United 
States. 

The  number  and  per  cent  of  immigrants  from  the  two  sections  of 
Europe  described,  and  from  all  other  sources,  in  each  year  from  1820 
to  1910,  and  by  decades  during  that  period,  are  shown  in  the  two 
tables  which  follow: 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


13 


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Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


17 


The  crest  of  the  wave  in  which  the  old  immigration  predominated 
was  reached  in  1882;  the  crest  of  the  new  in  1907,  and  a  survey  of 
European  immigration  in  those  years,  as  presented  in  the  following 
table,  shows  the  remarkable  change  in  the  character  of  European 
immigration,  which  took  place  during  that  period  of  twenty-six  years. 

TABLE  4. — European  immigration  to  the  United  States,  fiscal  years  1882  and 

1907,  by  country. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner  General  of  Immigration.]- 


Country. 

Year. 

Increase. 

Decrease. 

Per  cent  distri- 
bution. 

1882. 

1907. 

1882. 

1907. 

Austria-Hungary 

29,150 
1,431 
11,618 
6,004 
250,  630 
126 
32,159 
9,517 
29,  101 
4,672 

'  1,436 
65 
16,918 

338,  452 
6,396 
7,243 
9,731 
37,  807 
36,  580 
285,  731 
6,637 
22,133 
(a) 

9,608 
4,384 
258,943 
11,359 
5,784 
20,589 
3,748 
20,  767 

56,  637 
34,  530 
19,  740 
2,660 

309,302 
4,965 

4.5 
.2 
1.8 
.9 
38.7 

"Jo 

1.5 
4.5 

.7 

.2 
(*) 
2.6 

28.2 
.5 
.6 
.8 
3.2 
3.0 
23.8 
.6 
1.8 
(fl) 

.8 
.4 
21.6 
.9 
.5 
1.7 
.3 
1.7 

4.7 
2.9 
1.6 
.2 

$ 

Belgium  

Denmark 

4,375 

France,  including  Corsica  

3,727 

""36,"  454" 
253,572 

"••(a)"" 

8,172 
4,319 
242,  025 
11,359 
5,406 

German  Empire 

212,823 

Greece 

Italy,  including  Sicily  and  Sardinia 

Netherlands  .  .         

2,880 
6,968 
(a) 

Norway    . 

Poland  

Portugal,  including  Cape  Verde  and  Azores 
Islands 

Roumania  



Russian  Empire 

Servia,  Bulgaria,  and  Montenegro  .  . 

Spain  

378 
64,607 
10,844 
69 

82,394 
76,  432 
18,937 
1,656 
4 
38 

.1 

10.0 
1.7 

(") 

12.7 
11.8 
2.9 
.3 

(6) 

(0) 

Sweden 

44,018 
7,096 

Switzerland  

Turkey  in  Europe 

20,  698 

United  Kingdom: 
England  

25,  757 
41,902 

Ireland 

Scotland 

803 
1,004 

Wales  

Not  specified 

4 

Europe,  not  specified 

107 

69 

Total  Europe 

048,  186 

1,199,566 

551,380 

100.0 

100.0 

a  In  1907  Poland  is  included  under  Austria-Hungary,  German  Empire,  and  Russian  Empire. 
b  Less  than  0.05  per  cent. 

The  following  table  shows  the  number  of  European  immigrants 
admitted  to  the  United  States  in  1882  and  1907,  classified  according 
to  old  and  new  immigration,  as  previously  explained: 

TABLE  5. — European  immigration  to  the  United  States,  fiscal  years  1882  and 

1907,  by  class. 


Class 

Year. 

Per  cent  distribu- 
tion. 

1882. 

1907. 

1882. 

1907. 

563,  175 
84,973 
38 

227,851 
971,608 
107 

86.9 
13.1 
(a) 

19.0 
81.0 

(a) 

Not  specified  

648,  186 

1,199,566 

100.0 

100.0 

a  Less  than  0.05  per  cent. 


18 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


The  trend  of  the  immigration  movement  and  the  relative  decrease 
of  the  old  and  increase  of  the  new  immigration  from  1882  to  1907, 
inclusive,  are  clearly  shown  by  the  following  chart : 

European  immigration  to  the  United  States  in  each  fiscal  year  J882  to  J907, 

inclusive,  by  class. 


100 


Per  cent 
40  60 


80 


100 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  19 

Because  of  the  radical  change  in  the  character  of  European  immi- 
gration to  the  United  States  in  recent  years,  the  Commission,  in  its 
various  lines  of  investigation,  paid  particular  attention  to  the  peoples 
of  southern  and  southeastern  Europe  who  have  come  to  this  country 
as  immigrants.  For  the  same  reason,  the  investigation  in  Europe 
was  especially  directed  toward  securing  information  relative  to 
conditions  generally  in  the  south  and  east  of  Europe,  so  far  as 
such  conditions  were  in  any  way  related  to  the  subject  under  con- 
sideration. It  may  be  said  in  this  connection,  however,  that  reliable 
data  essential  to  a  thorough  study  of  emigration  conditions  as  pre- 
viously outlined  are  less  available  in  most  European  countries  fur- 
nishing the  newer  immigration  than  in  others.  In  consequence,  not- 
withstanding the  special  effort  made,  it  has  been  impossible  to  treat 
in  all  instances  the  various  topics  as  fully  as  might  be  desirable. 
Nevertheless,  the  Commission's  report  will,  it  is  believed,  clearly  illus- 
trate the  causes  of  emigration  from  Europe  to  the  United  States,  the 
character  of  the  emigrants,  and  other  important  phases  of  the  sub- 
ject under  consideration. 

ATTITUDE  OF  EUROPEAN  COUNTRIES  TOWARD  EMIGRATION. 

All  European  countries,  except  perhaps  Russia  and  Turkey,  recog- 
nize the  right  of  their  people  to  freely  emigrate.  Under  the  Russian 
law  citizens  of  the  Empire  are  in  general  forbidden  to  leave  the  coun- 
try to  take  up  a  permanent  residence  elsewhere,  but  the  fact  that 
Russia  is  now  one  of  the  three  most  important  emigrant-furnishing 
nations  of  Europe  indicates  that  the  law  in  this  regard  is  practically 
obsolete.  The  same  is  true  as  regards  the  Turkish  law  upon  this 
subject.  From  a  sentimental  standpoint  emigration  from  Europe  is, 
with  a  few  exceptions,  a  matter  of  national  regret.  In  some  of  the 
countries  military  reasons  inspire  a  considerable  degree  of  opposition, 
for  the  reason  that  emigrants  as  a  rule  are  of  an  age  which  makes 
them  liable  to  military  service.  There  appears  to  be,  also,  a  well- 
grounded  and  increasing  objection  to  emigration  in  some  sections  of 
Europe  because  of  the  economic  loss  resulting  from  the  exodus  of  so 
many  agricultural  and  other  laborers.  In  general,  however,  it  may 
be  said  that  emigration  is  recognized  as  a  phenomenon  controlled 
almost  entirely  by  irresistible  economic  forces  which  practically 
compel  an  attitude  of  acquiescence  on  the  part  of  governments. 

Some  European  countries,  notably  France,  Switzerland,  Holland, 
and  Belgium,  have  experienced  no  emigration  problem  of  importance 
in  more  recent  times.  In  former  years  Germany  was  the  leading 
emigrant-furnishing  nation  of  the  world,  but  emigration  from  that 
Empire  to  the  United  States,  and  in  fact  to  all  countries  as  well, 
is  now  of  small  importance  numerically.  During  the  period  when 
the  emigration  movement  from  northern  and  western  Europe  to 
the  United  States  was  at  its  greatest  height  Denmark  was  some- 
what affected.  The  movement  from  Denmark,  however,  was  never 
so  large  as  from  other  Scandinavian  countries.  The  United  King- 
dom is  still  a  source  of  considerable  immigration  to  the  United  States, 
but  the  movement  is  more  nearly  normal  than  formerly,  and  the 
number  emigrating  is  not  sufficiently  large  to  create  an  emigration 
problem.  There  is  also  a  considerable  movement  of  population  from 
the  United  Kingdom,  or  more  particularly  from  England  and  Scot- 
land, to  Canada  and  other  parts  of  the  British  Empire,  but  this  is 


20  The  Immigration  Commission. 

encouraged,  and  in  a  measure  assisted,  for  England  is  the  only  coun- 
try in  Europe  which  openly  promotes,  or  at  least  sanctions  and  assists, 
in  the  emigration  of  public  charges  and  otherwise  undesirable  per- 
sons. Such  assisted  emigration,  however,  is  directed  to  Canada  or 
other  British  colonies  rather  than  to  the  United  States. 

In  most  European  countries  the  Government  exercises  some  meas- 
ure of  control  over  emigration.  Generally  this  control  concerns 
merely  the  welfare  of  the  emigrant  in  protecting  him  from  exploita- 
tion and  ill  treatment  before  embarkation  and  during  his  voyage  at 
sea,  although  some  countries  exercise,  or  attempt  to  exercise,  some 
measure  of  control  over  their  emigrants  long  after  they  have  left 
the  fatherland. 

The  attitude  of  some  Governments  toward  emigration  is  naturally 
influenced  to  a  greater  or  less  extent  by  the  permanency  of  such  emi- 
gration. As  stated  elsewhere,  the  newer  immigration  to  the  United 
States  from  southern  and  eastern  Europe  is  to  a  considerable  degree 
a  movement  of  transient  industrial  workers  rather  than  persons  who 
emigrate  with  the  purpose  of  becoming  actual  settlers  in  another 
country.  While  it  is  a  fact  that  many  who  come  to  the  United  States 
as  intending  transients  eventually  become  permanent  residents,  it  is 
also  true  that  many  continue  in  a  transient  state,  and  thus  retain  a 
more  than  sentimental  interest  in  their  native  countries.  Whatever 
may  be  the  value  in  an  economic  sense  of  this  latter  class  of  immi- 
grants to  the  country  in  which  they  may  temporarily  reside,  it  is  cer- 
tain that  they  are  an  important  factor  in  promoting  the  general 
economic  welfare  of  several  European  countries.  The  advantage  in 
this  regard  is  in  great  part  due  to  the  large  and  constant  flow  of 
so-called  immigrant  money  into  such  countries  from  the  United 
States.  The  greater  part  of  this  money  is  sent  to  countries  or  sec- 
tions of  countries  where  low  economic  conditions  prevail,  and  its  up- 
lifting effect  is  generally  recognized.  Another  quite  important  factor 
in  this  regard  is  the  immigrant  who  returns  to  resume  a  permanent 
residence  in  his  native  country  with  more  or  less  capital  acquired  in 
the  United  States.  Through  the  purchase  and  development  of  land 
or  by  engaging  in  other  enterprises  these  returned  immigrants  have 
in  many  instances  greatly  benefited  the  communities  in  which  they 
reside.  It  may  be  stated  also  that  the  introduction  of  American 
ideas  and  methods  has  in  many  cases  proved  a  valuable  adjunct  to 
American-earned  capital. 

On  the  other  hand,  emigration  from  some  Provinces  of  southern 
and  eastern  European  countries  has  been  so  great  that  a  shortage  in 
the  common  labor  supply  has  resulted.  This  claim  was  frequently 
made  to  members  of  the  Commission  by  landowners  and  others  in 
various  countries.  It  appears  also  that,  as  a  rule,  wages  have  in- 
creased considerably  in  the  localities  which  have  furnished  large 
numbers  of  emigrants,  but  it  does  not  appear  that  this  improvement 
in  economic  conditions  has  as  yet  perceptibly  affected  the  emigration 
movement  from  such  localities. 

In  brief,  it  may  be  stated  that  employers  of  labor  may  through 
excessive  emigration  be  affected  by  a  shortage  of  labor  and  a  conse- 
quent rise  in  wages.  But,  on  the  other  hand,  the  economic  condition 
of  the  laboring  classes,  from  which  the  great  majority  of  emigrants 
are  drawn,  is  favorably  affected  not  only  by  remittances  from  the 
United  States  but,  because  of  a  restricted  labor  supply,  by  increased 
wages  at  home. 


CHAPTER  II. 
CHARACTER  OF  EUROPEAN  IMMIGRATION. 

The  present-day  immigration  from  Europe  to  the  United  States  is 
for  the  most  part  drawn  from  country  districts  and  smaller  cities  or 
villages,  and  is  composed  largely  of  the  peasantry  and  unskilled  labor- 
ing classes.  This  is  particularly  true  of  the  races  or  peoples  from 
countries  furnishing  the  newer  immigration,  with  the  conspicuous 
exception  of  Russian  Hebrews,  who  are  city  dwellers  by  compulsion. 
Emigration  being  mainly  a  result  of  economic  conditions,  it  is  natural 
that  the  emigrating  spirit  should  be  strongest  among  those  most  seri- 
ously affected,  but,  notwithstanding  this,  the  present  movement  is  not 
recruited  in  the  main  from  the  lowest  economic  and  social  strata  of 
the  population.  In  European  countries,  as  in  the  United  States,  the 
poorest  and  least  desirable  element  in  the  population,  from  an  eco- 
nomic as  well  as  a  social  standpoint,  is  found  in  the  larger  cities,  and 
as  a  rule  such  cities  furnish  comparatively  few  emigrants.  Neither 
do  the  average  or  typical  emigrants  of  to-day  represent  the  lowest  in 
the  economic  and  social  scale  even  among  the  classes  from  which 
they  come,  a  circumstance  attributable  to  both  natural  and  artificial 
causes.  In  the  first  place,  emigrating  to  a  strange  and  distant  coun- 
try, although  less  of  an  undertaking  than  formerly,  is  still  a  serious 
and  relatively  difficult  matter,  requiring  a  degree  of  courage  and 
resourcefulness  not  possessed  by  weaklings  of  any  class.  This  natural 
law  in  the  main  regulated  the  earlier  European  emigration  to  the 
United  States,  and  under  its  influence  the  present  emigration,  whether 
or  not  desirable  as  a  whole,  nevertheless  represents  the  stronger  and 
better  element  of  the  particular  class  from  which  it  is  drawn. 

A  most  potent  adjunct  to  the  natural  law  of  selection,  however,  is 
the  United  States  immigration  act,  the  effect  of  which  in  preventing 
the  emigration,  or  even  attempted  emigration,  of  at  least  physical 
and  mental  defectives  is  probably  not  generally  realized.  The  pro- 
visions of  the  United  States  immigration  law  are  well  known  among 
the  emigrating  classes  of  Europe,  and  the  large  number  rejected  at 
European  ports,  or  refused  admission  after  reaching  the  United 
States,  has  a  decided  influence  in  retarding  emigration,  and  naturally 
that  influence  is  most  potent  among  those  who  doubt  their  ability  to 
meet  the  law's  requirements. 

In  its  study  of  the  character  of  European  emigration  the  Commis- 
sion confined  itself  to  the  ordinary  characteristics  and  conditions  of 
the  various  races  which  make  for  their  desirability  or  undesirability 
as  immigrants  to  the  United  States.  The  character  of  the  various 
races  from  an  ethnological  standpoint  has  also  been  given  attention, 
and  a  comprehensive  study  in  this  regard  forms  a  part  of  the  Com- 
mission's general  report  under  the  title  "  Dictionary  of  Races  or 
Peoples."0 

a  Reports  of  the  Immigration  Commission,  vol.  5.  (S.  Doc.  662,  61st  Cong., 
3d  sess.) 

21 


22  The  Immigration  Commission. 

In  addition  to  more  general  observations  relative  to  the  character 
of  European  emigration,  the  sex,  age,  occupation,  and  degree  of  edu- 
cation are  essential  to  an  understanding  of  the  present-day  immi- 
grant. 

For  the  purpose  of  this  discussion,  data  relative  to  the  above- 
mentioned  items  have  been  compiled  for  an  eleven-year  period,  1899- 
1909,  and  the  results  classified  according  to  the  old  and  new  immi- 
gration previously  mentioned.  In  this  instance,  however,  the  classi- 
fication is  by  race  or  people  rather  thalh  country  of  origin,  which 
arrangement  is  necessitated  by  the  fact  that  the  data  employed  has 
since  1899  been  so  recorded  by  the  Bureau  of  Immigration.  In  what 
follows,  the  old  and  new  immigration  will  be  considered  to  include 
the  following  races  or  peoples : 

Old — Dutch  and  Flemish,  English,  French,  German,  Irish,  Scandi- 
navian, Scotch,  and  Welsh. 

New — Armenian,  Bohemian  and  Moravian,  Bulgarian,  Servian 
and  Montenegrin,  Croatian  and  Slovenian,  Dalmatian,  Bosnian  and 
Herzegovinian,  Finnish,  Greek,  Hebrew,  North  Italian,  South  Italian, 
Lithuanian,  Magyar,  Polish,  Portuguese,  Roumanian,  Russian,  Ruthe- 
nian,  Slovak,  Spanish,  Syrian,0  and  Turkish. 

The  classification  by  country  of  origin  previously  employed  and  the 
present  classification  by  race  or  people  are  not  entirely  comparable, 
because  of  the  wide  geographical  distribution  of  various  races,  a 
conspicuous  instance  of  this  being  the  German  immigrants,  the  greater 
portion  of  whom  now  come  from  Austria-Hungary  and  Russia  rather 
than  Germany.  This,  however,  is  compensated  for  in  part  by  the 
emigration  from  north  and  west  European  countries  of  races  indig- 
enous to  southern  and  eastern  Europe  and,  on  the  whole,  it  furnishes 
a  satisfactory  basis  for  the  comparisons  made. 

SEX. 

Classified  by  sex,  there  appears  a  wide  difference  between  the  vari- 
ous races  of  immigrants,  as  is  shown  by  the  following  table  covering 
this  item  in  detail  for  the  eleven  years,  1899-1909. 

0  Nearly  all  Syrian  and  a  considerable  number  of  Turkish  immigrants  come 
from  Turkey  in  Asia,  but  for  convenience  and  because  they  are  so  closely  allied 
to  the  people  of  Turkey  in  Europe,  they  are  classed  here  as  a  part  of  the  new 
immigration  from  Europe. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


23 


TABLE  6. — European  immigration   (including  Syrian)  to  the  United  States,  by 
race  or  people  and  sex,  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Number. 

Per  eent. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

Male. 

Female. 

Armenian                                 ........ 

15,596 
52,  237 
78,947 
251,919 
24,  799 
48,889 
219,222 
89,565 
55,  502 
405,  863 
109,  726 
561,616 
189,  611 
2C8,  123 
1,351,719 
108,  417 
225,272 
567,992 
38,515 
62,  636 
56,  104 
88,  416 
327,  448 
71,392 
242,  620 
37,  402 
34,  487 
11.239 
11,996 
658 

5,394 
39,  490 
3,314 
44,  062 
1,986 
25,757 
135,  894 
46,  473 
39,  174 
277,  132 
8,101 
428,  566 
211,731 
73,765 
367,  541 
44,  127 
84,  777 
252,  724 
26,725 
5,869 
10,  176 
31,052 
206,  821 
40,838 
102,  491 
7,812 
16,  105 
432 
6,512 
265 

20,990 
91,  727 
82,  261 
295,  981 
26,785 
74,  646 
355,  116 
136,038 
94,676 
682,  995 
177,  827 
990,  182 
401,  342 
341,888 
1,  719,  260 
152,544 
310,  049 
820,  716 
62,  240 
68,505 
66,  280 
119,  468 
534,  269 
112,  230 
345,  111 
45,214 
50,592 
11,671 
18,  508 
923 

74.3 
56.9 
96.0 
85.1 
92.6 
65.5 
61.7 
65.8 
58.6 
59.4 
95.4 
56.7 
47.2 
78.4 
78.6 
71.1 
72.7 
69.2 
59.0 
91.4 
84.6 
74.0 
61.3 
63.6 
70.3 
82.7 
68.2 
96.3 
64.8 
71.3 

25.7 
43.1 
4.0 
14.9 
7.4 
34.5 
38.3 
34.2 
41.4 
40.6 
4.6 
43.3 
52.8 
21.6 
21.4 
28.9 
27.3 
30.8 
41.0 
8.6 
15.4 
26.0 
38.7 
36.4 
29.7 
17.3 
31.8 
3.7 
35.2 
28.7 

Bohemian  and  Moravian  

Bulgarian,  Servian,  Montenegrin.  ... 

Croatian  and  Slovenian 

Dalmatian,  Bosnian,  Herzegovinian  

Dutch  and  Flemish 

English                  \ 

Finnish....  •.  . 

French  . 

German 

Greek  

Hebrew 

Irish  

Italian,  North 

Italian,  South  

Lithuanian  

Magyar 

Polish  

Portuguese  ... 

Roumanian 

Russian  

Ruthenian 

Scandinavian  

Scotch      

Slovak 

Spanish  

Syrian 

Turkish 

Welsh  

Others 

Total  

5,  667,  928 

2,545,106 

8,  213,  034 

69.0 

31.0 

The  rule  of  disproportion  among  the  sexes  does  not  apply  to  all 
races  composing  the  new  immigration,  but  the  tendency  in  this  regard 
is  sufficient  to  create  a  wide  difference  between  the  old  and  new  classes, 
as  is  indicated  by  the  following  table : 

TABLE  7. — European  immigration  (including  Syrian)  to  the  United  States,  by 
class  and  sex,  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Number. 

Per  cent. 

Class. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

Old  immigration  

1,329,923 

943,  859 

2,273,782 

58.5 

41.5 

100.0 

New  immigration  

4,338,005 

1,601,247 

5,  939,  252 

73.0 

27.0 

100.0 

Total 

5,  667,  928 

2,545,106 

8,213,034 

69.0 

31.0 

100.0 

79524°— VOL  4— 11- 


24 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


In  this  regard  the  Hebrew  is  a  disturbing  element  statistically,  as 
will  be  seen  from  the  following  table,  involving  the  same  data  as  that 
preceding,  with  Hebrew  immigrants  omitted : 

TABLE  8. — European  immigration  (including  Syrian)  to  the  United  States, 
Hebrews  excepted,  by  class  and  sex,  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909,  in- 
clusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Number. 

Per  cent. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

Old  immigration 

1,329,923 

934,  859 

2,  273,  782 

58  5 

41.5 

100.0 

New  immigration  (Hebrew  excepted)  .  .  . 

3,  776,  389 

1,  172,  681 

4,  949,  070 

76.3 

23.7 

100.0 

Total  

5,  106,  312 

2,  116,540 

7,222  852 

70  7 

•    29.3 

100.0 

The  fact  that  more  than  three- fourths  of  the  newer  immigration, 
Hebrews  excepted,  is  composed  of  males  suggests  that  there  are  rela- 
tively fewer  families  than  among  immigrants  of  the  older  class,  in 
which  males  form  59  per  cent  of  the  whole,  and,  as  family  immigra- 
tion is  naturally  more  permanent,  it  follows  that  the  proportion  of 
actual  settlers  is  much  greater  among  north  and  west  Europeans  than 
among  those  from  the  south  and  east  of  Europe  as  a  whole.  It  is 
well  known  that  Hebrew  immigration  is  essentially  a  movement  of 
families,  and  the  same,  to  a  great  degree,  is  true  of  Bohemians  and 
Moravians  and  Finns,  but  among  the  other  races  composing  the  new 
immigration  the  tendency  for  men  to  emigrate  without  their  families 
is  much  more  prevalent. 


AGE. 


The  element  of  age  among  European  immigrants  of  both  classes 
and  all  races  is  conspicuous  because  of  the  large  proportion  included 
in  the  age  group,  14  to  44  years,  as  shown  by  the  following  table, 
covering  European  immigration  for  the  eleven  years  1899-1909, 
classified  by  age  groups. 


' 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


25 


TABLE  9. — European  immigration   (including  Syrian)   to  the  United  States,  by 
race  or  people  and  age  groups,  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Under 
14  years. 

14  to  44 
years. 

45  years 
and  over. 

Total. 

Under 
14  years. 

14  to  44 
years. 

« 

years 
and 
over. 

Total. 

Armenian 

2,586 
18,965 
'  1,407 
12,711 

662 
16,  121 
52,  459 
12,  623 
13,  227 
116,  416 
7,314 
245,  787 
20,  247 

17,  481 
67,  487 
78,802 
273,685 

25,  278 
53,  147 
262,  334 
119,771 
72,  701 
520,  437 
168,  250 
690,  794 
363,  797 
297,  442 
1,416,075 
137,880 
270,  376 
723,  226 
44,  688 
63,997 
59,625 
110,705 
457,  306 
85,123 
302,399 
37,695 
40,  492 
11,214 
13,537 
762 

923 
5,275 
2,052 
9,585 

845 
5,378 
40,  323 
3,644 
8,748 
46,142 
2,263 
53,  601 
17,298 
13,801 
101,693 
2,660 
12,361 
19,  527 
5,111 
3,032 
1,662 
3,226 
25,  743 
9.950 
10,  555 
3,305 
1,971 
194 
1,654 
32 

20,  990 
91,  727 
82,  261 
295,  981 

26,785 
74,  646 
355,  116 
136,038 
94,  676 
682,  995 
-     177.  827 
990.  182 
401,342 
.  341,888 
1,719.260 
152,544 
310,  049 
820,  716 
65,240 
68,505 
66,  280 
119,  468 
534,  269 
112,  230 
345,  111 
45,214 
50,  592 
11,671 
18,508 
923 

12.3 
2(5.7 
1.7 
4.3 

2.5 
21.6 
14.8 
9.3 
14.0 
17.0 
4.1 
24.8 
5.0 
9.0 
11.7 
7.9 
8.8 
9.5 
23.7 
2  2 
7.5 
4.6 
9.6 
15.3 
9.3 
9.3 
16.1 
2.3 
17.9 
14.0 

83.3 
73.6 
95.8 
92.5 

94.4 
71.2 
73.9 
88.0 
76.8 
76.2 
94.6 
69.8 
90.6 
87.0 
82.4 
90.4 
87.2 
88.1 
68.5 
93.4 
90.0 
92.7 
85.6 
75.8 
87.6 
83.4 
80.0 
96.1 
73.1 
82.6 

4.4 
5.8 
2.5 
3.2 

3.2 
7.2 
11.4 
2.7 
9.2 
6.8 
1.3 
5.4 
4.3 
4.0 
5.9 
1.7 
4.0 
2.4 
7.8 
4.4 
2.5 
2.7 
4.8 
8.9 
3.1 
7.3 
3.9 
1.7 
8.9 
3.5 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
10ft  0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.  0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 
100.0 

Bohemian  and  Mora- 
vian        

Bulgarian,    Servian, 
and  Montenegrin... 
Croatian  and  Slove- 
nian 

Dalmatian,  Bosnian, 
and  Herzegovinian  . 
Dutch  and  Flemish  .  . 
English  

Finnish 

French  

German  

Greek 

Hebrew... 

Irish 

Italian,  North  

30,645 
201,492 
12,  004 
27,  312 
77,  963 
15,  441 
1,476 
4,993 
5,537 
51,220 
17,  157 
32,  157 
4,214 
8,129 
263 
3,317 
129 

Italian,  South 

Lithuanian 

Magyar  

Polish 

Portuguese  

Roumanian  
Russian 

Ruthenian  

Scandinavian  .  .  . 

Scotch. 

Slovak  

Spanish 

Syrian 

Turkish.  .  . 

Welsh 

Others 

Total 

1,013,974 

6,786,506 

412,554 

8,213,034 

12.3 

82.6 

5.0 

100.0 

The  age  of  European  immigrants  to  the  United  States  during  the 
period  considered,  classified  according  to  the  old  and  new  immigra- 
tion, is  shown  by  the  following  table : 

TABLE  10. — European  immigration  (including  'Syrian)  to  the  United  States,  ty 
class  and  age  groups,  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Class. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Under  14 

years. 

14  to  44 

years. 

45  years 
or  over. 

Total. 

Under 
14 
years. 

14  to  44 
years. 

45  years 
or  over. 

Total. 

Old  immigration 

290,164 
723,810 

1,828,382 
4,958,124 

155,236 
257,318 

2,  273,  782 
5,939,252 

12.8 
12.2 

80.4 
83.5 

6.8 
4.3 

100.0 
100.0 

New  immigration  
Total 

1,013,974 

6,786,506 

412,554 

8,213,034 

12.3 

82.6 

5.0 

100.0 

26 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


The  striking  feature  with  regard  to  the  age  of  immigrants,  and 
indeed  one  of  the  most  striking  and  significant  features  of  European 
immigration  to  the  United  States  in  any  regard,  is  the  fact  that  so 
many  of  the  immigrants  are  of  the  producing  and  so  few  of  the 
dependent  age. 

The  Hebrew  as  a  factor  in  equalizing  differences  between  the  old 
and  new  immigration  is  again  apparent  in  this  case,  as  will  be  seen  by 
the  following  table,  identical  with  that  above,  with  the  Hebrew 
element  excluded : 

TABLE  11. — European  immigration  (including  Syrian)  to  the  United  States, 
Hebrews  excepted,  by  class  and  age  groups,  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909, 
inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Class. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Under  14 
years. 

14  to  44 

years. 

45  years 
or  over. 

Total. 

Under  14 

years. 

14  to  44 
years. 

45  years 
or  over. 

Total. 

Old  immigration 

290,  164 
478,023 

1,828,382 
4,  267,  330 

155,236 
203,  717 

2,  273,  782 
4,949,070 

12.8 
9.7 

80.4 
86.2 

6.8 
4.1 

100.0 
100.0 

New  immigration  (He- 
brew excepted)  

Total  

768,  187 

6,095,712 

358,  953 

7,222,852 

10.6 

84.4 

5.0 

100.0 

OCCUPATIONS. 

Occupation  is  an  important  factor  in  estimating  the  character  of 
emigration,  as  it  indicates  the  probable  industrial  status  of  immi- 
grants after  admission  to  the  United  States.  For  convenience  immi- 
grants may  be  divided  into  the  following  general  classes  as  regards 
occupation:  Professional,  skilled  laborers,  farm  laborers,  farmers, 
common  laborers,  servants,  miscellaneous,  and  no  occupation;  the 
latter  class  including  accompanying  women  and  children. 

The  distribution  of  occupations  among  European  immigrants  by 
race  or  people  during  the  eleven  years  1899  to  1909  is  shown  by  the 
table  next  presented. 


Emigration  Condition's  in  Europe. 


27 


TABLE  12.-  -Occupations   of  European  immigrants    (including   Syrian)    to   the 
United  States,  by  raee  or  people,  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Number. 


Race  or  people. 

Profes- 
sional. 

Skilled. 

Farm 
laborers. 

Farm- 
ers. 

Common 
laborers. 

Serv- 
ants. 

Nooccu- 
pation.o 

Mis- 
cella- 
neous. 

Total. 

Armenian 

370 

748 

107 
228 

31 
1,768 
20,041 
314 
5,903 
14,550 
594 
6,836 
4,264 
3,006 
5,586 
148 
1,281 
1,193 
192 
139 
843 
97 
5,076 
4,219 
184 
1,504 
396 
117 
585 
2 

5,971 
22,601 

2,608 
13,952 

2,523 
13,111 
105,  707 
6,380 
20,  829 
125,594 
13,632 
362,  936 
41,486 
56,  854 
199,  024 
8,243 
20,  966 
41,541 
3.,  076 
1,852 
5,348 
'      2,095 
86,  921 
42,589 
12,088 
15,000 
7,360 
822 
6,517 
48 

3,080 
8,247 

36,746 
80,  167 

7,178 
7,139 
4,902 
5,604 
5,372 
72,  733 
33,253 
9,633 
15,717 
51,349 
420,  262 
29,  918 
102,  456 
162,  372 
3,023 
38,285 
20,  323 
38,  633 
30.060 
2,235 
85,419 
2,483 
9,756 
3,510 
440 

377 
1,580 

2,782 
4,290 

569 
3,106 
4,954 
1,520 
1,680 
12,021 
2,092 
908 
6,047 
5,656 
12,  290 
355 
1,586 
2,549 
400 
217 
862 
322 
11,009 
1,484 
1,899 
837 
1,  762 
619 
332 
41 

2,481 
7,341 

34,755 
146,278 

12,837 
10,579 
24,  928 
68,243 
8,942 
84,531 
104,  472 
66,311 
'   106,497 
128,579 
587,540 
64,174 
82,501 
320,061 
22,363 
20,411 
24,803 
44,  336 
158,  967 
6,353 
124,201 
6,695 
6,797 
4,878 
1,277 
434 

1,588 
13,  695 

683 

r7,558 

668 
3,558 
27,851 
27.581 
10,  331 
78,  803 
3,892 
61,611 
161,844 
21,465 
76,440 
19,819 
29,558 
111,100 
12,869 
1,617 
2,273 
18,  046 
131,760 
9,125 
39,417 
1,808 
3,548 
154 
1,426 
5 

6,385 
36,505 

4,291 
32,825 

2,799 
32,  543 
137,  662 
25,982 
35,525 
266,819 
15,  935 
445,728 
57,033 
69,  170 
400,546 
29,596 
70,  236 
180,  148 
21,921 
5,723 
10,  965 
15,858 
102,878 
38,  935 
81,463 
11,531 
17,731 
1,056 
7,115 
383 

738 
1,010 

289 
683 

180 
2,842 
29,071 
414 
6,094 
27,944 
3,957 
36,  219 
8,454 
5,809 
17,572 
291 
1,465 
1,752 
1,396 
261 
863 
81 
7,598 
7,290 
440 
5,356 
3,242 
515 
816 
10 

20,990 
91,727 

82,261 
295,981 

26,785 
74,  646 
355,  116 
136,038 
94,  676 
682,  995 
177,827 
990,  182 
401,342 
341,888 
1,719,260 
152,544 
310,  049 
820,716 
85,240 
68,505 
66,280 
119,468 
534,  269 
112,  230 
345,111 
45,214 
50,592 
11,67] 
18,508 
923 

Bohemian  and  Moravian  .  .  . 
Bulgarian,     Servian,    and 
Montenegrin 

Croatian  and  Slovenian  
Dalmatian,    Bosnian,    and 
Heraegovinian 

Dutch  and  Flemish  

English    ... 

Finnish 

French  

German 

Greek  • 

Hebrew  

Irish 

Italian,  North  

Italian,  South 

Lithuanian 

Magyar  

Polish 

Portuguese 

R  oumanian  

Russian 

Ruthenian  

Scandinavian 

Scotch 

Slovak  

Spanish 

Syrian 

Turkish  

Welsh 

Others  & 

Total             .     . 

80,3221.247.674 

1,  290,  295 

84,  146 

2,282,565 

890,  093 

2,165,287172,652 

8,213,034 

Including  women  and  children. 


i>  119  Austrians,  800  Hungarians,  4  Transylvanians. 


28 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  12. — Occupations  of  European  immigrants  (including  Syrian)  to  the 
United  States,  ~by  race  or  people,  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909,  inclusive — 
Continued. 


Per  cent. 


Race  or  people. 

Profes- 
sional. 

Skilled. 

Farm 
labor- 
ers. 

Farm- 
ers. 

Com- 
mon 
labor- 
ers. 

Serv- 
ants. 

No 

occupa- 
tion, a 

Miscel- 
laneous. 

Total. 

Armenian                        .  .  . 

1  8 

28  4 

14  7 

1  8 

11  8 

7  6 

30  4 

3  5 

100  0 

Bohemian  and  Moravian.  .  . 
Bulgarian,    Servian,     and 
Montenegrin 

.8 
.1 

24.6 
3  2 

9.0 
44  7 

1.7 
3  4 

8.0 
42  2 

14.9 

3 

39.8 
5  2 

1.1 
4 

100.0 
100  0 

Croatian  and  Slovenian  
Dalmatian,    Bosnian,    and 
Herzegovinian  

.1 
.1 

4.7 
9.4 

27.1' 
26.8 

1.4 
2.1 

49.4 
47  9 

5.9 
2  5 

11.1 
10  4 

.2 
.7 

100.0 
100.0 

Dutch  and  Flemish  
English 

2.4 
5.6 

17.6 
29  8 

9.6 
1  4 

.2 

4 

14.2 
7  0 

4.8 

7  8 

43.6 
38  8 

3.8 

8  2 

100.0 
100  0 

Finnish  

.2 

4.7 

4.1 

1 

50  2 

20  3 

19  1 

3 

100  0 

French 

6.2 

22  0 

5  7 

8 

9  4 

10  9 

37  5 

6  4 

100  0 

German  

2.1 

18.4 

10.6 

.8 

12  4 

11  5 

39  1 

4.1 

100.0 

Greek        

.3 

7.7 

18  7 

2 

58  7 

2  2 

9  0 

2  2 

'     100  0 

Hebrew 

.7 

36-  7 

1  0 

1 

6  7 

6  2 

45  0 

3  7 

100  0 

Irish  

1.1 

10.3 

3.9 

1  5 

26  5 

40  3 

14  2 

2.1 

100.0 

Italian,  North 

.9 

16.6 

15  0 

1  7 

37  6 

6  3 

20  2 

1  7 

100  0 

Italian,  South  

.3 

11.6 

24.4 

.7 

34  2 

4  4 

23  3 

1.0 

100.0 

Lithuanian.  . 

.1 

5.4 

19.6 

2 

42  1 

13  0 

19  4 

2 

100  0 

Magyar 

4 

6  8 

33  0 

5 

26  6 

9  5 

22  7 

5 

100  0 

Polish  

.1 

5.1 

19.8 

.3 

39  0 

13  5 

22  0 

2 

100  0 

Portuguese 

.3 

4  7 

4  6 

6 

•  34  3 

19  7 

33  6 

2  1 

100  0 

Roumanian  

.2 

2.7 

55.9 

.3 

29.8 

2  4 

8.4 

.4 

100  0 

Russian     ... 

1.3 

8.1 

30  7 

1  3 

37  4 

3  4 

16  5 

1  3 

•  100  0 

Ruthenian 

1 

1  8 

32  3 

3 

37  1 

15  1 

13  3 

1 

100  0 

Scandinavian...  . 

1.0 

16.3 

5.6 

2  1 

29  8 

24  7 

19  3 

1  4 

100  0 

Scotch 

3.8 

37  9 

2  0 

1  3 

5  7 

8  1 

34  7 

6  5 

100  0 

Slovak 

1 

3  5 

24  8 

6 

36  0 

11  4 

23  6 

1 

100  o 

Spanish  

3.3 

33.2 

5  5 

1  9 

14  8 

40 

25  5 

11  8 

100  0 

Syrian  

.8 

14.5 

19.3 

3.5 

13.4 

7.0 

35.0 

6.4 

100.0 

Turkish  

1.0 

7.0 

30.1 

5.3 

41.8 

1  3 

9  0 

4  4 

100.0 

Welsh 

3.2 

35.2 

2  4 

1  8 

6  9 

7  7 

38  4 

4  4 

100  0 

Others  b 

2 

5  2 

4  4 

47  0 

5 

41  5 

1  i 

100  0 

Total 

1.0 

15  2 

15  7 

1  0 

97  8 

10  8 

26  4 

2  1 

100  0 

a  Including  women  and  children. 


&  119  Austrians,  800  Hungarians,  4  Transylvanians. 


According  to  the  old  and  new  immigration  classification  the  dis- 
tribution of  occupations  is  as  follows : 

TABLE   13. — Occupations   of   European  immigrants    (including   Syrian)    to   the 
United  States,  l)y  class,  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Occupation. 

Number  of  persons. 

Per  cent. 

Old  immi- 
gration. 

New  immi- 
gration. 

Old.  im- 
migra- 
tion. 

New  im- 
migra- 
tion. 

Professional           .      .  .          1  §.. 

56,406 
442,  754 
138,  598 
40,  633 
402,  074 
424,  698 
678,  510 
90,109 

23,  916 

804,  920 
1,151,697 
43,  513 
1,880,491 
465,  395 
1,  486,  777 
82,543 

2.5 
19.5 
6.1 
1.8 

17.7 
18.7 
29.8 
4.0 

0.4 
13.6 
19.4 

3L7 
7.8 
25.0 
1.4 

Skilled  laborers 

Farmers                    

Common  laborers                           

Total                                   

2,273,782 

5,939,252 

100.0 

100.0 

Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


29 


The  relatively  large  proportion  of  skilled  laborers,  the  smaller 
proportion  of  unskilled,  and  the  almost  total  absence  of  farm  laborers 
among  Hebrew  immigrants  practically  places  that  race  with  the 
older  immigration  so  far  as  occupations  are  concerned,  and  the  elimi- 
nation of  Hebrews  from  the  preceding  table  makes  possible  a  clearer 
illustration  of  the  comparative  occupational  status  of  the  old  and 
new  immigration,  as  shown  by  the  following  table : 

TABLE  14. — Occupations  of  European  immigrants  (including  Syrian)  to  the 
United  States,  Hebrews  excepted,  by  class,  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909, 
inclusive. 


Number  of  persons. 

Per  cent. 

' 

New 

Occupation. 

Old  immi- 
gration. 

New  immi- 
gration 
(Hebrews 
excepted). 

Old 
immi- 
gration. 

immi- 
gration 
(He- 
brews ex- 

cepted). 

Professional  ?  

56,  406 

17,080 

2.5 

0.3 

Skilled  laborers  

442,754 

441,  984 

19.5 

8.9 

Farm  laborers 

138,  598 

1,  142,  064 

6.1 

23.1 

Farmers 

40  633 

42  605 

1.8 

9 

Common  laborers                            

402,  074 

1,  814,  180 

17.7 

36.7 

Servants 

424,  698 

403,  784 

18.7 

8.2 

No  occupation  

678,  510 

1,041,049 

29.8 

21.0 

Miscellaneous                                         .        

90,109 

46,  324 

4.0 

.9 

Total 

2,  273,  782 

4,949,070 

100.0 

100.0 

An  analysis  of  this  table  shows  that  almost  60  per  cent  of  the 
new  immigration,  Hebrew  excepted,  during  the  ten  years  considered 
was  composed  of  farm  and  other  unskilled  laborers;  while  these 
classes  furnished  less  than  25  per  cent  of  the  older  immigration.  The 
per  cent  of  skilled  laborers  is  more  than  twice  as  great  in  the  older 
class,  but  the  reverse  is  true  of  servants,  which  may  be  accounted  for 
by  the  fact  that  females  are  relatively  fewer  among  the  newer 
immigrants.  The  percentage  of  farmers  as  distinguished  from  farm 
laborers  is  twice  as  great  in  the  older  immigration,  but  the  actual 
number  is  so  small  in  either  case  that  it  is  unimportant  except  to 
emphasize  the  fact  that  land  owners  or  independent  farmers,  irre- 
spective of  race,  do  not,  as  a  rule,  emigrate  to  the  United  States. 


LITERACY. 


In  none  of  the  factors  under  consideration,  unless  it  be  that  of  per- 
manence of  residence,  is  there  so  wide  a  difference  between  the  old 
and  new  classes  of  immigration,  as  in  the  matter  of  degree  of  educa- 
tion, as  will  be  noted  from  the  table  next  presented,  which  shows  the 
extent  of  illiteracy  among  the  various  races  or  peoples  of  European 
immigrants  admitted  to  the  United  States  during  the  eleven  years, 
1899-1909. 


30 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  15. — Number  and  per  cent  of  illiterates,  14  years  of  age  and  over,  in  each 
race  or  people  of  European  immigrants  (including  Syrian)  admitted  into  the 
United  States  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Total  num- 
ber 14 
years  of 
age  or  over. 

Persons   14   years   of 
age  or  over  who  can 
neither    read     nor 
write. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Armenian  

18,  404 
72,  762 
80,854 
283,  270 
26,  123 
•  58,  525 
302,  657 
123,415 
81,449 
566,  579 
170,  513 
744,  395 
381,095 
311,243 
1,517,768 
140,  540 
282,  737 
742,  753 
49,799 
67,  029 
61,287 
113,931 
483,  049 
95,073 
312,  954 
41,000 
42,  463 
11,408 
15,  191 
794 

4,433 
1,246 
33,  759 
103,  156 
10,  789 
2,767 
3,419 
1,681 
4,401 
28,854 
45,960 
191,  544 
10,  233 
36,  869 
822,113 
68,  555 
32,  170 
263,  177 
33,960 
23,  232 
23,  607 
58,  070 
2,168 
682 
69,  220 
6,004 
22,  978 
6,722 
309 
53 

24.1 
1.7 
41.8 
36.4 
41.3 
4.7 
1.1 
1.4 
5.4 
5.1 
27.0 
25.7 
2.7 
11.8 
54.2 
48.8 
11.4 
35.4 
68.2 
34.7 
38.5 
51.0 
.4 
.7 
22.1 
14.6 
54.1 
58.9 
2.0 
6.7 

Bohemian  and  Moravian  

Bulgarian,  Servian,  and  Montenegrin  

Croatian  and  Slovenian 

Dalmatian,  Bosnian,  and  Herzegovinian  

Dutch  and  Flemish  

English  

Finnish 

French  

German  •  .           

Greek 

Hebrew  .  .  . 

Irish. 

Italian  North 

Italian,  South  * 

Lithuanian 

Magyar  .  .  . 

Polish  

Portuguese 

Roumanian  

Russian  

Ruthenian 

Scandinavian  

Scotch  

Slovak 

Spanish  

Syrian         

Turkish 

Welsh  

Others                

Total 

7,  199,  060 

1,912,131 

26.6 

The  above  table  classified  according  to  the  old  and  new  immigra- 
tion is  as  follows : 

TABLE  16. — Number  and  per  cent  of  illiterates,  14  years  of  age  and  over,  in  each 
class  of  European  immigration  (including  Syrian)  in  the  fiscal  years  1899  to 
1909,  inclusive. 


Class. 

Total  num- 
ber 14  years 

Persons   14 
over   wh 
read  and 

years  or 
o    do    not 
write. 

Number. 

Per  cent 

1  983  618 

52  833 

2  i 

5  21  r>  442 

1  859  298 

oc   c 

Total    

7,  199,  060 

1  912  131 

26  6 

Contrary  to  the  rule  previously  noted  the  elimination  of  Hebrew 
immigrants  does  not  essentially  affect  the  relative  standing  of  the  old 
and  new  immigration  so  far  as  degree  of  education  is  concerned,  for 
while  the  percentage  of  illiterates  of  that  race  is  considerably  below 
the  average  of  the  new  class  as  a  whole,  the  difference  is  less  con- 
spicuous than  in  the  matters  of  sex,  age,  occupation,  and  permanence 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  31 

of  residence  in  the  United  States.  It  will  be  rioted  that  among  the 
newer  immigrants  the  Portuguese  furnish  the  largest  percentage  of 
illiterates,  while  the  Bohemians  and  Moravians  and  Finns  are  almost 
at  the  other  extreme.  The  latter  exceptions,  however,  have  little  effect 
on  the  general  result. 

Whether  the  high  percentage  of  illiteracy  among  the  newer  immi- 
grants is  due  chiefly  to  environment  or  to  Inherent  racial  tendencies 
can  not  well  be  determined.  The  former  would  seem  to  be  the  more 
equitable  explanation  were  it  not  for  the  fact  that  races  living  under 
practically  the  same  material  and  political  conditions  show  widely 
varying  results.  Conspicuous  in  this  regard  are  the  Germans,  the 
majority  of  whom,  as  previously  stated,  now  come  from  Austria- 
Hungary  and  Russia,  as  compared  with  other  races  from  those 
countries. 


LITERACY  IN  EUROPE. 


Because  of  the  possibility  that  the  literacy  of  immigrants  may  be 
an  important  factor  in  the  future  immigration  policy  of  the  United 
States,  the  Commission  has  given  some  attention  to  the  subject  of 
literacy  in  Europe  as  a  whole,  as  well  as  to  the  situation  in  each  of 
the  chief  immigrant-furnishing  countries. 

As  suggested  by  the  foregoing  tables  showing  the  degree  of  educa- 
tion among  the  various  races  of  European  immigrants  coming  to  the 
United  States,  illiteracy  exists  in  the  various  countries  of  Europe  in 
widely  different  degrees.  Comparison,  however,  in  respect  to  the 
amount  of  illiteracy  which  prevails  in  specific  countries  is  difficult, 
because  of  the  different  means  by  which  data  relative  to  it  are  secured 
in  the  several  countries.  In  the  majority  of  the  European  States  the 
military  recruitment  records  afford  a  partial  measure  of  the  literacy 
of  the  population,  but,  of  course,  an  illiteracy  rate  based  on  such 
records  is  open  to  the  objection  that  it  is  representative  only  of  a 
selected  class  and  not  of  the  total  population  over  an  age  at  which 
they  might  be  expected  to  read  and  write.  For  the  purposes  of  an 
immigration  study,  however,  data  of  this  nature  are  valuable,  for  the 
reason  that  immigrants  and  recruits  are,  as  a  rule,  drawn  from 
the  same  classes  in  the  population.  Unfortunately  data  relative  to  the 
literacy  of  recruits  are  not  available  for  all  European  countries,  the 
most  important  omissions  being  Austria-Hungary  and  Russia,  both 
of  which  are  among  the  three  largest  immigrant-furnishing  nations 
of  Europe.  However,  the  following  table,  which  shows  the  per  cent 
of  illiteracy  among  the  recruits  of  13  European  countries  compared 
with  the  illiteracy  among  native  white  males  21  to  24  years  of  age 
in  the  United  States,  will  be  of  interest.  With  the  exception  noted, 
the  test  of  literacy  in  each  case  is  ability  to  read  and  write. 


32 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  17. — Per  cent  of  illiteracy  among  the  recruits  in  various  European  coun- 
tries, and  for  native  white  males  from  21  to  24  years  of  age  in  the  United 
States. 


Country. 

Per  cent 
of  illit- 
eracy 
among 
recruits.  o 

Date. 

Source. 

Belgium     .       .  . 

9  1 

1907 

Hiibner's  "Tabellen,"  1909,  p.  93. 

Denmark 

2 

1897 

Do 

France  

3.5 

1906 

Statesman's  Yearbook,  1909,  p.  751. 

German  Empire 

04 

1906 

Do 

Greece 

30  0 

(b) 

Hiibner's  "Tabellen  "  1909  p.  93. 

Italy  

30.6 

1905 

Italia  Annuario  Statistico,  1905-1907. 

The  Netherlands 

1  9 

1907 

Nederland  Jaarcij  fers,  1907,  p.  51. 

"RoiimaTiia 

69  0 

1900-1904 

Annarul  Statistico  al  Romaniei  1907 

Servia  

52.1 

1906 

Serbie-Ammarie  Statistique,  1906,  p. 

712. 

Sweden  .   .         

59 

1904 

Statesman's  Yearbook,  1908,  p.  1238. 

Switzerland 

c  31 

1907 

Statesman's  Yearbook  1908,  p.  1255. 

United  Kingdom  

1.4 

1904-5 

Do. 

United  States  

3.8 

1900 

Twelfth  Census  of  the  United  States, 

Supplementary 

Analysis. 

a  In  the  United  States  the  rate  is  for  native  white  males  from  21  to  24  years  of  age. 

b  Date  not  given. 

c  Forty-three  per  cent  could  not  write;  0.11  per  cent  could  not  read. 

While  not  conclusive  as  to  literacy  among  the  total  population  of 
the  various  countries  considered,  the  data  above  presented  tends  to 
substantiate  common  knowledge  that  while  illiteracy  is  at  a  minimum 
in  northern  and  western  Europe  it  is  widespread  in  the  southern  and 
eastern  countries,  all  of  which  contribute  largely  to  the  present  tide  of 
immigration  to  the  United  States. 

Statistics  relative  to  literacy,  based  on  census  records,  are  available 
for  some  of  the  principal  immigrant-furnishing  countries  of  Europe. 
These  data  are  based  on  such  different  proportions  of  the  population 
in  various  countries  that  comparisons  with  each  other  or  with  the 
United  States  are  difficult,  and  in  most  cases  impossible,  but  never- 
theless they  are  valuable  and  interesting  for  the  purposes  of  this 
report. 

The  following  table  shows  the  per  cent  of  illiterates  among  a  cer- 
tain proportion  of  the  population  of  the  countries  specified,  the  test 
of  literacy,  except  as  noted,  being  the  ability  to  read  and  write : 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


33 


TABLE  18.— Per  cent  of  illiteracy  among  the  populations  of  specified  European 
countries  and  of  the  United  States. 


Country. 

Per  cent 
of  illit- 
eracy. 

Date. 

Basis. 

Source. 

Austria  

23  8 

1900 

Belgium 

21  9 

1900 

Total  population 

p.  6. 

Finland 

a  1  2 

1900 

gique.  1906,  p.  74. 

Hungary  •.  
Italy 

41.0 
48  5 

1900 
1905 

over. 
Total  civil  population  6  years 
of  age  or  over. 

Magyar     Statisztikai     Evkony, 
1905,  p.  324. 

Portugal  

75.1 

1900 

over. 
...  .do 

1907,  p.  245. 

Roumania  

61  4 

1899 

Population  10  years  of  age  or 

1367. 

Russia 

72  o 

1897 

over. 

1907,  p.  5. 

Servia  

83.0 

1900 

over. 
Total  population 

Statesman's  Yearbook    1908   p 

Spain  

63.8 

1900 

do  

1485. 
Espana  Censo  de  la  Poblacion, 

United  States  

10.7 

1900 

Population  10  years  of  age  or 
over. 

1900  Vol.  II,  p!  xi. 
Twelfth  Census,  United  States, 
Supplementary  Analysis. 

a  Per  cent  not  able  to  read. 

Information  relative  to  illiteracy  in  Great  Britain,  France,  and 
Germany  is  not  available,  but  it  is  well  known  that  the  per  cent  is 
low  compared  with  the  countries  of  eastern  and  southern  Europe 
above  considered.  In  the  Scandinavian  countries  illiteracy  is  said  to 
be  almost  nonexistent,  and  this  statement  is  substantiated  by  the  fact 
that  the  percentages  of  illiterates  among  Scandinavian  immigrants  to 
the  United  States  is  smaller  than  among  any  other  immigrants.0  In 
Norway  no  attempt  is  made  to  secure  statistics  relative  to  illiteracy 
for  the  reason  that  little  exists.  This  fact  is  interestingly  stated  by 
the  late  Hon.  O.  Gude,  minister  of  Norway  to  the  United  States,  in 
reply  to  an  inquiry  from  the  Immigration  Commission  relative  to  the 
subject.  Mr.  Gude  says: 

I  have  the  honor  to  advise  you  that  the  central  bureau  of  statistics  at  Kristi- 
ania  has,  through  the  Norwegian  foreign  office,  informed  this  legation  that  no 
statistics  have  been  issued  concerning  the  percentage  of  illiterate  persons  in 
Norway  for  the  simple  reason  that  the  bureau  has  supposed  that  the  persons 
that  can  not  read  nor  write  hardly  will  amount  to  1  pro  niille  or  less  and  that 
they  will  be  found  as  such  very  rare  exceptions  in  that  country,  that  the 
bureau  of  statistics  has  not  considered  it  worth  while  to  compute  any  statistics 
in  that  respect. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  race  influence  and  development  are  inti- 
mately connected  with  the  problem  of  illiteracy.  The  most  striking 
instance  of  this  is  the  almost  complete  literacy  of  the  Germans,  not 
only  of  the  Germans  of  Germany,  but  of  the  Germans  of  Austria,  of 
Finland,  and  of  Russia.  In  the  latter  case  they  maintain  their  high 
standard  in  the  face  of  great  odds.  The  Roumanians,  on  the  other 
hand,  not  only  show  a  rate  of  illiteracy  in  their  own  country  which 
is  unparalleled  elsewhere,  but  they  likewise  push  up  the  illiteracy 
rate  of  every  other  country  of  whose  population  they  are  a  part.  It 
should  be  noted  in  this  connection,  however,  that  some  of  the  races  in 
Europe  have  a  very  high  illiteracy  rate  in  their  native  countries,  but 

— t 

0  See  Table  15  on  p.  30. 


34  The  Immigration  Commission. 

in  other  places  where  they  live  under  more  favorable  economic  con- 
ditions they  show  a  marked  improvement  in  this  respect. 

Another  characteristic  of  illiteracy  is  its  greater  prevalence  in  those 
countries  that  have  a  heterogeneous  population.  For  instance,  in 
Russia,  Austria,  and  Hungary  the  problem  of  primary  education  has 
been  hard  to  solve,  because  each  has  a  population  in  which  the  vari- 
ous elements  are  unlike  in  race,  language,  history,  religion,  and 
Eower,  and  it  is  only  natural  that  such  a  condition  should  result  in 
ick  of  education  among  the  people.  Switzerland,  however,  is  a  con- 
spicuous exception  to  this  rule.  In  the  population  of  that  country 
there  are  three  distinct  groups— German,  French,  and  Italian — 
each  using  the  native  language  of  their  race,  and  there  is  practically 
no  illiteracy.  The  school  problem  in  Switzerland,  however,  is  not 
complex,  for  the  reason  that  each  Canton  controls  its  own  educational 
system  and  the  largest  proportion  of  the  population  of  each  Canton  is 
of  the  same  race  or  people. 

The  most  general  location  that  can  be  made  of  illiteracy  in  Europe 
is  that  it  prevails  to  the  greatest  degree  in  the  southern  and  eastern 
countries,  including  Spain  and  Portugal,  and  that  the  minimum 
amount  is  found  in  the  northern  and  western  countries.  Moreover, 
a  study  of  the  illiteracy  figures  for  each  country  shows  invariably 
a  higher  rate  for  the  rural  population  than  for  the  urban.  In  coun- 
tries where  the  rural  population  predominates,  this  tends  to  push 
up  the  general  rate. 

An  examination  of  the  illiteracy  figures  by  sex  shows  that  women 
are  more  frequently  unlettered  than  men.  Moreover,  the  gap  be- 
tween the  sexes  in  this  respect  is  widest  in  the  countries  and  in  the 
Provinces  where  illiteracy  is  comparatively  the  greatest.  As  illiteracy 
declines  the  breach  narrows,  the  women  making  better  progress  than 
the  men.  The  greater  degree  of  ignorance  prevailing  among  the 
female  population  of  some  countries  which  are  most  backward  in 
their  civilization  is  due  mainly  to  the  inferior  status  of  women  in 
such  countries.  Among  the  countries  of  Europe,  Russia  and  the 
Balkan  States  are  the  most  notable  examples  in  this  regard.  In 
some  parts  of  the  former  country  the  proportion  of  ill-iterate  women 
is  from  three  to  four  times  as  great  as  that  of  the  men,  while  in 
Roumania  the  proportion  of  men  who  can  read  and  write  is  almost 
four  times  that  of  the  women.  In  the  case  of  the  Jews  the  difference 
between  the  literacy  of  the  sexes  is  due  in  part  at  least  to  the  feeling 
of  the  parents  that  it  is  a  religious  duty  to  educate  the  boys  of  the 
family,  while  less  heed  is  given  to  the  instruction  of  the  daughters. 
An  additional  factor  is  that  in  the  most  sparsely  settled  regions 
the  difference  between  the  school  attendance  of  boys  and  girls  is 
greater  than  in  the  more  populated  regions.  This  indicates  that  the 
inaccessibility  of  schools  may  be  the  reason  of  the  small  attendance 
of  the  girls  and  the  consequent  greater  illiteracy  among  them. 

But  probably  the  most  apparent  cause  of  illiteracy  in  Europe,  as 
elsewhere,  is  poverty.  The  economic  status  of  a  people  has  a  very 
decided  effect  upon  the  literacy  rate.  For  instance,  the  difference  be- 
tween the  prevailing  rates  of  illiteracy  in  north  and  south  Italy  is 
to  a  considerable  measure  due  to  the  difference  in  the  economic  condi- 
tions of  these  two  regions.  Sweden  recognizes  that  poverty  affects 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  35 

educational  facilities,  and  in  order  to  avoid  this  she  entirely  sup- 
ports the  primary  schools  in  a  few  of  the  northern  districts  where  the 
economic  conditions  are  so  poor  that  adequate  maintenance  by  the 
local  municipalities  would  be  impossible.  Another  phase  of  the  eco- 
nomic factor  is  the  need  of  children's  service  at  home.  This  is  said 
to  have  been  especially  operative  in  south  Italy  and  Ireland. 

The  present  aspect  of  the  problem,  however,  is  encouraging,  even 
though  the  rate  of  illiteracy  in  some  countries  is  still  alarmingly  high. 
Even  in  Russia  and  Roumania  the  trend  is  constantly  toward  greater 
literacy,  and  the  same  is  true  of  other  southern  and  eastern  Euro- 
pean countries.  Emigration  undoubtedly  has  stimulated  education. 
This  is  repeatedly  remarked  in  Italy  and  in  parts  of  the  Slavic  coun- 
tries, and  it  probably  has  had  the  same  effect  in  some  other  parts  of 
Europe,  particularly  if  there  has  been  any  return  movement  of 
population. 

MONEY  SHOWN  BY  IMMIGRANTS. 

It  is  impossible  to  determine  with  any  degree  of  accuracy  the 
amount  of  money  or  the  value  of  the  property  brought  to  the  United 
States  by  immigrants.  The  only  available  information  upon  the  sub- 
ject is  contained  in  the  records  of  the  Bureau  of  Immigration  and 
Naturalization,  and  results  from  a  provision  of  the  immigration  law 
which  directs  that  there  shall  be  secured  from  each  immigrant  the 
following  information : 

Whether  in  possession  of  $50,  and,  if  less,  how  much  ? 

It  will  be  noted  that  the  law  does  not  contemplate  a  record  of  the 
actual  amount  of  money  brought,  the  intent  being  merely  to  deter- 
mine whether  immigrants  are  possessed  of  a  sufficient  amount  to 
carry  them  to  their  destination  or  to  provide  against  their  immedi- 
ately becoming  public  charges.  In  many  cases  the  amount  of  money 
possessed  has  an  important  bearing  on  the  admissibility  of  the 
immigrant. 

Reports  of  the  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration  show  the 
number  of  persons  of  each  race  or  people  showing  $50  or  over,  the 
number  showing  less  than  $50,  and  the  total  amount  shown.  These 
data,  so  far  as  they  relate  to  European  immigrants  admitted  to  the 
United  States  during  the  five  fiscal  years  ending  June  30,  1909,  are 
shown  by  the  table  next  presented. 


36 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  19. — Honey  shown  on  admission  to  the  United  States  by  European  immi- 
grants (including  Syrian),  by  race  or  people,  in  the  fiscal  years  1905  to  1909, 
inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Total 
number 
showing 
money. 

Number  showing  — 

Per  cent  show- 
ing — 

Amount 
per  capita 
of  those 
showing 
money. 

$50  or 
over. 

Less  than 
$50. 

$50  or 
over. 

Less 
than 
$50. 

Armenian 

10,347 
43,555 
69,905 
170,604 
20,673 
33,552 
193,  759 
63,279 
49,928 
315,332 
131,215 
310,522 
191-341 
185,219 
880,  126 
80,669 
181,010 
440,  764 
27,477 
56,313 
47,542 
82,934 
242,657 
69,335 
167,  934 
29,823 
20,634 
10,  076 
9,491 

1,190 
6,763 
2,124 
5,622 
1,325 
12,914 
108,  737 
5,561 
26,997 
96,910 
9,108 
36,341 
32,308 
25,611 
44,  295 
2,622 
7,640 
12,054 
3,175 
912 
3,529 
1,054 
33,  118 
34,  154 
4,357 
11,782 
5,038 
725 
4,716 

9,157 
36,  792 
67,781 
164,982 
•  19,348 
20,638 
85,022 
57,  718 
22,  931 
218,  422 
122,  107 
274/181 
159,  033 
159,608 
835,831 
78,  047 
173,370 
428,  710 
24,302 
55,401 
44,  013 
81,880 
209,539 
35,  181 
163,577 
18,041 
15,596 
9,351 
4,775 

11.5 
15.5 
3.0 
3.3 
6.4 
38.5 
56.1 
8.8 
54.1 
30.7 
6.9 
11.7 
16.9 
13.8 
5.0 
3.3 
4.2 
2.7 
11.6 
1.6 
7.4 
1.3 
13.6 
49.3 
2.6 
39.5 
24.4 
7.2 
49.7 

88.5 
84.5 
97.0 
96.7 
93.6 
61.5 
43.9 
91.2 
'45.9 
69.3 
93.1 
88.3 
83.1 
86.2 
95.0 
96.7 
95.8 
97.3 
88.4 
98.4 
92.6 
98.7 
86.4 
50.7 
97.4 
60.5 
75.6 
92.8 
50.3 

$35.43 
42.34 
18.05 
15.81 
21.23 
74.07 
79.54 
24.06 
90.52 
60.32 
24.17 
31.40 
33.76 
31.68 
18.04 
13.72 
19.37 
14.60 
23.60 
15.16 
21.79 
12.76 
31.07 
70.60 
17.44 
61.41 
54.31 
29.65 
72.78 

Bohemian  and  Moravian 

Bulgarian,  Servian,  and  Montenegrin  

Croatian  and  Slovenian 

Dalmatian,  Bosnian,  and  Herzegovinian.. 
Dutch  and  Flemish  

English                               .                . 

Finnish 

French                 

German 

Greek 

Hebrew           

Irish 

Italian,  Sou  Ih             

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Polish               

Portuguese                                   

Russian                   

Ruthenian                        .           

Scotch                 

Slovak                             

Syrian             

Turkish                          

Welsh 

Total                 

4,136,016 

540,682 

3,595,334 

13.2 

'  86.9 

30.14 

The  difference  between  the  old  and  the  new  immigration  in  the 
matter  of  money  shown  on  admission  to  the  United  States  appears  in 
the  following  table : 

TABLE  20. — Money  shown  on  admission  to  the  United  States  by  European  immi- 
grants (including  Syrian),  by  class,  during  the  fiscal  years  1905  to  1909, 
inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.) 


Class. 

Total  num- 
ber showing 
money. 

Number  showing  — 

Per  cent  showing— 

Amount 
per 
capita  oi 
those 
showing 
money. 

$50  or 
over. 

Less  than 
$50. 

$50  or 
over. 

Less 
than 
$50. 

1,105,395 
3,030,621 

349.  854 
190,828 

755,  541 
2,839,793 

31.6 
6.3 

68.4 
93.7 

155.  a) 
20.99 

4,  136,  016 

540,682 

3,595,334 

13.1 

86.9 

30.14 

As  previously  suggested,  the  amounts  specified  in  the  above  tables 
do  not  represent  the  actual  amount  of  money  brought,  for  the  reason 
that  immigrants  having  $50  or  more  are  not  required  to  state  the 
exact  amount  in  their  possession.  It  will  be  noted,  however,  that  in 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


37 


the  case  of  southern  and  eastern  Europeans  only  6.3  per  cent  of  those 
showing  money  are  recorded  as  having  $50  or  more,  so  that  the  total 
amount  shoAyn  by  immigrants  of  this  general  class  is  undoubtedly  a 
close  approximation  to  the  total  amount  in  their  possession.  The  fact 
that  31.6  per  cent  of  the  older-class  immigrants  showing  money  were 
possessed  of  $50  or  more  makes  it  impossible  to  so  closely  estimate  the 
total  amount  brought  by  such  immigrants. 

The  above  tables  deal  only  with  the  number  of  persons  showing 
money,  and  exclude  those  showing  no  money  at  all,  which  class,  of 
course,  includes  children  and  other  dependents.  The  amount  of 
money  shown  by  all  European  immigrants  of  the  various  races,  com- 
pared with  the  total  number  of  such  immigrants  admitted  to  the 
United  States  during  the  period  considered,  is  indicated  by  the  fol- 
lowing table : 

TABLE  21. — Money  per  capita  shown  on  admission  to  the  United  States  by  Euro- 
pean immigrants  (including  Syrian},  by  race  or  people,  in  the  fiscal  years  1905 
to  1909,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Total  num- 
ber coming 

Total  num- 
ber show- 
ing money. 

Total  amount 
of  money 
brought. 

Amount  per  capita. 

Based  on 
total 
coming. 

Based  on 
those 
showing 
money. 

Armenian 

14,  569 
67,  194 
73,  582 
189,  097 
22,  271 
56,  172 
276,  626 
74,598 
74,  979 
468,  471 
143,  249 
700,014 
238,  619 
224,  329 
1,104,539 
100,  499 
227,327 
549,  732 
40,985 
60,477 
57,477 
92,  572 
302,  664 
98,066 
199,  326 
36,654 
29,367 
10,709 
13,  675 

10,347 
43,  555 
69,905 
170,  604 
20,  673 
33,  552 
193,  759 
63,  279 
49,928 
315,  332 
131,215 
310,552 
191,  341 
185,219 
880,  126 
80,  669 
181,010 
440,  764 
'27,477 
56,  313 
47,542 
82,  934 
242,  657 
.  69,335 
167,  934 
29,823 
20,634 
10.  076 
9,491 

$366,600 
1,844,035 
1,261,786 
2,  697,  273 
438,991 
2,  485,  099 
15,410,689 
1,522,759 
4,  519,  278 
19,019,661 
3,171,625 
9,751.679 
6,459,342 
5,867,237 
15,879,590 
1,106,393 
3,506,264 
6,433,483 
648,386 
853,  725 
1,035,847 
1,057,978 
7,538,958 
4,895,111 
2,929,044 
1,831,356 
1.  120,  570 
298,783 
690,778 

$25.  16 
27.44 
17.15 
14.26 
19.71 
44.24 
55.71 
20.41 
60.27 
40.60 
22.14 
13.93 
27.07 
26.15 
14.38 
11.01 
15.42 
11.70 
15.82 
14.12 
18.02 
11.43 
24,91 
49.92 
14.69 
49.96 
38.16 
27.90 
50.51 

$35.43 
42.34 
18.05 
15.81 
21.23 
74.07 
79.54 
24.06 
90.52 
60.32 
24.17 
31.40 
33.76 
31.68 
18.04 
13.72 
19.37 
14.60 
23.60 
15.16 
21.79 
12.76 
31.07 
70.60 
17.44 
61.41 
54.31 
29.65 
72.78 

Bohemian  and  Moravian  

Bulgarian,  Servian,  and  Montenegrin 

Croatian  and  Slovenian  °  

Dalmatian,  Bosnian,  and  Herzegovinian  
Dutch  and  Flemish 

English  

Finnish  

French 

German  . 

Greek  

Hebrew  . 

Irish  

Italian,  North  

Italian,  South 

Lithuanian  .... 

Magyar  

Polish. 

Portuguese 

Roumanian  

Russian  

Ruthenian  

Scandinavian  

Scotch  

Slovak  

Spanish  

Syrian 

Turkish... 

Welsh  

Total  

5,547,839 

4,136,016 

124,  642,  320 

22.47 

30.14 

38 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


The  amount  of  money  shown  per  capita  of  all  European  immi- 
grants included  in  the  preceding  table,  classified  according  to  the  old 
and  new  immigration,  is  indicated  in  the  following  table: 

TABLE  22. — Money  per  capita  shown  on  admission  to  the  United  States  by  Euro- 
pean immigrants  (including  Syrian),  ~by  class,  in  the  fiscal  years  1905  to  1909, 
inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Class. 

Total  num- 
ber coming. 

Total  num- 
ber showing 
money. 

Total  amount 
of  money 
shown. 

Amount  per  capita. 

Based  on 
total 
coming. 

Based  on 
total 
number 
showing 
money. 

Old  immigration  .... 

1,529,272 
4,018,567 

1,105,395 
3,030,621 

$61,018,916 
63,  623,  404 

S39.  90 
15.83 

$55.  20 
20.99 

New  immigration 

Total 

5,647,839 

4,136,016 

124,642,320 

22.47 

30.14 

According  to  the  Bureau  of  Immigration  records,  as  indicated  in 
the  above  tables,  the  average  amount  of  money  shown  by  all  Euro- 
pean immigrants  admitted  to  the  United,  States  during  the  six  fiscal 
years  ending  June  30,  1909.  was  $22.47.  The  race  showing  the 
greatest  amount  of  money  per  capita  was  the  French,  with  $60.27, 
and  the  Lithuanians  were  lowest,  with  $11.01  per  capita.  Among  the 
races  showing  the  largest  number  of  immigrants  and  the  smallest 
amount  of  money  per  capita  are  the  Polish,  549,732  immigrants,  with 
an  average  of  $11.70  each ;  Hebrew,  700,014  immigrants,  with  $13.93 
each;  and  South  Italian,  1,104,539  immigrants,  with  $14.38  each. 

As  in  other  matters  previously  discussed,  there  is  a  wide  difference 
between  the  olcl  and  new  immigration  in  the  matter  of  money  brought 
to  the  United  States,  the  former -showing  $39.90  per  capita,  or  two 
and  one-half  times  as  much  as  the  latter,  wrhich  was  only  $15.83  per 
capita.  The  aggregate  amount  of  money  shown  by  all  European 
immigrants  during  the  six  years  considered  was  $124,642.320;  the 
amount  accredited  to  southern  and  southeastern  Europeans  being 
$63,623,404,  which  is  less  than  the  amount  sent  by  immigrants  in 
the  United  States  to  either  Austria-Hungary  or  Italy  in  the  year 
1907.  The  total  amount  of  money  sent  to  European  countries  by 
immigrants  in  the  United  States  in  the  year  mentioned  is  conserva- 
tively estimated  at  $275,000.000.  or  more  than  twice  as  much  as  was 
brought  by  all  immigrants  from  Europe  in  six  years.0 


0  Immigrant  Banks.     Reports  of  the  Immigration  Commission,  vol.  37. 
Doc.  No.  753,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 


(S. 


CHAPTER  III. 


PERMANENT   AND    TEMPORARY   EMIGRATION. 

In  the  matter  of  stability  or  permanence  of  residence  in  the  United 
States  there  is  a  very  wide  difference  between  European  immigrants 
of  the  old  and  new  classes.  The  fact  that  under  the  immigration 
law  of  1907  °  a  detailed  record  is  kept  of  aliens  leaving  United 
States  ports  makes  possible  a  study  of  the  tendency  of  the  different 
races  or  peoples  to  leave  the  country  within  varying  periods  after 
arrival.  The  departure  of  aliens  from  the  United  States  can  not 
fairly  be  compared  with  arriving  immigrants  in  the  same  or  another 
year,  but  these  items  contrasted  indicate  clearly  the  races  or  peoples 
which,  in  the  main,  regard  this  country  as  a  permanent  home 'and 
those  which  to  a  large  extent  consider  it  only  as  a  field  for  remuner- 
ative labor  during  times  of  industrial  prosperity. 

The  fiscal  year  1906-7  being  one  of  unusual  industrial  activity 
was  marked  by  the  largest  immigration  in  the  history  of  the  coun- 
try, but  following  the  beginning  of  the  industrial  depression*  in 
October  of  the  fiscal  year  1907-8  there  was  a  sudden  reversal  in  the 
tide,  and  during  the  remainder  of  that  year  there  was  a  great  exodus 
of  European  aliens.  The  participation  of  the  various  European 
races  or  peoples  in  the  unprecedented  immigration  of  1907  and  in 
the  exodus  during  1908  is  shown  by  the  following  table : 

TABLE  23. — European  immigrants  (including  Syrian)  admitted  to  the  United 
States  during  the  fiscal  year  1907,  and  European  emigrant  aliens  (including 
Syrian)  departing  from  the  United  States  during  the  fiscal  year  1908,  by  race 
or  people. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Immigrants  admitted, 
1907. 

Emigrant  aliens  de- 
parting, 1908. 

Number. 

Per  cent 
of  total. 

Number. 

Per  cent 
of  total. 

Armenian                                            

2,644 
13,554 
27,  174 

47,826 
7,393 
12,467 
51,  126 
14,  860 
9,392 
92,936 
46,283 
149,  182 

0.2 
1.1 
2.2 
3.9 
.6 
1.0 
4.1 
1.2 
.8 
7.5 
3.7 
12.1 
3.1 
4.2 
19.6 
2.1 
4.9 

234 
1,051 
5,965 
28,584 
1,046 
1,198 
5,320 
3,463 
3,063 
14,418 
6,766 
7,702 
2,441 
19,507 
147,828 
3,388 
29,276 

0.1 
.3 
1.6 
7.5 
.3 
.3 
1.4 
.9 
.8 
3.8 
1.8 
2.0 
.6 
5.1 
38.8 
.9 
7.7 

Croatian  and  Slovenian                           

English                                                    

Finnish                                                          

Greek                                                        

Hebrew  

Irish  

51,564 
242,  497 
25,884 
60,071 

Italian   South                                          

Lithuanian  ,  

Magyar  

a  Section  12,  immigration  act  of  February  20,  1907. 


79524°— VOL 


39 


40 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  23. — European  immigrants    (including  Syrian)    admitted  to  the  United 
States  during  the  fiscal  year  1907,  etc. — Continued. 


Race  or  people. 

Immigrants  admitted, 
1907. 

Immigrant  aliens  de- 
parting, 1908. 

Number. 

Per  cent 
of  total. 

Number. 

Per  cent 
of  total. 

Polish    

138,  033 
9,648 
19,  200 
16,  807 
24,081 
53,425 
20.616 
42,041 
9,495 
5,880 
1,902 
2,754 

11.2 

.8 
1.6 
1.4 
2.0 
4.3 
1.7 
3.4 
.8 
.5 
.2 
.2 

46,  727 
898 
5,264 
7,507 
3,310 
5,801 
1.596 
23^573 
1,977 
1,700 
1,276 
163 

12.3 
.2 
1.4 
2.0 
.9 
1.5 
.4 
6.2 
.5 
.5 
.3 
.0 

Portuguese 

Roumanian  

Russian 

Ruthenian  

Scandinavian 

Scotch 

Slovak  

Spanish 

Syrian  

Turkish 

Welsh  

Total  •  

1,237,341 

100.0 

381,044 

100.0 

The  radical  difference  between  the  old  and  new  immigration  with 
regard  to  stability  of  residence  during  a  period  of  depression  is  more 
clearly  shown  by  the  following  table : 

TABLE  24. — European  immigrants  (including  Syrian)  admitted  to  the  United 
States  during  the  fiscal  year  1907,  and  European  emigrant  aliens  (including 
Syrian)  departing  from  the  United  States  during  the  fiscal  year  1908,  by  class 
of  immigration. 


Class. 

Immigrants  admitted, 
1907. 

Emigrant  aliens  de- 
parting, 1908. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Old  immigration 

281,322 
956,019 

22.7 
77.3 

34,000 
347,  044 

8.9 
91.1 

New  immigration  

Total 

1,237,341 

100.0 

381,044 

100.0 

The  one  conclusion  to  be  drawn  from  the  record  of  departures  from 
the  United  States,  as  shown  by  the  above  table,  is  that  as  a  whole 
the  races  or  peoples  composing  the  old  immigration  are  essentially 
permanent  settlers,  and  that  a  large  proportion  of  the  newer  immi- 
grants are  simply  transients  whose  interest  in  the  country  is  meas- 
ured by  the  opportunity  afforded  for  labor. 

Conspicuous  among  the  newer  immigrants  as  exceptions  to  this 
rule  are  the  Hebrews,  who  formed  more  than  12  per  cent  of  the  Euro- 
pean immigration  in  1907  arid  only  slightly  more  than  2  per  cent  of 
the  exodus  in  1908,  indicating  a  degree  of  permanency  not  reached 
by  any  other  race  or  people  in  either  class. 

The  races  or  peoples  conspicuous  as  showing  the  smallest  degree 
of  permanency  are  the  Croatians  and  Slovenians,  South  Italians, 
Slovaks,  and  Turkish. 

In  both  the  old  and  new  classes  the  exodus  of  1908  was  composed 
largely  of  recent  immigrants,  about  To  per  cent  of  the  former  and 
83  per  cent  of  the  latter  having  resided  in  the  United  States  con- 
tinuously five  years  or  less. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


41 


EXTENT    AND    CHARACTER   OF    THE   RETURN    MOVEMENT. 

From  available  data  it  appears  that  at  least  one-third  of  all  Euro- 
pean immigrants  who  come  to  the  United  States  eventually  return  to 
Europe.  It  seems  to  be  a  common  belief  that  this  outward  movement 
is  largely  composed  of  persons  who  follow  seasonal  occupations  in  the 
United  States  and  who  consequently  come  and  go  according  to  the 
seasonal  demands  for  labor.  Such  is  not  the  case,  however,  for  as 
nearly  as  can  be  judged  from  existing  data  a  very  large  proportion 
of  those  who  return  to  Europe  do  not  come  again  to  this  country. 
Prior  to  the  fiscal  year  1908  data  respecting  the  number  of  outgoing 
aliens  were  not  secured  bj  the  immigration  authorities.  Owing  to  a 
provision  of  the  immigration  law  of  1907  such  -data  are  now  available 
for  the  three  fiscal  years,  1908  to  1910,  and  in  the  table  following 
the  number  of  European  emigrant  aliens  are.  shown  in  comparison 
with  immigration  from  Europe  for  the  same  years. 

TABLE  25. — European  immigrants  (including  Syrian)  admitted  to  the  United 
States,  who  gave  Europe  or  Turkey  in  Asia  as  their  last  permanent  residence, 
and  European  emigrant  aliens  (including  Syrian)  departing  from  the  United 
States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  l)y  race  or  people. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Immigrant 
aliens 
admitted. 

Emigrant 
aliens 
departed. 

Number 
depart- 
ing for 
every  100 
admitted. 

Armenian                                                                                         

11,440 

1  240 

u 

Bohemian  and  Moravian 

25  188 

2  653 

Bulgarian,  Servian,  and  Montenegrin  

37,  286 

10,  759 

29 

Croatian  and  Slovenian                                                         

78,658 

44  316 

56 

Dalmatian  Bosnian  and  Herzegovinian 

10  331 

1  990 

19 

Dutch  and  Flemish 

29  004 

2  845 

10 

English  

101,611 

11,152 

11 

Finnish                                                                                             .  .  . 

32,  752 

5  197 

16 

French 

21  298 

9  112 

43 

German  

192,  644 

35,823 

19 

Greek.                                                                          

86,  257 

21,  196 

25 

Hebrew 

236,  100 

18,  543 

g 

Irish... 

93,  090 

5,728 

6 

Italian,  North  

77,661 

47,870 

62 

Italian  South                                                                                 

457,  414 

255,188 

56 

Lithuanian 

51,129 

7,185 

14 

Magyar 

78  Q01 

50  597 

64 

pohsh  ::;::::::;::::: 

269,  646 

82,  080 

30 

Portuguese 

18,  426 

2,436 

13 

Roumanian 

30,  949 

8,275 

27 

Russian.                                                          

41,578 

15,  924 

38 

Ruthenian                                                                              

55,  106 

6,681 

12 

Scandinavian 

113,  786 

11,  193 

10 

Scotch  

42,  737 

3,417 

8 

Slovak  

70,  717 

41,383 

59 

Spanish                                                                               

10,  299 

3,646 

35 

Svrian 

13,507 

3,584 

27 

Turkish... 

4,261 

2.949 

69 

Welsh.  .                                                                

5,562 

394 

7 

Total                                                                        

2,  297,  338 

713,  356 

32 

The  Immigration  Commission. 


The  foregoing  data,  classified  according  to  the  old  and  new  immi- 
gration, are  as  follows : 

TABLE  26. — European  immigrants  (including  Syrian)  admitted  to  the  United 
States,  and  European  emigrant  aliens  (including  Syrian)  departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  by  class. 


Class. 

Immigrant 
aliens 
admitted. 

Emigrant 
aliens 
.departed. 

Number 
depart- 
ing for 
every  100 

admitted. 

Old  immigration 

599,  732 

79,664 

13 

New  immigration  

1,  697,  606 

633,692 

37 

Total 

2,  297,  338 

713,  356 

32 

It  will  be  noted  that  for  every  100  European  immigrants  admitted 
to  the  United  States  during  the  period  32  departed  from  the  country. 
There  is  a  striking  preponderance  of  southern  and  eastern  Europeans 
in  the  outward  movement,  and  their  relative  lack  of  stability  of  resi- 
dence as  compared  with  the  older  immigrant  classes  is  clearly  shown 
by  the  fact  that  of  the  former  37  departed  for  every  100  admitted, 
while  among  the  latter  the  proportion  was  only  13  departed  to  100 
admitted. 

THIRD-CLASS  PASSENGER  MOVEMENT,   1899-1909. 

While  the  above  tables  cover  comparatively  a  short  period  of  time 
and  include  at  least  one  year  when  the  outward  movement  was  abnor- 
mally large,  they,  nevertheless,  seem  to  indicate,  on  the  whole,  about 
the  normal  status  of  the  inward  and  outward  movement  of  Europeans 
in  recent  years.  This  belief  is  substantiated  by  the  steamship  com- 
panies' records  of  west  and  east  bound  steerage  passengers  between 
European  and  United  States  ports  during  the  years  1899  to  1909, 
which  data  are  shown  in  the  following  table : 

TABLE  27. — Movement  of  third-class  passengers  between  the  United  States  and 
European  ports  during  the  calendar  years  1899  to  1909,  inclusive,  by  years.  • 

[From  reports  of  the  Trans- Atlantic  Passenger  Association.] 


Year. 

British  ports. 

North  continental  ports. 

West- 
bound pas- 
sengers 
from. 

East-bound 
passengers 
to. 

Per  cent 
of  excess 
of  west 
bound.a 

West- 
bound pas- 
sengers 
from. 

East-bound 
passengers 
to. 

Per  cent 
of  excess 
of  west 
bound.o 

Igqq                           

115,818 
153,352 
148,  706 
211,121 
255,  475 
289,  144 
273,  634 
351,086 
397,  247 
164,  742 
244,  647 

50.740 
59,504 
52,  439 
58,  307 
78,  649 
124,  707 
76,  955 
94,  262 
136,  963 
179,  138 
101,075 

39.1 
44.1 
47.9 
56.7 
52.9 
39.7 
56.1 
57.7 
48.7 
64.2 
41.5 

188.  096 
249,  687 
269,  567 
359,  740 
421,928 
330,  298 
483,  704 
568,  736 
664,  633 
185,  483 
433,  860 

44,  661 
68.  019 
60,074 
73,842 
87,111 
96,564 
75,034 
120,  264 
213,  551 
223,  701 
96..  416 

61.6 
57.2 
63.6 
65.9 
65.8 
54.8 
73.1 
65.1 
51.4 
69.3 
63.6 

1900       

1901               

1902                       

1903                           

1904        

1905            :  

1906                       

1907                              

1908          

1909  

Total         

2,604,972 

1,012,739 

44.0 

4,155,732 

1,159,237 

56.4 

a  Per  cents  were  figured  on  the  following  basis:  West  +  east  =  divisor;  west  — east  =  dividend. 
&  Eastbound  traffic  in  excess. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


43 


TABLE  27. — Movement  of  third-class  passengers  between  the  United  States  and 
European  ports  during  the  calendar  years  1899  to  1909,  etc. — Continued. 


Year. 

Mediterranean  ports. 

All  ports. 

West- 
bound pas- 
sengers 
from. 

East-bound 
passengers 
to. 

Per  cent 
of  excess 
of  west 
bound.  o 

West- 
bound pas- 
sengers 
from. 

East-bound 
passengers 
to. 

Per  cent 
of  excess 
of  west 
bound.* 

1899                              

76,678 
99,886 
126,  667 
182,034 
209,  970 
142,915 
246,  587 
303,259 
316,170 
69,  325 
271,159 

22,  068 
28,014 
28,450 
44,809 
86,  152 
149,878 
91,450 
123,  550 
204,664 
254,  340 
89,200 

55.3 

56.2 
63.3 
60.5 
41.8 
62.4 
45.9 
42.1 
21.4 
657.2 
50.5 

380,  592 
502,925 
544,  940 
752,895 
887,  373 
762,  357 
1,003,925 
1,223,081 
1,  378,  050 
419,  550 
749,  666 

117,  469 
155,  537 
140,  993 
176,958 
251,912 
371,149 
243,439 
338,076 
555,  178 
657,  179 
286,  691 

52.8 
52.8 
58.9 
61.9 
55.8 
34.5 
61.0 
56.7 
42.6 
622.1 
44.7 

1900               .                  

1901 

1902      

1903 

1904 

1905  

1906                                     .   . 

1907 

190S  

1909                                     .   . 

Total 

2,  044,  650 

1,  122,  605 

29.1 

8,805,354 

3,  294,  581 

45.5 

a  Per  cents  were  figured  on  the  following  basis:  West-t-  east=  divisor,  west= 
6  Eastbound  traffic  in  excess. 


east—  dividend. 


The  following  table  presents  the  same  data  in  a  somewhat  different 
form: 

TABLE  28. — Movement  of  third-class  passengers  between  the  United  States  and 
European  ports  during  the  period  1899  to  1909,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  Trans- Atlantic  Passenger  Association.] 


Ports. 

Number  of  passengers. 

Number 
arriving 
for  every 
100  leaving. 

Leaving 
for 
United 
States 
ports. 

Arriving 
from 
United 
States 
ports. 

British  ports                            

2,604,972 
4,  155,  732 
2,  044,  605 

1,012,739 
1,159,237 
1,122,605 

39 
28 
55 

Total                                       

8,805,354 

3,294,581 

37 

These  figures  are  not  entirely  comparable  with  the  Bureau  of  Im- 
migration statistics  previously  shown  because  the  latter  include  only 
immigrant  and  emigrant  aliens,  while  the  steamship  association  data 
are  based  on  steerage  passengers  of  all  classes.  Moreover,  the  bureau 
figures  include  all  immigrants  regardless  of  the  class  of  transporta- 
tion. However,  the  fact  that  nearly  all  immigrants  travel  in  the 
steerage,  and  that  relatively  few  besides  immigrants  do  so  makes  it 
entirely  safe  to  employ  the  figures  last  presented  for  the  purpose  of 
approximating  the  extent  of  the  inward  and  outward  movement 
under  discussion. 

By  comparing  the  bureau  and  steamship  data  it  will  be  seen  that 

Hthe  former,  covering  a  longer  period  of  time,  show  the  largest  relative 
outward  movement,  and  indicate  that  the  tendency  of  European  im- 
migrants to  leave  the  United  States  in  large  numbers  is  not  peculiar 
to  the  three  years  previously  mentioned.  The  above  data  are  further 
substantiated  by  official  Italian  statistics,  which  show  that  from  1887 
to  1907,  2,231,961  Italians  departed  in  the  steerage  from  ports  of  that 


44 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


country  for  United  States  ports  while  during  the  same  period  972,695 
returned  in  the  steerage  from  the  United  States.0 

The  cause  of  the  large  outward  movement,  and  especially  that  part 
which  apparently  leaves  the  United  States  permanently,  can  only  be 
conjectured.  That  it  is  not  due  to  lack  of  opportunity  for  employ- 
ment, except  in  a  period  of  depression,  is  evident  from  the  fact  that 
there  is  a  steady  influx  of  European  laborers  who  have  little  or  no 
difficulty  in  finding  employment  here.  It  seems  reasonable  to  sup- 
pose that  the  movement  is  due  to  various  causes,  including  dissatis- 
faction, ill  health,  the  desire  to  rejoin  family  and  friends,  and  the 
fulfillment  of  an  ambition  to  possess  a  sufficient  amount  of  money 
to  make  life  at  home  less  of  a  struggle. 

SEX  AND  AGE  OF  EMIGRANT  ALIENS. 

The  following  table  shows  the  sex  and  age  of  European  aliens  leav- 
ing the  United  States  during  the  three  fiscal  years  ending  June  30, 
1910: 

TABLE  29. — European  emigrant  aliens  (including  Syrian)  departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  by  race  or  people, 
sex,  and  age. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Num- 
ber re- 
porting. 

Sex. 

Age. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Male. 

Fe- 
male. 

Male. 

Fe- 
male. 

Under 
14 
years. 

14  to 

44 
years. 

45 
years 
or 
over. 

Under 
14 
years. 

14  to 

44 
years. 

45 
years 
or 
over. 

Armenian 

1,296 
2,693 
10,  997 
44,  703 

1,993 
3,117 
15,  628 
5,796 
9,729 
37,  837 
21,500 
19,250 
6,491 
49,060 
257,  283 
7,190 
50,918 
82,530 
2,619 
8,345 
17,301 
6,  685 
13,  939 
4,491 
41,693 
6,094 
3,918 
3,032 
460 

1,203 
1,805 
10,  684 
35,  637 

1,886 
2,286 
9,991 
4,550 
5,808 
24,  422 
20,  805 
14,  348 
3,195 
42,  939 
230,077 
5,  736 
40,470 
65,  795 
1,787 
7,739 
14,  555 
5,660 
9,  352 
2,922 
33,613 
5,192 
3,  113 
2,911 
315 

93 
888 
313 
9,066 

107 
831 
5,  637 
1,246 
3,  921 
13,415 
695 
4,902 
3,296 
6,  121 
27,206 
1,454 
10,448 
16,  735 
832 
606 
2,  746 
1  025 
4,587 
1,569 
8,080 
902 
805 
121 
145 

92.8 
67.0 
97.2 
79.7 

94.6 
73.3 
63.9 
78.5 
59.7 
64.5 
96.8 
74.5 
49.2 
87.5 
89.4 
79.8 
79.5 
79.7 
68.2 
92.7 
84.1 
84.7 
67.1 
65.1 
80.6 
85.2 
79.5 
96.0 
68.5 

7.2 
33.0 

2.8 
20.3 

5.4 
26.7 
36.1 
21.5 
40.3 
35.5 
3.2 
25.5 
50.8 
12.5 
10.6 
20  2 
20!  5 
20.3 
31.8 
7.3 
15.  9 
15.3 
32.9 
34.9 
19.4 
14.8 
20.5 
4.0 
31.5 

35 
162 

77 
990 

45 
272 
1,487 
357 
523 
2,329 
270 
1,416 
275 
2,031 
10,  978 
357 
1,928 
3,397 
208 
85 
762 
120 
758 
440 
1,373 
367 
147 
31 
34 

1,077 
2,215 
10,266 
40,445 

1,784 
2,481 
11,811 
5,005 
7,814 
30,  996 
19,571 
15,800 
5,  292 
43,219 
222,408 
6,238 
44,  544 
72,  755 
1,964 
7,547 
15,212 
6,056 
11,628 
3,503 
36,809 
5,110 
3,353 
2,800 
346 

184 
316 
654 
3,  268 

.     164 
364 
2,330 
434 
1,392 
4,512 
1,659 
2,034 
924 
3,810 
23,  S97 
595 
4,446 
6,378 
447 
713 
1,327 
509 
1,553 
548 
3,511 
617 
418 
201 
80 

2.7 
6.0 
.7 
2.2 

2.3 
8.7 
9.5 
6.2 
5.4 
6.2 
1.3 
7.4 
4.2 
4.1 
4.3 
5.0 
3.8 
4.1 
7.9 
1.0 
4.4 
1.8 
5.4 
9.8 
3.3 
6.0 
3.8 
1.0 
7.4 

83.1 
82.3 
93.4 
90.5 

89.5 
79.6 
75.6 
86.4 
80.3 
81.9 
91.0 
82.1 
81.5 
88.1 
86.4 
86.8 
87.5 
8S.2 
75.0 
90.4 
87.9 
CO.  6 
83.4 
78.0 
88.3 
83.9 
85.6 
92.3 
75.2 

14.2 
11.7 
5.9 
7.3 

8  2 
11.7 
14.9 
7.5 
14.3 
11.9 
7.7 
10.6 
14.2 
7.8 
9.3 
8.3 
8.7 
7.7 
17.1 
8.5 
7.7 
7.6 
11.1 
12  2 
8.4 
10.1 
10.7 
6.6 
17.4 

Bohemian  and  Mo- 
ravian   
Bulgarian,  Servian, 
and  Montenegrin. 
Croatian  and  Slove- 
nian 

Dalmatian,       Bos- 
nian, and  Herze- 
govinian 

Dutch  and  Flemish. 
English   

Finnish 

French 

German.  

Greek 

Hebrew 

Irish              

Italian.  North  
Italian,  South  
Lithuanian  

Magyar 

Polish 

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian  

Scandinavian   

Scotch 

Slovak  

Spanish  

Syrian 

Turkish  
Welsh  

Total  

736,588 

608,  796 

127,  792 

82.7 

17.3 

31,254 

638,049 

67,285 

4.2 

86.6 

9.1 

o  See  p.  229. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


45 


The  preceding  table  with  the  various  races  or  peoples  classified  ac- 
cording to  the  old  and  new  immigration  previously  described  is  as 
follows : 

TABLE  30. — European  emigrant  aliens  (including  Syrian)  departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  by  class,  sex, 
and  age. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Class. 

Num- 
ber re- 
porting. 

Sex. 

Age. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Number. 

Fer  cent. 

Male. 

Female. 

Male. 

Fe- 
male. 

Under 
14 
years. 

14  to  44 
years. 

45  years 
or  over. 

Under 
14 
years. 

14  to 

44 
years. 

45 
years 
or 
over. 

Old  immigration.  .  . 
New  immigration.. 

Total 

91,692 
644,896 

58,291 
550,  505 

33,  401 
94,  391 

63.6 
85.4 

36.4 
14.6 

6,118 
25,  136 

73,871 
564,  178 

11,703 
55,582 

6.7 
3.9 

80.6 

87.5 

12.8 
8.6 

736,588 

608,796 

127,  792 

82.7 

17.3 

31,254 

638,049 

67,  285 

4.2 

86.6 

9.1 

The  tables  show  a  striking  predominance  of  males  in  the  movement 
from  the  United  States  to  Europe,  82.7  per  cent  of  all  departing 
aliens  and  85.4  of  the  southern  and  eastern  Europeans  being  of  that 
sex.  The  fact  that  86.6  of  all  departing  aliens  were  from  14  to  44 
years  of  age  indicates  that  the  outward  movement  is  largely  composed 
of  persons  in  the  prime  of  life. 

LENGTH   OF   RESIDENCE   IN   THE   UNITED   STATES. 

The  table  next  presented  shows  the  length  of  residence  in  the 
United  States  of  European  aliens  who  left  the  country  during  the 
fiscal  years  1908  to  1910. 


46 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  31. — European  emigrant  aliens  (including  Syrian)  departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  by  race  or  people 
and  period  of  residence  in  the  United  States. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Un- 
known. 

Not 
overs 
years. 

5  to 
10 
years. 

10  to 
15 

years. 

15  to 

20 
years. 

Over 
20 

years 

Un- 
known. 

Not 
overs 
years. 

5  to 
10 

years. 

10  to 
15 
years. 

15  to 
20 
years. 

Over 
20 
years. 

Armenian 

15 
23 
190 

288 

808 
2,150 
10,114 
36,585 

1,  652 
2,380 
11,567 
3,693 
6,581 
29,  146 
18,006 
16,  413 
3,936 
37,  579 
212,  584 
5,942 
43,  924 
71,247 
1,889 
7,815 
14,  223 
5,812 
8,276 
3,201 
34,681 
5,001 
2,584 
2,642 
328 

368 
431 
656 
7,285 

308 
402 
1,502 
1,281 
1,903 
5,  402 
3,  051 
2,102 
1,306 
9,  135 
38,  488 
1,070 
6,119 
9,536 
562 
464 
1,633 
750 
2,436 
353 
5,858 
697 
1,072 
315 
41 

67 
34 
22 
310 

13 
69 
371 
151 
361 
699 
179 
178 
298 
923 
2,  846 
104 
367 
808 
60 
11 
173 
77 
353 
71 
478 
254 
133 
32 
9 

36 
35 
9 
157 

11 

35 
231 
76 
340 
653 
60 
101 
212 
500 
1,441 
57 
168 
438 
51 
1 
81 
29 
285 
37 
273 
41 
45 
12 
12 

2 

20 
6 

78 

9 
40 
219 
45 
345 
644 
20 
52 
261 
262 
599 
17 
56 
131 
57 
6 
38 
13 
191 
59 
117 
39 
12 
5 
12 

1.2 
.9 
1.7 
.6 

.0 
6.1 
11.1 
9.5 
2.0 
3.4 
.9 
2.1 
7.4 
1.3 
.5 
.0 
.6 
.4 
.0 
.6 
6.7 
.1 
17.2 
17.1 
.7 
1.0 
1.8 
.9 
12.6 

62.3 
79.8 
92.0 
81.8 

82.9 
76.4 
74.0 
63.7 
67.6 
77.0 
83.7 
85.3 
60.6 
76.6 
82.6 
82.6 
86.3 
86.3 
72.1 
93.6 
82.2 
86.9 
59.4 
71.3 
83.2 
82.1 
66.0 
87.1 
71.3 

28.4 
16.0 
6.0 
16.3 

15.5 
12.9 
9.6 
22.1 
19.6 
14.3 
14.2 
10.9 
20.1 
18.6 
15.0 
14.9 
12.0 
11.6 
21.5 
5.6 
9.4 
11.2 
17.5 
7.9 
14.1 
11.4 
27.4 
10.4 
8.9 

5.2 
1.3 
.2 

.7 

.7 
2.2 
2.4 
2.6 
3.7 
1.8 
.8 
.9 
4.6 
1.9 
1.1 
1.4 
.7 
1.0 
2.3 
.1 
1.0 
1.2 
2.5 
1.6 
1.1 
4.2 
3.*4 
1.1 
2.0 

2.8 
1.3 
.1 

.4 

.6 
1.1 
1.5 
1.3 
3.5 
1.7 
.3 
.5 
3.3 
1.8 
.6 
.8 
.3 
.5 
1.9 
(a) 
.5 
.4 
2.0 
.8 
.7 
.7 
1.1 
.4 
2.6 

0.2 
.7 
.1 
.2 

.5 
1.3 
1.4 
.8 
3.5 
1.7 
.1 
.3 
4.0 
.5 
.2 
.2 
.1 
.2 
2.2 
.1 
.2 
.2 
1.4 
1.3 
.3 
.6 
.3 
.2 
2.6 

Bohemian  and  Mo- 
ravian 

Bulgarian,  Servian, 
and  Montenegrin. 
Croat!  an  and  Slove- 
nian   

Dalmatian,      Bos- 
nian, and  Herze- 
govinian 

Dutch  and  Flemish. 
English  

191 
1,738 
550 
199 
1,293 
184 
404 
478 
661 
1,325 

Finnish 

French 

German   

Greek 

Hebrew  

Irish. 

Italian  North 

Italian,  South  
Lithuanian 

Magyar 

284 
370 

Polish     

Portuguese 

Roumanian  

48 
1,153 
4 
2,398 
770 
286 
62 
72 
26 
58 

Russian       

Ruthenian  
Scandinavian  

Scotch     

Slovak 

Spanish  

Syrian     .... 

Turkish 

Welsh  

Total 

13,070 

600,759 

104,526 

9,451 

5,427 

3,355 

1.8 

81.6 

14.2 

1.3 

.7 

.5 

o  Less  than  0.05  per  cent. 

The  preceding  table  with  the  various  races  or  peoples  classified 
according  to  the  old  and  new  immigration  is  as  follows : 

TABLE  32. — European  emigrant  aliens  (including  Syrian)  departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  by  class  and  period 
of  residence  in  the  United  States. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Class. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Un- 
known 

Not 
over  5 
years. 

5  to  10 

years. 

10  to 
15 

years. 

15  to 

20 
years. 

Over 

20 
years. 

Un- 
known 

Not 
over 
5 
years. 

5  to 
10 

years. 

10  to 
15 
years. 

15  to 
20 
years. 

Over 
20 
years. 

Old  immigration  .  .' 
New  immigration  . 

Total 

7,125 
5,945 

65,415 
535,344 

13,345 
91,  181 

2,  231 
7,220 

1,805 
3,622 

1,771 
1,584 

7.8 
.9 

71.3 

83.0 

14.6 
14.1 

2.4 
1.1 

2.0 
.6 

1.9 
.2 

13,  070 

600,759 

104,  526 

9,451 

5,427 

3,355 

1.8 

81.6 

14.2 

1.3 

.7 

.1 

Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


47 


OCCUPATIONS    OF   EMIGRANT   ALIENS. 

The  occupational  status  of  European  aliens  departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  three  years  under  consideration  is  shown  by 
the  following  table : 

TABLE  33. — European  emigrant  aliens  (including  Syrian}  departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  by  race  or  people 
and  occupation. 

[Compiled  frem  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner- General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Number  reporting. 

Profes- 
sional. 

Skilled. 

Farm 
labor- 
ers. 

Farm- 
ers. 

Com- 
mon 
labor- 
ers. 

Serv- 
ants. 

No 
occupa- 
tion. 

Miscel- 
lane- 
ous. 

Total. 

Armenian. 

17 
31 

12 
42 

3 
134 
1,138 
18 
887 
1,486 
40 
231 
171 
453 
500 
10 
114 
92 
14 
11 
116 
5 
376 
164 
37 
239 
23 
19 
20 

201 
460 

631 
7,821 

198 
586 
3,783 
1,253 
1,959 
5,912 
906 
6>385 
972 
8,916 
11,796 
677 
4,087 
•  5,491 
372 
290 
1,892 
609 
3,012 
1,472 
4,545 
2,124 
274 
307 
139 

26 
5 

79 
808 

43 
21 
28 
9 
120 
107 
157 
2 
12 
2,252 
1,402 
7 
100 
86 
6 
24 
39 
11 
53 
7 
7(5 
39 
30 
25 

9 
89 

180 

887 

36 
136 
323 
168 
216 
1,335 
87 
64 
114 
476 
905 
35 
867 
706 
111 
194 
242 
64 
655 
49 
940 
147 
46 
39 
11 

832 
1,117 

9,518 
30,  169 

1,493 
953 
1,497 
2,375 
1,442 
11,671 
18,073 
4,875 
1,255 
28,331 
207,505 
4,834 
34,323 
58,  178 
1,055 
7,084 
10,711 
4,911 
2,759 
345 
27,204 
1,246 
1,660 
2,314 
59 

31 

256 

65 
792 

24 
118 
1,035 
321 
1,073 
3,867 
178 
910 
1,921 
1,180 
4,905 
161 
2,687 
2,969 
290 
137 
444 
235 
1,885 
272 
1,821 
162 
110 
32 
30 

86 
676 

253 
3,546 

147 
834 
4,921 
1,039 
2,833 
10,  138 
830 
3,899 
1,275 
5,633 
26,839 
1,391 
8,070 
14,044 
601 
482 
2,229 
806 
2,391 
1,202 
6,487 
1,066 
660 
119 
121 

79 
36 

69 
350 

49 
144 
1,165 
63 
1,000 
2,028 
1,045 
2,480 
293 
1,158 
2,106 
75 
386 
594 
170 
75 
475 
40 
41'0 
210 
297 
1,009 
1,043 
151 
22 

1,281 
2,670 

10,807 
44,415 

1,993 
2,926 
13,890 
5,246 
9,530 
36,544 
21,316 
18,846 
6,013 
48,  399 
255,  958 
7,190 
50,634 
82,160 
2,619 
8,297 
16,  148 
6,681 
11,541 
3,721 
41,407 
6,032 
3,846 
3,006 
402 

Bohemian  and  Moravian  
Bulgarian,      Servian,      and 
Montenegrin 

Croatian  and  Slovenian  

Dalmatian,     Bosnian,     and 
Herzegovinian 

Dutch  and  Flemish  

English  

Finnish     ... 

French 

German  

Greek 

Hebrew... 

Irish.   .... 

Italian,  North 

Italian,  South  

Lithuanian 

Magyar 

Polish  

Portuguese  . 

Roumanian 

Russian  

Ruthenian  ...                 t 

Scandinavian 

Scot-ch  

Slovak  

Spanish 

Syrian  

Turkish... 

Welsh. 

Total  

6,403 

77,070 

5,574 

9,131 

477,789 

27,911 

102,  618 

17,022 

723.51S 

48 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  33. — European  emigrant  aliens   (including  Syrian)    departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  etc. — Continued. 


Per  cent. 


Race  or  people. 

Profes- 
sional. 

Skilled. 

Farm 
labor- 
ers. 

Farm- 
ers. 

Com- 
mon 
labor- 
ers. 

Serv- 
ants. 

No 
occupa- 
tion. 

Miscel- 
lane- 
ous. 

Total. 

Armenian  

1.3 

15  7 

2  0 

0  7 

64.9 

2.4 

6.7 

6.2 

100.0 

Bohemian  and  Moravian  
Bulgarian,      Servian,      and 
Montenegrin  

1.2 
.1 

17.2 
5  8 

.2 
.7 

3.3 

1  7 

41.8 
88.1 

9.6 
.6 

25.3 
2.3 

1.3 

.6 

100.0 
100.0 

Croatian  and  Slovenian  
Dalmatian,     Bosnian,     and 
Herzegovinian 

.1 
.2 

17.6 
9  9 

1.8 
2  2 

2.0 

1  8 

67.9 
74.9 

1.8 
1.2 

8.0 
7.4 

.8 
2.5 

100.0 
100.0 

Dutch  and  Flemish 

4  6 

20  0 

7 

4  § 

32  6 

4  0 

28  5 

4  9 

100  0 

English 

8  2 

27  2 

2 

2  3 

10  8 

7  5 

35  4 

8  4 

100  0 

Finnish  

.3 

23  9 

2 

3  2 

45  3 

6.1 

19.8 

1  2 

100  0 

French        .  . 

9  3 

20  6 

1  3 

2  3 

15  1 

11  3 

29  7 

10  5 

100  0 

Gerrian 

4  1 

16  2 

3 

3  7 

31  9 

10  6 

27  7 

5  5 

100  0 

Greek  

.2 

4  3 

7 

4 

84  8 

g 

3.9 

4  9 

100  0 

Hebrew  . 

1  2 

33  9 

(a) 

3 

25  9 

4  8 

20  7 

13  2 

100  0 

Irish  

2.8 

16  2 

(  \1 

1.9 

20.9 

31.9 

21.2 

4.9 

100.0 

Italian,  North  .  . 

9 

18  4 

4  7 

1  0 

58  5 

2  4 

11  6 

2  4 

100  0 

Italian,  South 

2 

4  6 

5 

4 

81  1 

1  9 

10  5 

g 

100  0 

Lithuanian  

.1 

9  4 

.1 

.5 

67.2 

2.2 

19.3 

1  0 

100  0 

Magyar  

2 

8  1 

2 

1  7 

67  8 

5  3 

15  9 

g 

100  0 

Polish 

1 

6  7 

1 

g 

70  8 

3  6 

17  1 

7 

100  0 

Portuguese  

.5 

14  2 

.2 

4.2 

40  3 

11.1 

22  9 

'5  5 

100  0 

Roumanian 

.  i 

3  5 

3 

2  3 

85  4 

1  7 

5  8 

9 

100  0 

Russian  

.7 

11.7 

.2 

1.5 

66.3 

2.7 

13.8 

2  9 

100  0 

Ruthenian  

.1 

9  1 

.2 

1.0 

73  5 

3  5 

12  1 

6 

100  0 

Scandinavian 

3  3 

26  1 

5 

5  7 

23  9 

16  3 

20  7 

3  6 

100  0 

Scotch 

4  4 

39  6 

2 

1  3 

9  3 

7  3 

32  3 

5  6 

100  0 

Slovak  

.1 

11  0 

.2 

2  3 

65  7 

4  4 

15  7 

7 

100  0 

Spanish     . 

4  0 

35  2 

6 

2  4 

20  7 

2  7* 

17  7 

16  7 

100  0 

Syrian 

6 

7  1 

g 

1  2 

43  2 

2  9 

17  2 

27  1 

100  0 

Turkish... 

.6 

10  2 

.8 

1.3 

77  0 

1  i 

4  0 

5  0 

100  0 

Welsh 

5  0 

34  6 

o 

2  7 

14  7 

7  5 

30  1 

5  5 

100  0 

Total  

.9 

10  7 

.8 

1  3 

.66  0 

3  9 

14  2 

2  4 

100  0 

a  Less  than  0.05  per  cent. 

The  above  data  concerning  occupations,  classified  according  to  the 
old  and  new  immigration,  are  as  follows: 

TABLE  34. — European  emigrant  aliens  (including  Syrian)  departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  by  class  and 
occupation. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Class. 

Number  reporting. 

Profes- 
sional. 

Skilled. 

Farm 
labor- 
ers. 

Farm- 
ers. 

Com- 
mon 
labor- 
ers. 

Serv- 
ants. 

No 

occu- 
pation. 

Mis- 
cella- 
neous. 

Total. 

Old  immigration     

4,376 

2,027 

17,835 
59,  235 

348 
5,226 

2,839 
6,292 

19,981 
457,  808 

10,  201 
17,710 

23,715 
78,903 

5,  272 
11,  750 

84,  567 
638,  951 

Total 

6,403 

77,  070 

5,574 

9,131 

477,  789 

27,911 

102,618 

17,  022 

723,  518 

Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


49 


TABLE  34. — European  emigrant  aliens    (including  Syrian)    departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  etc — Continued. 


Per  cent 

Class. 

Profes- 
sional. 

Skilled. 

Farm 
labor- 
ers. 

Farm- 
ers. 

Com- 
mon 
labor- 
ers. 

Serv- 
ants. 

No 

occu- 
pation. 

Mis- 
cella- 
neous. 

Total. 

Old  immigration 

5.2 

21.1 

0  4 

3  4 

23  6 

12  1 

28  0 

6  2 

100  0 

New  immigration     

.3 

9.3 

.8 

1.0 

71.7 

2.8 

12.3 

1.8 

100  0 

Total 

.9 

10.7 

g 

1  3 

66  0 

3  9 

14  2 

2  4 

100  0 

DESTINATION    OF    EMIGRANT   ALIENS. 

The  intended  future  residence  of  European  aliens  departing  from 
the  United  States  during  the  three  fiscal  years  ending  June  30,  1910, 
is  shown  by  the  table  which  follows : 

TABLE  35. — European  emigrant  aliens  (including  Syrian)  departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  by  race  or  people 
and  country  of  intended  future  residence. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Country  of  intended  future  residence. 


Race  or  people. 

Austria- 
Hungary. 

Bel- 
gium. 

Bulgaria, 
Servia, 
and 
Monte- 
negro. 

Den- 
mark. 

France, 
includ- 
ing 
Corsica. 

Ger- 
man 
Em- 
pire. 

Greece. 

Italy,  in- 
cluding 
Sicily  and 
Sardinia. 

53 

8 

30 

2 

26 

14 

2  590 

1 

17 

32 

2 

Bulgarian,  Servian,  and  Monte- 

2,828 

10 

5,995 

33 

20 

12 

31 

Croatian  and  Slovenian    

43,800 

92 

2 

44 

44 

14 

181 

Dalmatian,  Bosnian,  and  Herze- 

1  917 

12 

3 

41 

71 

1,551 

1 

4 

74 

65 

6 

En^lish 

45 

2 

2 

1 

100 

42 

3 

48 

14 

2 

9 

4 

1 

French                                  

73 

274 

2 

1 

8,225 

47 

4 

55 

German 

15,999 

57 

29 

7 

334 

16,  466 

5 

76 

Greek 

139 

23 

112 

4 

19,518 

306 

Hebrew 

4,565 

16 

3 

1 

80 

151 

8 

13 

Irish 

11 

23 

3 

.... 

2 

Italian  North 

784 

2 

5 

324 

36 

14 

46,413 

Italian  South 

109 

6 

6 

78 

4 

68 

254,799 

137 

1 

1 

1 

14 

2 

Magyar 

50,333 

2 

33 

13 

52 

1 

69 

Polish                                      .  .. 

47,949 

3 

9 

2 

15 

675 

3 

39 

Portuguese  

1 

3 

51 
9 

Roumanian  

Russian 

6,633 
991 

5 

17 
2 

59 

80 

1 

28 

Ruthenian  
Scandinavian  
Scotch  
Slovak  
Spanish  
Syrian  

6,556 
37 
3 
41,020 
8 
20 

to  to  >*>• 

1 
2 

26 
4 

1 
1,548 
4 

1 

1 
22 
2 
30 
125 
28 

1 

35 

67 
6 
1 

10 

28 

2 
4 
2 
33 
36 
13 

Turkish  
Welsh  

Total  

81 
1 

226,768 

1 

1,938 

99 
6,375 

1,581 

69 
7 

9,873 

2 

17,876 

138 
19,853 

2 
302,324 

50 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  35. — European  emigrant  aliens   (including  Syrian)    departing  from  the 
United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908,  1909,  and  1910,  etc. — Continued. 


Country  of  intended  future  residence. 


Race  or  people. 

Nether- 
lands. 

Norway. 

Portugal, 
includ- 
ing Cape 
Verde 
and 
Azores. 

Rou- 
mania. 

Russian 
Empire. 

Spain,  in- 
cluding 
Canary 
and 
Balearic 
Islands. 

Sweden. 

Armenian 

1 

7 

14 

8 

45 
49 
6 
50 
5,087 
4 
1,249 
12 
12,723 
6 
5 
6 
6  991 

Bohemian  and  Moravian     . 

Bulgarian,  Servian,  and  Monte- 
negrin 

1 
1 

163 
19 

Croatian  and  Slovenian  

2 
2 
13 

Dutch  and  Flemish 

1,034 
55 

2 
16 
25 
1 
2 

English 

5 
32 

1 

1 

Finnish  

French  

2 
22 
1 
25 

24 
9 
3 

German 

1 

18 
4 
346 

Greek  

1 

2 

Hebrew  

4 
5 
3 
1 

Irish 

2 

1 
9 
22 

Italian,  North  

5 

Italian,  South  .   . 

1 

4 

24 

Lithuanian 

Magyar.  .  . 

i 

1 

20 

29 

""i'482" 
2 
1 

55 
33,313 
1 
34 
14,678 
118 
204 
2 
135 

Polish 

1 

"'2,  359" 

3 

Portuguese 

18 
1 
1 

Roumanian  

Russian 

2 

1 

2 

Ruthenian 

2 

4,583 
2 
1 

4,670 
4 
1 

Scotch 

Slovak 

5 

Spanish  

3,447 

Syrian 

2 

5 
13 

3 

Turkish 

41 

Total           

1,150 

4,631 

2,389 

2,143 

74,813 

3,555 

4,739 

Race  or  people. 

Country  of  intended  future  residence. 

Switzer- 
land. 

Turkey  in 
Europe. 

United 
King- 
dom. 

Other 
Europe. 

Turkey  in 
Asia. 

All  other 
countries 

Total. 

Armenian 

5 

85 
1 

1,592 
11 

11 

4 

991 
2 

25 

1 

5 

1 
8 

54 

57 

158 
126 

1 
240 
3,279 
411 
510 
3,926 
419 
418 
681 
779 
2,714 

417 

427 
114 
121 
1,152 
16 
4,409 
928 
55 
1,651 
226 
61 
77 

1,294 
2,710 

10,  927 
44,442 

1,991 
3,085 
14,481 
5,608 
9,622 
39,749 
21,615 
18,  949 
6,409 
48,  649 
257,902 
7,189 
51,014 
82,  507 
2,550 
8,396 
17,076 
6,697 
15,602 
4,345 
41,438' 
5,297 
3,810 
3,010 
471 

Bohemian  and  Moravian  

Bulgarian,  Servian,  and  Monte- 

12 
44 

1 
1 

20 

2 
12 

Croatian  and  Slovenian  
Dalmatian,  Bosnian,  and  Herze- 

Dutch  and  Flemish  

27 
10,786 
23 
58 
110 
14 
492 
5,672 
34 
31 
34 
3 
32 
2 
4 
62 

English                         

1 

3 

French               

336 
1,415 
5 
14 

2 
1 

4 

17 
105 
27 
3 
12 
4 

German                         

6 
949 
61 

Greek 

Irish                              

Italian  North 

210 
8 

7 
16 

1 
5 

Italian  South 

Lithuanian                  

2 
4 

10 
2 

3 

Polish 

1 

48 
3 

3 

6 

Russian 

1 

Scandinavian               

2 

1 

79 
3,396 

Slovak 

13 
1 
1 

28 

6 
11 

7 
9 
384 

6 

11 

73 
2,100 

3,399 
348 

2 

Welsh  

Total                   

2,101 

5,005 

21,294 

26 

4,970 

23,431 

736,835 

Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


51 


PERMANENCE  OF  THE  RETURN  MOVEMENT. 

How  large  a  proportion  6f  the  immigrants  who  return  to  Europe 
do  not  come  again  to  the  United  States  can  not  be  definitely  deter- 
mined. This,  however,  can  undoubtedly  be  approximated  with  a  fair 
degree  of  accuracy  by  a  consideration  of  the  proportion  of  arriving 
immigrants  who  have  been  in  the  United  States  previously.  These 
data  for  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1910  are  shown  in  the  table  which 
follows : 

TABLE  36. — Total  number  of  European  immigrants  (including  Syrian)  admitted, 
and  total  number  who  have  'been  in  the  United  States  previously,  during  the 
fiscal  years  1899  to  1910,  inclusive,  by  race  or  people.0 

» 

[Compiled  from  the  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Number 
admitted. 

In  United  States 
previously. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Armenian...                        

26,498 
100,  189 
97,391 
335,542 
31,696 
87,658 
408,  614 
151,774 
115,783 
754,  375 
216,962 
1,074,442 
439,  724 
372  r>68 

1,533 
4,066 
7,761 
43,037 
2,392 
9,548 
103,828 
17,189 
33,  859 
86,  458 
12,283 
22,914 
80,636 
56,  738 
262,  508 
6,186 
39,  785 
65,  155 
8,966 
8,  984 
3,451 
18,  492 
86,  700 
27,  684 
71.889 
14,  797 
6,220 
861 
4,232 
795 

5.8 
4.1 
8.0 
12.8 
7.5 
10.9 
25.4 
11.3 
29.2 
11.5 
5.7 
2.1 
18.3 
15.2 
13.7 
3.5 
11.8 
6.9 
12.3 
10.9 
4.1 
12.5 
14.8 
20.2 
19.0 
29.0 
10.9 
6.6 
20.4 
18.7 

Bohemian  and  Moravian     .   . 

Bulgarian,  Servian,  and  Montenegrin.  ... 

Croatian  and  Slovenian 

Dalmatian,  Bosnian,  and  Herzegovinian  

Dutch  and  Fit  aish 

English 

Finnish  

French..     .  . 

•German     . 

<Greek  

Hebrew 

Irish  

Italian,  North.. 

Italian  South 

1,911,933 
175,258 

Lithuanian 

Masryar 

337,  351 
949,064 
72,  897 
82,  704 

Polish  

Portuguese  .  . 

Roumanian  

Russian  

83,574 
147,  375 
586,  306 
136,  842 
377,527 
51,051 
56,  909 
12,954 
20,  752 
4,253 

Ruthenian 

Scandinavian  

•Scotch                                                                                                  t 

Slovak 

Spanish  

Svrian  

Turkish... 

Welsh  

Other  races                                                                      .                .  . 

Total 

9,220,066 

1,108,948 

12.0 

o  Figures  for  1908, 1909,  and  1910  are  for  "  Alien  immigrants"  only. 

It  will  be  seen  that  during  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1910  12  per  cent 
of  all  European  immigrants  admitted  at  United  States  ports  had  been 
in  this  country  before.  As  previously  shown,  the  outward  movement 
of  European  aliens  in  recent  years  has  been  approximately  one-third 
as  great  as  the  number  of  European  immigrants  admitted  to  the 
United  States.  Comparing  this  with  the  fact  that  only  12  per  cent 
of  all  European  immigrants  admitted  to  the  United  States  have  been 
here  previously,  it  seems  clear  that  a  very  large  per  cent  of  those 
who  leave  the  United  States  do  so  permanently. 


52  The  Immigration  Commission. 


EFFECTS  OF  THE  RETURN  MOVEMENT  IN  EUROPE. 

In  every  country  of  Europe  to  which  large  numbers  of  former  emi- 
grants return  from  America  the  effects  of  the  return  movement  are 
apparent.  The  repatriates  as  a  rule  return  with  amounts  of  money 
which  seem  large  in  the  surroundings  from  which  they  emigrated. 
Usually,  also,  their  sojourn  abroad  has  made  them  more  enterprising 
and  ambitious  .and  created  in  them  a  desire  for  better  things  than 
those  to  which  they  were  formerly  accustomed.  This  desire  usually 
leads  to  the  adoption  of  a  higher  standard  of  living,  improved  meth- 
ods of  labor  in  agriculture  and  other  pursuits.  In  several  parts  of 
Europe  visited  by  members  of  the  Commission  the  dwellings  of  the 
returned  emigrants  are  conspicuously  better  than  those  of  their  neigh- 
bors, and  their  economic  status  as  a  whole  is  higher.  Their  example, 
too,  is  often  emulated  by  their  neighbors,  and  in  consequence  the  tone 
of  whole  communities  is  frequently  elevated.  This  phase  of  the  sub- 
ject is  discussed  at  greater  length  in  articles  on  the  emigration  situa- 
tion in  the  various  countries  of  Europe,  which  will  be  found  else- 
where in  this  report. 


CHAPTER  IV. 
CAUSES  OF  EMIGRATION  FROM  EUROPE. 

PRIMARY  CAUSES. 

The  present  movement  of  population  from  Europe  to  the  United 
States  is,  with  few  exceptions,  almost  entirely  attributable  to  eco- 
nomic causes.  Emigration  due  to  political  reasons  and,  to  a  less 
extent,  religious  oppression,  undoubtedly  exists,  but  even  in  countries 
where  these  incentives  prevail  the  more  important  cause  is  very 
largely  an  economic  one.  This  does  not  mean,  however,  that  emigra- 
tion from  Europe  is  now  an  economic  necessity.  At  times  in  the 
past,  notably  during  the  famine  years  in  Ireland,  actual  want  forced 
a  choice  between  emigration  and  literal  starvation,  but  the  present 
movement  results,  in  the  main,  simply  from  a  widespread  desire  for 
better  economic  conditions  rather  than  from  the  necessity  of  escap- 
ing intolerable  ones.  In  other  words  the  emigrant  of  to-day  comes 
to  the  United  States  not  merely  to  make  a  living,  but  to  make  a  better 
living  than  is  possible  at  home. 

With  comparatively  few  exceptions  the  emigrant  of  to-day  is 
essentially  a  seller  of  labor  seeking  a  more  favorable  market.  To 
a  considerable  extent  this  incentive  is  accompanied  by  a  certain  spirit 
of  unrest  and  adventure  and  a  more  or  less  definite  ambition  for 
general  social  betterment,  but  primarily  the  movement  is  accounted 
for  by  the  fact  that  the  reward  of  labor  is  much  greater  in  the 
United  States  than  in  Europe. 

The  desire  to  escape  military  service  is  also  a  primary  cause  of 
emigration  from  some  countries,  but  on  the  whole  it  is  relatively 
unimportant.  It  is  true,  moreover,  that  some  emigrate  to  escape 
punishment  for  crime,  or  the  stigma  which  follows  such  punishment, 
while  others  of  the  criminal  class  deliberately  seek  supposedly  more 
advantageous  fields  for  criminal  activity.  The  emigration  of  crim- 
inals of  this  class  is  a  natural  movement  not  altogether  peculiar  to 
European  countries  and,  although  vastly  important  because  dan- 
gerous, numerically  it  affects  but  little  the  tide  of  European  emigra- 
tion to  the  United  States. 

ECONOMIC    CONDITIONS    IN    EUROPE. 

In  order  that  the  chief  cause  of  emigration  from  Europe  may  be 
better  understood,  the  Commission  has  given  considerable  attention 
to  economic  conditions  in  the  countries  visited,  with  particular 
reference  to  the  status  of  emigrating  classes  in  this  regard.  It  was 
impossible  for  the  commissioners  personally  to  make  more  than  a 
general  survey  of  this  subject,  but  because  an  understanding  of  the 
economic  situation  in  the  chief  immigrant-furnishing  countries  is 
essential  to  an  intelligent  discussion  of  the  immigration  question,  the 

53 


1 


54  The  Immigration  Commission. 

results  of  the  Commission's  investigation  in  this  regard  have  been 
supplemented  by  official  data  or  well-authenticated  material  from 
other  sources. 

The  purely  economic  condition  of  the  wageworker  is  generally 
very  much  lower  in  Europe  than  in  the  United  States.  This  is  espe- 
cially true  of  the  unskilled-laborer  class,  from  which  so  great  a 
proportion  of  the  emigration  to  the  United  States  is  drawn.  Skilled 
labor  also  is  poorly  paid  when  compared  with  returns  for  like  service 
in  the  United  States,  but  the  opportunity  for  continual  employment 
in  this  field  is  usually  good  and  the  wages  sufficiently  high  to  lessen 
the  necessity  of  emigration.  A  large  proportion  of  the  emigration 
from  southern  and  eastern  Europe  may  be  traced  directly  to  the 
inability  of  the  peasantry  to  gain  an  adequate  livelihood  in  agri- 
cultural pursuits,  either  as  laborers  or  proprietors.  Agricultural 
labor  is  paid  extremely  low  wages,  and  employment  is  quite  likely 
to  be  seasonal  rather  than  continuous. 

In  cases  where  peasant  proprietorship  is  possible  the. land  hold- 
ings are  usually  so  small,  the  methods  of  cultivation  so  primitive,  and 
the  taxes  so  high  that  even  in  productive  years  the  struggle  for  ex- 
istence is  a  hard  one,  while  a  crop  failure  means  practical  disaster  for 
the  small  farmer  and  farm  laborer  alike.  In  agrarian  Eussia,  where 
the  people  have  not  learned  to  emigrate,  a  crop  failure  results  in  a 
famine,  while  in  other  sections  of  southern  and  eastern  Europe  it 
results  in  emigration,  usually  to  the  United  States.  Periods  of  indus- 
trial depression  as  well  as  crop  failures  stimulate  emigration,  but  the 
effect  of  the  former  is  not  so  pronounced  for  the  reason  that  disturbed 
financial  and  industrial  conditions  in  Europe  are  usually  coincidental 
with  like  conditions  in  the  United  States,  and  at  such  times  the  emi- 
gration movement  is  always  relatively  smaller. 

WAGES   IN   EUROPEAN   COUNTRIES. 

The  fragmentary  nature  of  available  data  relative  to  wages  in 
many  European  countries  makes  a  satisfactory  comparison  with 
wages  in  the  United  t  States  impossible.  Unfortunately,  too,  these 
data  are  missing  for  countries  which  are  now  the  chief  sources  of 
European  emigration  to  the  United  States.  It  is  possible,  however, 
to  show  the  relative  wages  and  hours  of  labor  at  a  comparatively 
recent  date  in  some  leading  occupations  in  the  United  States,  Great 
Britain,  Germany,  and  France,  and  as  the  economic  status  of  wage- 
workers  is  much  higher  in  the  three  latter  countries  than  in  southern 
and  eastern  European  countries  the  approximate  difference  between 
wages  in  such  countries  and  in  the  United  States  may  be  inferred. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


55 


TABLE  37. — Wages  and   hours  of  labor  in  leading  occupations  in  the   United 
States,  Great  Britain,  Germany,  and  France,  19v3. 

[Compiled  from  Bulletin  of  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Labor,  No.  54,  pp.  1120-1125.] 


Occupation. 

Wages  per  hour  in  — 

Hours  per  week  in- 

United 

States. 

Great 
Britain. 

Ger- 
many. 

France. 

United 

States. 

Great 
Britain. 

Ger- 
many. 

France. 

Blacksmiths  

$0.30 
.28 
.55 
.36 
.45 
.29 
.30 
.17 
.27 
.35 
.44 
.42 
.46 

$0.17 
.17 
.21 
.20 
.18 
.13 
.17 
.10 
.17 
.18 
.20 
.20 
.21 

$0.12 
.11 
.13 
.13 
.14 
.08 

"."08~ 
.13 
.12 
.11 
.12 
.13 

$0.16 
.15 
.13 
.15 
.13 
.10 
.13 
.10 
.13 
.13 
.15 
.14 
.14 

56.  56 
56.24 
47.83 
49.46 
49.81 
'  47.  98 
56.80 
56.  29 
56.  12 
48.  S9 
48.91 
48.  67 
49.54 

53.67 
53.67 
51.83 
50.17 
50.00 
51.  83 
53.67 
52.50 
53.67 
51.00 
49.17 
50.  17 
50.17 

60.19 
60.00 
56.50 
55.30 
51.  08 
59.50 

60.19 
61.50 
63.00 
60.00 
60.00 
63.91 
60.  00 
60.00 
61.50 
60.00 
54.00 
60.00 
66.00 

Boiler  makers       .  . 

Bricklayers......  ... 
Carpenters  .  . 

Comoositors 

Hod  carriers  
Iron  molders  
Laborers  . 

56.  36 
60.00 
56.25 
56.68 
54.00 
56.  50 

Machinists  . 

Painters 

Plumbers.. 

Stonecutters 

Stonemasons  

In  the  above  table  the  figures  for  the  United  States  cover  a  wide 
area,  representing  the  smaller  as  well  as  the  larger  centers  of  indus- 
try, Avhile  those  for  the  European  countries  were  taken  in  two  or 
three  of  the  larger  centers  of  industry  in  each  country. 

As  before  stated,  there  are  available  but  little  official  data  relative 
to  wages  in  southern  and  southeastern  Europe,  but  it  is  a  well-known 
fact  that  they  are  very  much  lower  there  than  in  Great  Britain,  Ger- 
many, or  France.  The  Commission  found  this  to  be  true  in  the  por- 
tions of  Italy,  Austria-Hungary,  Greece,  Turkey,  Russia,  and  the 
Balkan  States  visited.  In  fact,  it  may  safely  be  stated  that  in  the 
latter  countries  the  average  wage  of  men  engaged  in  common  and 
agricultural  labor  is  less  than  50  cents  per  day,  while  in  some  sec- 
tions it  is  even  much  lower.  It  is  true  that  in  some  countries  agri- 
cultural laborers  receive  from  emplovers  certain  concessions  in  the 
way  of  fuel,  food,  etc.,  but  in  cases  of  this  nature  which  came  to  the 
attention  of  the  Commission  the  value  of  the  concessions  was  insuffi- 
cient to  materially  affect  the  low  wage  scale, 

COST  OF  LIVING  IN  EUROPE. 

It  is  a  common  but  entirely  erroneous  belief  that  peasants  and 
artisans  in  Europe  can  live  so  very  cheaply  that  the  low  wages  have 
practically  as  great  a  purchasing  power  as  the  higher  wages  in  the 
United  States.  The  low  cost  of  living  among  the  working  people  of 
Europe,  and  especially  of  southern  and  eastern  Europe,  is  due  to  a 
low  standard  of  living  rather  than  to  the  cheapness  of  food  and  other 
necessary  commodities.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  nreat  and  other  costly 
articles  of  food  which  are  considered  as  almost  essential  to  the  every- 
day table  of  the  American  workingman  can  not  be  afforded  among 
laborers  in  like  occupations  in  southern  and  eastern  Europe. 
79524°— VOL  4—11 5 


56  The  Immigration  Commission. 

DESIKE    FOE   BETTER    CONDITIONS. 

Notwithstanding  the  bad  economic  conditions  surrounding  the  classes 
which  furnish  so  great  a  part  of  the  emigration  from  southern  and 
eastern  Europe,  the  Commission  believes  that  a  laudable  ambition  for 
better  things  than  they  possess  rather  than  a  need  for  actual  necessities 
is  the  chief  motive  behind  the  movement  to  the  United  States. 
Knowledge  of  conditions  in  America,  promulgated  through  letters 
from  friends  or  by  emigrants  who  have  returned  for  a  visit  to  their 
native  villages,  creates  and  fosters  among  the  people  a  desire  for 
improved  conditions  which,  it  is  believed,  can  be  attained  only 
through  emigration.  Unfortunately,  but  inevitably,  the  returned 
emigrant,  in  a  spirit  of  braggadocio,  is  inclined  to  exaggerate  his 
economic  achievements  in  America.  In  consequence,  some  whose  emi- 
gration is  influenced  by  these  highly  colored  statements,  accompanied 
perhaps  by  a  display  of  what  to  them  seems  great  wealth,  are  doomed 
to  disappointment.  The  latter,  however,  naturally  hesitate  to  admit 
their  failures,  and  consequently  there  is  little  to  disturb  the  belief 
prevailing  in  southern  and  eastern  Europe  that  success  awaits  all 
who  are  able  to  emigrate  to  the  United  States. 

POLITICAL  AND  RELIGIOUS  CAUSES. 

It  is  the  opinion  of  the  Commission  that,  with  the  exception  of 
some  Russian  and  Roumanian  Hebrews,  relatively  few  Europeans 
emigrate  at  the  present  time  because  of  political  or  religious  condi- 
tions. It  is  doubtless  true  that  political  discontent  still  influences  the 
emigration  movement  from  Ireland,  but  to  a  less  degree  than  in 
earlier  years.  The  survival  of  the  Polish  national  spirit  undoubtedly 
is  a  determining  factor  in  the  emigration  from  Germany,  Russia,  and 
Austria  of  some  of  that  race,  while  dissatisfaction  with  Russian  domi- 
nation is  to  a  degree  responsible  for  Finnish  emigration.  In  all 
probability  some  part  of  the  emigration  from  Turkey  in  Europe, 
Turkey  in  Asia,  as  well  as  from  the  Balkan  States,  is  also  attributable 
to  political  conditions  in  those  countries.  There  is,  of  course,  a  small 
movement  from  nearly  every  European  country  of  political  idealists 
who  prefer  a  democracy  to  a  monarchial  government,  but  these,  and 
in  fact  all,  with  the  exception  of  the  Hebrew  peoples  referred  to, 
whose  emigration  is  in  part  due  to  political  or  religious  causes,  form  a 
very  small  portion  of  the  present  European  emigration  to  the  United 
States. 

CONTRIBUTORY  CAUSES. 

Contributory  or  immediate  causes  of  emigration  were  given  due 
consideration  by  the  Commission.  Chief  of  these  causes  is  the  advice 
and  assistance  of  relatives  or  friends  who  have  previously  emigrated. 
Through  the  medium  of  letters  from  those  already  in"  the  United 
States  and  the  visits  of  former  emigrants,  the  emigrating  classes  of 
Europe  are  kept  constantly,  if  not  always  reliably,  informed  as  to 
labor  conditions  here,  and  these  agencies  are  by  far  the  most  potent 
promoters  of  the  present  movement  of  population. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  57 

LETTERS  FROM    FRIENDS   IN   THE  UNITED   STATES. 

The  Commission  found  ample  evidence  of  this  fact  in  every  country 
of  southern  and  eastern  Europe.  Of  the  two  agencies  mentioned, 
however,  letters  are  by  far  the  most  important.  In  fact,  it  is  entirely 
safe  to  assert  that  letters  from  persons  who  have  emigrated  to  friends 
at  home  have  been  the  immediate  cause  of  by  far  the  greater  part  of 
the  remarkable  movement  from  southern  and  eastern  Europe  to  the 
United  States  during  the  past  twenty-five  years.  There  is  hardly  a 
village  or  community  in  southern  Italy  and  Sicily  but  what  has  con- 
tributed a  portion  of  its  population  to  swell  the  tide  of  emigration  to 
the  United  States,  and  the  same  is  true  of  large  areas  of  Austria, 
Hungary,  Greece,  Turkey,  and  the  Balkans.  There  is  a  tendency  on 
the  part  of  emigrants  from  these  countries  to  retain  an  interest  in  the 
homeland, and  inconsequence  a  great- amount  of  correspondence  passes 
back  and  forth.  It  was  frequently  stated  to  members  of  the  Commis- 
sion that  letters  from  persons  who  had  emigrated  to  America  were 
passed  from  hand  to  hand  until  most  of  the  emigrant's  friends  and 
neighbors  were  acquainted  with  the  contents.  In  periods  of  industrial 
activity,  as  a  rule,  the  letters  so  circulated  contain  optimistic  refer- 
ences to  wages  and  opportunities  for  employment  in  the  United 
States,  and  when  comparison  in  this  regard  is  made  with  conditions 
at  home  it  is  inevitable  that  whole  communities  should  be  inoculated 
with  a  desire  to  emigrate.  The  reverse  is  true  during  seasons  of  in- 
dustrial depression  in  the  United  States.  At  such  times  intending 
emigrants  are  quickly  informed  by  their  friends  in  the  United  States 
relative  to  conditions  of.  employment,  and  a  great  falling  off  in  the 
tide  of  emigration  is  the  immediate  result. 

"  The  greatest  influence  in  promoting  emigration,"  Consul  McFar- 
land  says  of  Bohemia,0  "  comes  from  relatives  and  friends  in  the 
United  States  who  write  glowing  accounts  of  the  enormous  wages 
received,  food  such  as  the  nobility  eat  at  home,  and  houses  grandly 
furnished."  Letters,  current  gossip,  newspaper  stories,  and  the  return 
of  successful  emigrants  are  the  influences  which  bring  individuals  to 
the  point  of  believing  that  the  oppressive  economic  conditions  under 
which  they  live  can  be  escaped. 

In  an  unpublished  report  to  the  Bureau  of  Immigration  Inspectors 
Dobler  and  Sempsey,  who,  as  elsewhere  stated,  visited  Europe  in 
1906,  refer  to  the— 

effect  produced  in  peasant  villages  by  the  receipt  of  letters  from  America  con- 
taining remittances  of  perhaps  $60  to  $100  *  *  *.     The  cottage  of  the  recip- 
1    lent  becomes  at  once  the  place  to  which  the  entire  male  population  proceeds, 
i    and  the  letters  are  read  'and  reread  until  the  contents  can  be  repeated  word 
for  word.     When  instances  of  this  kind  have  been  multiplied  by  thousands,  it 
is  not  difficult  to  understand  what  impels  poor  people  to  leave  their  homes. 

The  word  comes  again  and  again  that  "  work  is  abundant  and 
wages  princely  in  America."  In  an  Italian  village  near  Milan  the 
Immigration  Bureau's  inspectors  found  an  English-speaking  peasant 
acting  as  receiver  and  distributer  of  letters  from  America.  Letters 
are  sent  from  village  to  village  by  persons  having  friends  in  the 
United  States,  and  one  letter  may  influence  in  this  way  a  score  of 
peasants.  The  comment  of  another  peasant  who  circulated  letters 

0  Emigration  to  the  United  States.  Special  Consular  Reports,  Vol.  XXX, 
United  States  Bureau  of  Statistics,  1904. 


58  The  Immigration  Commission. 

from  "American  "  friends  is  significant :  "  We  all  like  America ;  it- 
gives  us  good  cheer  to  think  about  it."  The  effect  of  such  a  state  of 
mind  is  obvious. 

INFLUENCE   OF    RETURNED    EMIGRANTS. 

Emigrants  who  have  returned  for  a  visit  to  their  native  land  are 
also  great  promoters  of  emigration.  This  is  particularly  true  of 
southern  and  eastern  European  immigrants,  who,  as  a  class,  make 
more  or  less  frequent  visits  to  their  old  homes.  Among  the  return- 
ing emigrants  are  always  some  who  have  failed  to  achieve  success  in 
America,  and  some  who  through  changed  conditions  of  life  and  em- 
ployment return  in  broken  health.  It  is  but  natural  that  these 
should  have  a  slightly  deterrent  effect  on  emigration,  but  on  the 
whole  this  is  relatively  unimportant,  for  the  returning  emigrant,  as 
a  rule,  is  one  who  has  succeeded. and,  as  before  stated,  is  inclined  to 
exaggerate  rather  than  minimize  his  achievements  in  the  United 
States.  In  times  of  industrial  inactivity  in  the  United  States  the 
large  number  of  emigrants  who  return  to  their  native  lands,  of 
course,  serve  as  a  temporary  check  to  emigration,  but  it  is  certain 
that  in  the  long  run  such  returning  emigrants  actually  promote 
rather  than  retard  the  movement  to  the  United  States. 

The  investigators  of  the  Bureau  of  Immigration  were  impressed  by 
the  number  of  men  in  Italy  and  in  various  Slavic  communities  who 
speak  English  and  who  exhibit  a  distinct  affection  for  the  United 
States.  The  unwillingness  of  such  men  to  work  in  the  fields  at  25  to 
30  cents  a  day ;  their  tendency  to  acquire  property ;  their  general  ini- 
tiative ;  and,  most  concretely,  the  money  they  can  show,  make  a  vivid 
impression.  They  are  dispensers  of  information  and  inspiration,  and 
are  often  willing  to  follow  up  the  inspiration  by  loans  to  prospective 
emigrants. 

The  Commission  was  informed  that  one-third  of  the  emigrants 
from  Syria  return  for  a  time  to  their  native  country  and  later  go  back 
to  the  United  States;  but  that  in  the  meantime  many  of  them  build 
houses  much  superior  to  those  of  their  neighbors  and  by  such  evi- 
dence of  prosperity  add  to  the  desire  for  emigration  among  their 
countrymen.  A  man  who  left  a  little  village  in  Transylvania  in  1904 
with  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  of  two  head  of  cattle  came  back  two 
years  later  with  $500,  and  was  the  source  of  a  genuine  fever  of  emi- 
gration among  his  acquaintances,  which  has  increased  ever  since.  It 
is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  3^oung  men  of  spirit  and  ambition 
should  want  to  emulate  successful  friends,  and  one  can  easily  feel  the 
truth  of  a  statement  made  by  a  large  land  proprietor  to  the  Koyal 
Italian  Agricultural  Commission,  elsewhere  referred  to:  "Emigra- 
tion is  spontaneous.  It  becomes  like  a  contagious  disease.  Even  the 
children  speak  of  going  to  America." 


MUTUAL    SAVINGS    SOCIETIES. 


Hon.  Horace  G.  Knowles,  American  minister  to  Roumania,  Servia, 
and  Bulgaria,  informed  the  Commission  relative  to  a  system  of 
mutual  savings  followed  in  some  very  poor  Bulgarian  villages  which 
illustrates  the  faith  in  America  as  the  refuge  of  the  poor.  Mr. 
Knowles  says : 

A  number  of  cases  were  heard  of  in  nearly  every  district,  where  it  requii 
the  combined  savings  of  years  of  a  score  or  more  of  peasants  to  provide  th< 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


59 


means  for  one  person  to  emigrate  to  the  United  States.  They  have  a  kind  of 
lottery  by  which  one  of  the  group  would  have  the  benefit  of  the  savings  of  all 
the  others  and  go.  The  lucky  one  would,  after  a  few  months  in  the  United 
States,  repay,  with  interest,  the  amount  advanced  by  his  compatriots,  with  the 
result  that  they  all  would  have  a  still  stronger  desire  to  go  to  America,  and 
then  would  fall  another  drawing  and  another  emigrant. 

JOINING  FRIENDS   IN   THE   UNITED    STATES. 

The  importance  of  the  advice  of  friends  as  an  immediate  cause  of 
emigration  from  Europe  is  also  indicated  by  the  fact  that  nearly  all 
European  immigrants  admitted  to  the  United  States  are,  according 
to  their  own  statements,  going  to  join  relatives  or  friends.  The 
United  States  immigration  law  provides  that  information  upon  this 
point  be  secured  relative  to  every  alien  coming  to  the  United  States 
by  water,  and  the  result,  so  far  as  European  immigrants  admitted  in 
the  fiscal  years  1908  and  1909  are  concerned,  is  indicated  by  the 
following  table : 

TABLE  38. — European  immigrants  (including  Syrian)  going  to  join  relatives  or 
friends  in  the  United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908  and  1909,  by  race 
or  people. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Race  or  people. 

Total 
number. 

Going  to  join  relatives 
or  friends. 

Number. 

Per  cent 

Armenian.  . 

6,407 
17,014 
24,460 
40,653 
15,  635 
17,  640 
88,077 
18,  433 
32,  304 
131,572 
49,070 
160,  938 
67,612 
49,850 
275,795 
28,  974 
53,  082 

6,288 
16,  703 
21,605 
39,  161 
5,221 
16,304 
70,  502 
17,500 
26.  710 
123,  335 
47,  513 
158,246 
63,  907 
46,  143 
272,  115 
28,  818 
51,838 
143,932 
9,845 
16,618 
25,  503 
27,  543 
63,416 
28,077 
38,371 
7,722 
8,725 
2,956 
3,693 

98.1 
98.2 
88.3 
96.3 
92.7 
92.4 
80.0 
P4.9 
82.7 
93.7 
96.8 
98.3 
94.5 
92.6 
98.7 
99.5 
97.7 
98.8 
86.2 
94.0 
93.9 
97.8 
93.6 
83.9 
99.0 
66.  7 
95.  0 
93.9 
87.9 

Bohemian  and  Moravian  

Bulgarian,  Servian,  and  Montenegrin  

Croatian  and  Slovenian 

Dalmatian,  Bosnian,  and  Her^egovinian.  . 

Dutch  and  Flemish 

English  .   .  . 

Finnish  ... 

French  .  . 

German 

Greek... 

Hebrew... 

Irish 

Italian,  North  

Italian,  South 

Lithuanian.. 

Magvar  

Polish.. 

145,  670 
11,415 
17,  670 
27,  149 
28,169 
67,  785 
33,460 
38,  756 
11,575 
9,188 
3,147 
4,  203 

Portuguese  

Roumanian 

Russian 

Ruthenian  

Scandinavian  . 

Scotch 

Slovak  

Spanish  

Syrian 

Turkish  .  .  . 

Welsh. 

Total.... 

1,405.703 

1,388,310 

94.7 

It  will  be  noted  that  94.7  per  cent  of  the  total  number  of  European 
immigrants  admitted  to  the  United  States  during  the  two  years  under 
consideration  had  been  preceded  by  relatives  or  friends  whom  they 
expected  to  join.  Only  one  race — the  Spanish,  with  66.7  per  cent — 
falls  greatly  below  the  average  in  this  regard.  It  is  worthy  of  note 
that  the  percentage  of  persons  going  to  join  relatives  or  friends  is 


60 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


greater  among  the  newer  immigration  from  the  south  and  east  of 
Europe  than  among  the  elder  immigrant  races  from  northern  and 
western  European  countries.  The  difference  between  the  two  groups 
in  this  regard  is  shown  in  the  following  table : 

TABLE  39. — European  immigrants  (including  Syrian}  going  to  join  relatives 
or  friends  in  the  United  States  during  the  fiscal  years  1908  and  1909,  by 
class. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Class. 

Total 
number. 

Going  to  join  relatives 
or  friends. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Old  immigration  .         ...         

442,653 
1,023,050 

395,  944 
992,  3(56 

89.4 
97.0 

New  immigration 

Total  

1,465,703 

1,388,310 

94  7 

The  above  table  not  only  indicates  a  very  general  relationship 
between  admitted  immigrants  and  those  who  follow,  but  it  suggests 
forcibly  that  emigration  from  Europe  proceeds  according  to  well- 
defined  individual  plans  rather  than  in  a  haphazard  way. 

CONTRACTS    TO   LABOR   IN    THE   UNITED    STATES. 

The  investigation  of  the  Commission  in  Europe  did  not  disclose 
that  actual  contracts  involving  promises  of  employment  between 
employers  in  the  United  States  and  laborers  in  Europe  were  responsi- 
ble for  any  very  considerable  part  of  the  present  emigration  move- 
ment. It  will  be  understood,  however,  that  this  statement  refers 
only  to  cases  where  actual  bona  fide  contracts  between  employers  and 
laborers  exist  rather  than  to  so-called  contract-labor  cases,  as  defined 
in  the  sweeping  terms  of  the  United  States  immigration  law,  which 
classifies  as  such  all  persons — 

who  have  been  induced  or  solicited  to  migrate  to  this  country  by  offers  or 
promises  of  employment  or  in  consequence  of  agreements,  oral,  written,  or 
printed,  express  or  implied,  to  perform  labor  in  this  country  of  any  kind,  skilled 
or  unskilled.  *  *  * 

Under  a  strict  interpretation  of  the  law  above  quoted  it  would  seem 
that  in  order  to  escape  being  classified  as  contract  laborers,  immi- 
grants coming  to  the  United  States  must  be  entirely  without  assur- 
ance that  employment  will  be  available  here.  Indeed,  it  is  certain 
that  European  immigrants,  and  particularly  those  from  southern 
and  eastern  Europe,  are,  under  a  literal  construction  of  the  law,  for 
the  most  part  contract  laborers,  for  it  is  unlikely  that  many  emi- 
grants embark  for  the  United  States  without  a  pretty  definite  knowl- 
edge of  where  they  will  go  and  what  they  will  "do  if  admitted. 
Natural  instinct  dictates  such  a  condition,  even  though  the  contract- 
labor  law,  in  letter  if  not  in  spirit,  forbids  even  the  semblance  of  an 
agreement  in  this  regard. 

"  It  should  not  be  understood,  however,  that  the  committee  believes 
that  contract  labor  in  its  more  serious  form  does  not  exist.    Undoubt- 
edly many  immigrants  come  to  the  United  States  from  southern  an< 
eastern  Europe  as  the  result  of  definite,  if  not  open,  agreements  wit " 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  61 

employers  of  labor  here,  as  is  shown  by  the  separate  report  of  the 
Commission  on  the  subject,0  but,  as  previously  stated,  actual  and 
direct  contract-labor  agreements  can  not  be  considered  as  the  direct 
or  immediate  cause  of  any  considerable  proportion  of  the  European 
emigration  movement  to  the 'United  States.  As  before  stated,  emi- 
grants as  a  rule  are  practically  assured  that  employment  awaits 
them  in  America  before  they  leave  their  homes  for  ports  of  embarka- 
tion, and  doubtless  in  a  majority  of  cases  they  know  just  where  and 
what  the  employment  will  be.  This  is  another  result  of  letters  from 
former  emigrants  in  the  United  States.  In  fact,  it  may  be  said  that 
immigrants,  or  at  least  newly  arrived  immigrants,  are"  substantially 
the  agencies  which  keep  the  American  labor  market  supplied  with 
unskilled  laborers  from  Europe.  Some  of  them  operate  consciously 
and  on  a  large  scale,  but,  as  a  rule,  each  immigrant  simply  informs 
his  nearest  friends  that  employment  can  be  had  and  advises  them 
to  come.  It  is  these  personal  appeals  which,  more  than  all  other 
agencies,  promote  and  regulate  the  tide  of  European  emigration  to 
America. 

ASSISTANCE     OF     FRIENDS. 

Moreover,  the  immigrant  in  the  United  States  in  a  large  measure 
assists  as  well  as  advises  his  friends  in  the  Old  World  to  emigrate. 
It  is  difficult  and  in  many  cases  impossible  for  the  southern  and  east- 
ern European  to  save  a  sufficient  amount  of  money  to  purchase  a 
steerage  ticket  to  the  United  States.  No  matter  how  strong  the  de- 
sire to  emigrate  may  be  its  accomplishment  on  the  part  of  the  ordi- 
nary laborer  dependent  upon  his  own  resources  can  be  realized  only 
after  a  long  struggle.  To  immigrants  in  the  United  States,  however, 
the  price  of  steerage  transportation  to  or  from  Europe  is  relatively 
a  small  matter,  and  by  giving  or  advancing  the  necessary  money  they 
make  possible  the  emigration  of  many.  It  is  impossible  to  estimate 
with  any  degree  of  accuracy  what  proportion  of  the  large  amount  of 
money  annually  sent  abroad  by  immigrants  is  sent  for  the  purpose 
of  assisting  relatives  or  friends  to  emigrate,  but  it  is  certain  that  the 
aggregate  is  large.  The  immediate  families  of  immigrants  are  the 
largest  beneficiaries  in  this  regard,  but  the  assistance  referred  to  is 
extended  to  many  others. 

Just  what  proportion  of  the  present  immigration  is  assisted  in  this 
way  can  not  be  determined.  Some  indication  of  this,  however,  is 
contained  in  the  probable  fact  that  about  25  per  cent  of  the  immi- 
grants admitted  to  the  United  States  come  on  steamship  tickets  paid 
for  in  this  country.  In  the  calendar  year  1907,  27.6  per  cent  or  64,384 
of  the  233,489  steerage  passengers  embarking  at  Naples  for  the  United 
States  were  provided  with  prepaid  tickets.  In  all  probability  this 
is  a  fair  average  for  all  European  ports. 

STEAMSHIP    TICKET    AGENTS. 

Next  to  the  advice  and  assistance  of  friends  and  relatives  who  have 
already  emigrated,  the  propaganda  conducted  by  steamship  ticket 
agents  is  undoubtedly  the  most  important  immediate  cause  of  emi- 
gration from  Europe  to  the  United  States.  This  propaganda  flour- 

0  Reports  of  the  Immigration  Commission,  vol.  2,  Contract  Labor  and  As- 
sisted and  Induced  Immigration. 


62  The  Immigration  Commission. 

ishes  in  every  emigrant-furnishing  country  of  Europe,  notwithstand- 
ing the  fact  that  the  promotion  of  emigration  is  forbidden  by  the 
laws  of  many  such  countries  as  well  as  by  the  United  States  immigra- 
tion law,  which  provides  as  follows :  a 

SEC.  7.  That  no  transportation  company  or  owner  or  owners  of  vessels,  or 
others  engaged  in  transporting  aliens  into  the  United  States,  shall,  directly 
or  indirectly,  either  by  writing,  printing,  or  oral  representation,  solicit,  invite, 
or  encourage  the  immigration  of  any  aliens  into  the  United  States,  but  this 
shall  not  be  held  to  prevent  transportation  companies  from  issuing  letters,  cir- 
culars, or  advertisements  stating  the  sailings  of  their  vessels  and  terms  and 
facilities  of  transportation  therein,  and  for  a  violation  of  this  provision  any 
such  transportation  company,  and  any  such  owner  or  owners  of  vessels,  and 
all  others  engaged  in  transporting  aliens  into  the  United  States,  and  the  agents 
by  them  employed,  shall  be  severally  subjected  to  the  penalties  imposed  by 
section  5  of  this  act. 

The  penalty  referred  to  in  the  above-quoted  section  is  $1,000  for 
each  offense.  It  is,  of  course,  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  secure  a 
really  effective  enforcement  of  this  provision  of  the  United  States 
law,  but  undoubtedly  it  does  supplement  the  emigration  laws  of 
various  European  countries  in  compelling  steamship  ticket  agents  to 
solicit  emigration  in  a  secret  manner  rather  than  openly. 

It  does  not  appear  that  steamship  companies,  as  a  rule,  openly  or 
directly  violate  the  provisions  of  the  United  States  immigration  law 
quoted,  but  through  local  agents  and  subagents  of  such  companies 
it  is  violated  persistently  and  continuously.  Selling  steerage  tickets 
to  America  is  the  sole  or  chief  occupation  of  large  numbers  of  per- 
sons in  southern  and  eastern  Europe,  and  from  the  observations  of 
the  Commission  it  is  clear  that  these  local  agents,  as  a  rule,  solicit 
business,  and  consequently  encourage  emigration,  by  every  possible 
means. 

No  data  are  available  to  show  even  approximately  the  total  num- 
ber of  such  agents  and  subagents  engaged  in  the  steerage-ticket  busi- 
ness. One  authority  stated  to  the  Commission  that  two  of  the  lead- 
ing steamship  lines  had  five  or  six  thousand  ticket  agents  in  Galicia 
alone,  and  that  there  was  "  a  great  hunt  for  emigrants  "  there.  The 
total  number  of  such  agents  is  very  large,  however,  for  the  steerage 
business  is  vastly  important  to  all  the  lines  operating  passenger  ships, 
and  all  compete  for  a  share  of  it.  The  great  majority  of  emigrants 
from  southern  and  eastern  European  countries  sail  "under  foreign 
flags;  Italian  emigrants,  a  large  proportion  of  whom  sail  under  the 
flag  of  Italy,  being  the  only  conspicuous  exception.  Many  Greek, 
Russian,  and  Austrian  emigrants  sail  on  ships  of  those  nations,  but 
the  bulk  of  the  emigrant  business  originating  in  eastern  and  southern 
European  countries,  excepting  Italy,  is  handled  by  the  British,  Ger- 
man, Dutch,  French,  and  Belgian  lines.  There  is  at  present  an  agree- 
ment among  the  larger  steamship  companies  which,  in  a  measure, 
regulates  the  distribution  of  this  traffic  and  prevents  unrestricted  com- 
petition between  the  lines,  but  this  does  not  affect  the  vigorous  and 
widespread  hunt  for  steerage  passengers  which  is  carried  on  through- 
out the  chief  emigrant-furnishing  countries. 

The  Commission's  inquiry  and  information  from  other  sources 
indicates  that  the  attempted  promotion  of  emigration  by  steamship 
ticket  agents  is  carried  on  to  a  greater  extent  in  Austria,  Hungary, 

0  Immigration  act  of  February  20,  1907. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  63 

Greece,  and  Russia  than  in  other  countries.  The  Russian  law,  as 
elsewhere  stated,  does  not  recognize  the  right  of  the  people  to  emi- 
grate permanently,  and  while  the  large  and  continued  movement  of 
population  from  the  Empire  to  overseas  countries  is  proof  that  the 
law  is  to  a  large  degree  inoperative,  it  nevertheless  seems  to  restrict 
the  activities  of  steamship  agents.  Moreover,  there  were,  at  the  time 
of  the  Commission's  inquiry,  two  Russian  steamship  lines  carrying 
emigrants  directly  from  Libau  to  the  United  States,  and  the  Gov- 
ernment's interest,  in  the  success  of  these  lines  resulted  in  a  rather 
strict  surveillance  of  the  agents  of  foreign  companies  doing  business 
in  the  Empire.  Because  of  this  much  of  the  work  of  these  agents 
is  carried  on  surreptitiously.  In  fact,  they  were  commonly  de- 
scribed to  the  Commission  as  ^secret  agents."  Emigration  from 
Russia  is,  or  at  least  is  made  to  appear  to  be,  a  difficult  matter,  and 
the  work  of  the  secret  agents  consists  not  only  of  selling  steamship 
transportation,  but  also  in  procuring  passports,  and  in  smuggling 
across  the  frontier  emigrants  who  for  military  or  other  reasons  can 
not  procure  passports,  or  who  because  of  their  excessive  cost  elect 
to  leave  Russia  without  them.  This  was  frequently  stated  to  the 
Commission,  and  Inspector  Cowan,  of  the  Bureau  of  Immigration, 
who  investigated  emigration  conditions  in  Russia  in  1906,  makes 
essentially  the  same  assertion.  A  Russian  official  at  St.  Petersburg 
complained  to  the  Commission  that  Jewish  secret  agents  of  British 
lines  in  Russia  had  been  employed  to  induce  Christians,  not  JCAVS,  to 
emigrate.  Mr.  Cowan  also  reported  that  it  was  learned  that  some 
letters  had  been  received  by  prospective  emigrants  containing  more 
information  than  the  dates  of  sailing,  etc.  (as  provided  by  section  1 
of  the  immigration  act),  and  also  that  on  market  days  in  some  places 
steamship  agents  would  mingle  with  the  people  and  endeavor  to 
incite  them  to  emigrate. 

The  Hungarian  law  strictly  forbids  the  promotion  of  emigration, 
and  the  Government  has  prosecuted  violations  so  vigorously  that  at 
the  time  of  the  Commission's  visit  the  emigration   authorities  ex- 
pressed the  belief  that  the  practice  had  been  effectually  checked.    It 
was  stated  to  the  Commission  that  foreign  steamship  lines  had  con- 
stantly  acted   in   controvention   of  the   Hungarian   regulations  by 
employing  secret  agents  to  solicit  business,  or  through  agents  writing 
personal  letters  to  "prospective  emigrants  advising  them  how  to  leave 
Hungary  without  the  consent  of  the  Government.     Letters  of  this 
nature  were  presented  to  the  Commission.    Some  of  them  are  accom- 
anied  by  crudely  drawn  maps  indicating  the  location  of  all  the 
Iimgarian  control  stations  on  the  Austrian  border,  and  the  routes 
f  travel  by  which  such  stations  can  be  avoided.     The  Commission 
/as  shown  the  records  in  hundreds  of  cases  where  the  secret  agents 
f  foreign   steamship  companies  had  been  convicted   and  fined  or 
prisoned  for  violating  the  Hungarian  law  by  soliciting  emigra- 
tion.   It  was  reported  to  the  Commission  that  m  one  year  at  Kassa, 
Hungarian  city  on  the  Austrian  border,  eight  secret  agents  of 
e  German  lines  were  punished   for  violations  of  the  emigration 
aw. 

In  Austria  at  the  time  of  the  Commission's  visit,  there  was  compar- 
atively little  agitation  relative  to  emigration.     Attempts  had  bee 
made  to  enact  an  emigration  law  similar  to  that  of  Hungary,  but 


i  made 


64  The  Immigration  Commission. 

these  were  not  successful.  The  solicitation  of  emigration,  however, 
is  forbidden  by  law,  but  it  appeared  that  steamship  ticket  agents 
were  not  subjected  to  strict  regulation  as  in  Hungary.  Government 
officials  and  others  interested  in  the  emigration  situation  expressed 
the  belief  that  the  solicitations  of  agents  had  little  effect  on  the  emi- 
gration movement,  which  was  influenced  almost  entirely  by  economic 
conditions.  It  was  not  denied,  however,  that  steamship  agents  do 
solicit  emigration. 

The  Italian  law  strictly  forbids  the  solicitation  of  emigration  by 
steamship  agents  and  complaints  relative  to  violations  of  the  law  were 
not  nearly  so  numerous  as  in  some  countries  visited.  Nevertheless 
there  are  many  persons  engaged  in  the  business  of  selling  steerage 
tickets  in  that  country  and  the  Commission  was  informed  that  consid- 
erable soliciting  is  done.  This  is  confirmed  by  Hon.  T.  V.  Powderly, 
of  the  Bureau  of  Immigration,  who  investigated  emigration  condi- 
tions in  Italy  in  1906.  Mr.  Powderly  states  that  steamship  agents 
solicit  business  much  as  insurance  agents  do,  and  that  in  many  in- 
stances they  do  not  concern  themselves  with  the  character  or  mental 
or  physical  condition  of  their  customers,  their  sole  object  being  to 
increase  their  commissions.  He  states  that  one  method  adopted  is  to 
translate  editorials  and  articles  from  American  newspapers  relative 
to  the  prosperity  of  the  United  States,  which  articles  are  distributed 
among  prospective  emigrants.  He  also  reports  a  curious  method  of 
presenting  at  church  doors  cards  containing  verses  and  hymns  in 
praise  of  the  United  States. 

The  Commission  found  that  steamship  agents  were  very  active  in 
Greece,  and  that  the  highly-colored  posters  and  other  advertising 
matter  of  the  steamship  companies  were  to  be  found  everywhere. 
According  to  its  population  Greece  furnishes  more  emigrants  to  the 
United  States  than  any  other  country,  and  the  spirit  of  emigration  is 
so  intense  among  the  people  that  solicitation  by  steamship  companies 
probably  plays  relatively  a  small  part,  even  as  a  contributory  cause 
of  the  movement. 


ASSISTED    EMIGRATION. 


The  United  States  immigration  law  numbers  among  the  excluded 
classes — a 

any  person  whose  ticket  or  passnge  is  paid  for  with  the  money  of  another,  or 
who  is  assisted  by  others  to  come,  unless  it  is  affirmatively  and  satisfactorily 
shown  that  such  person  does  not  belong  to  one  of  the  foregoing  excluded 
classes,  and  that  said  ticket  or  passage  w;is  not  paid  for  by  any  corporation, 
association,  society,  municipality,  or  foreign  government,  either  directly  or 
indirectly. 

Emigration  from  Europe  to  the  United  States  through  public  as- 
sistance is  so  small  as  to  be  of  little  or  no  importance.  It  is  con- 
ceivable as  well  as  probable  that  local  authorities  sometimes  assist  in 
the  emigration  of  public  charges  and  criminals,  but  such  instances 
are  believed  to  be  rare.  It  is  admitted  that  local  officials  in  Italy 
sometimes  issue  to  criminals  passports  to  the  United  States  in  viola- 
tion of  the  decree  forbidding  it,  but  even  this  is  not  a  very  common 
practice.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  European  nations  look  with  regret 

— . , _ 

Immigration  act  of  February  20,  1907,  sec.  2. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  65 

on  the  emigration  of  their  young  and  able-bodied  men  and  women, 
and  the  comity  of  nations  would  prevent  the  deportation  of  criminals 
and  paupers  to  a  country  whose  laws  denied  admission  to  such  classes, 
however  desirable  their  emigration  might  be.  Besides,  the  assisted 
emigration  to  the  United  States  of  the  aged  or  physically  or  mentally 
defective  would  be  sure  to  result  in  failure  because  of  the  stringent 
provisions  of  the  United  States  immigration  law.  In  the  earlier 
days  of  unrestricted  immigration  it  is  well  known  that  large  num- 
bers of  paupers  and  other  undesirables  were  assisted  to  emigrate,  or 
were  practically  deported,  from  the  British  Isles  and  other  countries 
to  the  United  States.  Even  at  the  present  time,  as  shown  in  the 
Commission's  report  on  the  immigration  situation  in  Canada,0  there 
is  a  large  assisted  emigration  from  England  to  Canada  and  other 
British  colonies,  but  it  does  not  appear  that  there  is  any  movement 
of  this  nature  to  the  United  States. 

On  the  other  hand,  various  nations  of  the  Western  Hemisphere 
make  systematic  efforts  in  Europe  to  induce  immigration.  The  Cana- 
dian government  maintains  agencies  in  all  the  countries  of  northern 
and  western  Europe,  where  the  solicitation  of  emigration  is  per- 
mitted, and  pays  a  bonus  to  thousands  of  booking  agents  for  direct- 
ing emigrants  to  the  Dominion.0  Canada,  however,  expends  no 
money  in  the  transportation  of  emigrants.  Several  South  American 
countries,  including  Brazil  and  Argentine  Republic,  also  systemat- 
ically solicit  immigration  in  Europe. 

Several  American  States  have  attempted  to  attract  immigrants  by 
the  distribution  in  Europe  of  literature  advertising  the  attractions  of 
such  States.  A  few  States  have  sent  commissioners  to  various  coun- 
tries for  the  purpose  of  inducing  immigration,  but,  although  some 
measure  of  success  has  attended  such  efforts,  the  propaganda  has  had 
little  effect  on  the  movement  as  a  whole. 


JEWISH    EMIGRATION    SOCIETIES. 


In  many  cities  of  Europe  are  societies  whose  purpose  is  to  assist 
I  the  Jews  of  Russia  and  Roumania  to  emigrate  and  to  protect  them 
i  on  their  journey  to  ports  of  embarkation.     It  would  be  strange  if 
some  of  these  societies  did  not  assist  emigrating  members  of  the  race 
i  in  violation  of  the  letter  of  the  United  States  law,  although  no  such 
!  instances  came  directly  to  the  attention  of  the  Commission.     From 
i  all  that  could  be  learned  from  and  about  the  more  important  Jewish 
organization  of  this  nature,  however,  it  appears  that  they  do  not  as- 
sist emigrants  to  the  extent  of  affording  them  transportation  to  the 
United  States. 

The  Roumanian  agent  of  the  Jewish  Colonization  Association, 
otherwise  the  Baron  de  Hirsch  Fund,  stated  to  the  Commission  that 
the  society  does  not  financially  assist  any  Jew  to  go  to  the  United 
States.  He  said  that  the  organization  sends  to  Canada  and  Argen- 
tina persons  who  have  actually  been  expelled  from  farming  villages 
and  thereafter  refused  admission  to  some  large  city,  in  which  cases 
the  emigrant  pays  all  the  fare  he  is  able  to,  and  the  organization 
pays  the  rest. 

0  The  Immigration  Situation  in  Other  Countries.    Reports  of  the  Immigration 
imission,  vol.  40.     (S.  Doc.  761,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 


66  The  Immigration  Commission. 

The  foregoing  attitude  of  the  organization  toward  assisting  emi- 
gration from  Roumania  to  the  United  States  is  substantiated  by 
the  experience  of  a  member  of  the  Commission  in  conversation  with 
workers  in  the  sweatshops  of  the  Jewish  quarter  in  Bucharest,  which 
is  stated  as  follows : 

I  went  into  each  shop,  without  previous  notice,  and  in  nearly  every  shop 
some  man  or  woman  expressed  a  desire  to  go  to  America.  Whenever  such  a 
wish  was  expressed,  I  asked,  "  Why  not  go  to  the  Jewish  Colonization  Society?  " 
And  in  every  instance  the  people  told  me  that  the  society  only  helps  those  who 
can  pay  their  own  way.  One  young  man  asked  me  if  a  hundred  francs  would 
take  him  to  America,  and  I  told  him  no,  but  suggested  that  he  take  his  100 
francs  to  the  society  and  ask  them  for  the  balance,  but  he  said  he  knew  this 
would  be  useless.  Nearly  every  worker  in  these  shops  would  go  to  America 
if  possessed  of  the  necessary  money.  At  the  various  houses  they  brought  me 
pictures  of  prosperous  looking  relatives  in  the  United  States,  but  in  many 
instances  they  said  that  their  relatives  either  had  practically  forgotten  them, 
or  that  they  seldom  heard  from  them. 

Officials  of  the  Jewish  Colonization  Association  in  Paris  stated 
the  objects  of  that  organization  to  the  Commission.  It  was  pointed 
out  that  every  country  from  which  many  citizens  emigrate  was  com- 
pelled to  frame  laws  regulating  this  emigration,  and  protecting  the 
emigrant  from  various  frauds  and  abuses  he  is  liable  to  meet  with 
on  his  way.  The  Jews  alone  w^ere  up  to  recent  date  unprotected,  and 
were  easy  prey  of  unscrupulous  agents,  runners,  money  changers,  etc., 
and  the  association  endeavored  to  protect  them  in  this  regard.  Emi- 
grants leaving  Russia  and  Roumania  were  assisted  in  securing  pass- 
ports. In  those  countries,  it  was  stated,  the  Jewish  Colonization 
Association  has  an  arrangement  with  the  governments  whereby  pass- 
ports are  given  gratis  to  Jewish  emigrants  who  are  recommended  by 
the  association,  provided  they  declare  that  they  will  never  return 
to  their  native  land,  while  in  cases  where  the  emigrants  themselves 
apply  for  passports,  the  cost  is  about  30  rubles  in  Russia,  and  25  lei 
in  Roumania.  Moreover,  when  an  emigrant  applies  for  a  passport, 
he  often  has  to  wait  weeks,  even  months  before  the  document  is 
issued,  while  the  representatives  of  the  association  generally  get  the 
passport  within  a  few  days  after  applying.  It  was  further  stated 
that  many  emigrants  do  not  know  where  it  is  best  for  them  to  go, 
and  that  the  local  committees  of  the  association  give  such  persons 
advice  in  this  regard.  Of  late,  the  officials  said,  they  are  advising  all 
those  who  express  a  desire  to  emigrate  to  the  United  States  to  go  to 
the  Southern  and  Western  States.  The  Russian  division  of  the 
association  has  issued  tracts  in  the  Russian  and  Yiddish  languages 
describing  in  detail  the  resources  of  such  States  and  the  opportuni- 
ties they  offer  to  immigrants.  Previously  it  was  often  the  case  that 
many  emigrants  who  suffered  from  contagious  eye  and  scalp  diseases 
sold  out  all  their  belongings  and  Avent  to  ports  of  embarkation  intend- 
ing to  embark  for  the  United  States.  These  were  rejected  by  the 
steamship  companies  and  many  families  were  thus  ruined,  and  often 
remained  in  the  port  cities,  becoming  public  charges  on  the  Jewish 
communities.  To  obviate  this  the  Jewish  Colonization  Association 
has  physicians  who  carefully  examine  all  those  intending  to  go  to 
the  United  States,  and  who  apply  to  them,  before  leaving  their  native 
cities. 

The  Commission  was  assured  that  this  is  all  the  assistance  ren- 
dered to  Jewish  emigrants  to  the  United  States  who  come  in  contact 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  67 


with  the  association,  and  that  under  no  circumstances  are  emigrants 
going  to  the  United  States  given  any  material  assistance.  In  excep- 
tional cases,  it  was  stated,  as  after  an  anti-Jewish  riot  in  Russia  or 
Roumania,  when  material  assistance  is  absolutely  necessary,  the  emi- 
grants are  assisted  to  go  to  Argentina,  Brazil,  or,  rarely,  to  Canada, 
but  that  the  United  States  as  a  destination  in  such  cases  is  out  of  the 
question. 

Mr.  Jaques  Bigart,  secretary  of  the  Alliance  Israelite  Universelle, 
Paris,  and  executive  manager  of  all  the  work  and  activites  of  the  alli- 
ance, assured  the  Commission  that  the  alliance  never  assists  emi- 
grants who  are  on  the  way  to  the  United  States.  In  substantiation 
of  this  assertion  several  letters  were  exhibited  which  were  addressed 
to  the  local  committees  in  Roumania,  Russia,  Germany,  and  Austria, 
and  in  which  it  is  emphatically  stated  that  Jewish  emigrants  to  the 
United  States  should  only  be  given  proper  advice  as  to  cost  of  trans- 
portation, the  shortest  routes  to  travel,  etc.,  and  should  also  be  aided 
to  procure  passports,  but  that  under  no  circumstances  should  they  be 
materially  assisted.  M.  Bigart  said  that  persons  who  are  destitute 
and  deserving  of  material  assistance  are  assisted  to  emigrate  to  South 
America,  particularly  Argentina  and  Brazil,  and  in  exceptional  cases 
to  Canada. 

EMIGRATION  OF  CRIMINALS. 

That  former  convicts  and  professional  criminals  from  all  countries 
come  to  the  United  States  practically  at  will  can  not  and  heed  not 
be  denied,  although  it  seems  probable  that  in  the  popular  belief  the 
number  is  greatly  exaggerated.  This  class  emigrates  and  is  admitted 
to  this  country,  and,  in  the  opinion  of  the  Commission,  the  blame 
can  not  equitably  be  placed  elsewhere  than  on  the  United  States. 
The  Commission  is  convinced  that  no  European  government  encour- 
ages the  emigration  of  its  criminals  to  this  country.  Some  coun- 
tries take  no  measures  to  prevent  such  emigration,  especially  after 
criminals  have  paid  the  legal  penalties  demanded,  but  others,  and 
particularly  Italy,  seek  to  restrain-  the  departure  of  former  convicts 
in  common  with  other  classes  debarred  by  the  United  States  immi- 
gration law.  The  accomplishment  of  this  purpose  on  the  part  of 
Italy  is  attempted  by  specific  regulations  forbidding  the  issuance  of 
passports  to  intended  immigrants  who  have  been  convicted  of  a  fel- 
ony or  other  crime  or  misdemeanor  involving  moral  turpitude  within 
the  meaning  of  the  United  States  law.  Under  the  Italian  system 
local  officials  furnish  the  record  upon  which  is  determined  the  in- 
tending emigrant's  right  to  receive  a  passport,  and  it  is  not  denied 
that  some  officials  at  times  violate  the  injunctions  of  the  Government 
in  this  regard,  but,  as  a  whole,  the  Commission  believes  the  effort  is 
honestly  made  and  in  the  main  successfully  accomplished.  The  weak- 
ness and  inefficiency  of  the  system,  however,  lies  in  the  fact  that 
passports  are  not  demanded  by  the  United  States  as  a  requisite  of 
admission,  and  although  subjects  of  Italy  may  not  leave  Italian  ports 
without  them,  there  is  little  or  nothing  to  prevent  those  unprovided 
from  leaving  the  country  overland  without  passports  or  with  pass- 
ports to  other  countries  and  then  embarking  for  the  United  States 
from  foreign  ports.  Thus  it  is  readily  seen  that  the  precaution  of 
Italy,  however  effective,  is  practically  worthless  without  cooperation 
on  the  part  of  the  United  States. 


CHAPTER  V. 
INSPECTION  OF  EMIGRANTS  ABROAD. 

The  practice  of  examining  into  the  physical  condition  of  emigrants 
at  the  time  of  embarkation  is  one  of  long  standing  at  some  European 
ports.  In  the  earlier  days,  and  in  fact  until  quite  recently,  the  pur- 
pose of  the  inspection  was  merely  to  protect  the  health  of  steerage 
passengers  during  the  ocean  voyage.  The  Belgian  law  of  1843  pro- 
vided that  in  case  the  presence  of  infectious  disease  among  passengers 
was  suspected  there  should  be  an  examination  by  a  naval  surgeon,  in 
order  to  prevent  the  embarkation  of  afflicted  persons.  The  British 
steerage  law  of  1848,  the  enactment  of  which  followed  the  experiences 
of  1847,  when  thousands  of  emigrants  driven  from  Ireland  by  the 
famine  died  of  ship  fever,  provided  that  passengers  should  be  exam- 
ined by  a  physician,  and  those  whose  condition  was  likely  to  endanger 
the  health  of  other  passengers  should  not  be  permitted  to  proceed. 
Similar  laws  or  regulations  became  general  among  the  maritime 
nations  and  are  still  in  effect. 

The  situation  is  also  affected  somewhat  by  provisions  of  the  United 
States  quarantine  law,  which  require  American  consular  officers  to 
satisfy  themselves  of  the  sanitary  condition  of  ships  and  passengers 
sailing  for  United  States  ports.  The  laws  above  referred  to  are  in- 
tended to  prevent  the  embarkation  of  persons  afflicted  with  diseases 
of  a  quarantinable  nature,  and  the  only  real  and  effective  protec- 
tion this  country  has  against  the  coming  of  the  otherwise  physically 
or  mentally  defective  is  the  United  States  emigration  law,  which, 
through  rejections  and  penalties  at  United  States  ports,  has  made 
the  transportation  of  diseased  emigrants  unprofitable  to  the  steamship 
companies.  This  law  is  responsible  for  the  elaborate  system  of  exami- 
nation which  prevails  at  ports  of  embarkation  and  elsewhere  in 
Europe  at  the  present  time. 

EFFECT  OF  UNITED  STATES  IMMIGRATION  LAWS. 

The  selection  of  immigrants  by  means  of  national  laws  denying 
entrance  to  the  United  States  to  persons  of  certain  classes  began  in 
1875  a  with  the  enactment  of  a  statute  which  provided  that — 

It  shall  be  unlawful  for  aliens  of  the  following  classes  to  immigrate  into  the 
United  States,  namely :  Persons  who  are  undergoing  a  sentence  for  conviction 
in  their  own  country  of  felonious  crimes  other  than  political  or  the  growing  out 
of  or  the  result  of  such  political  offenses,  or  whose  sentence  has  been  remitted 
on  condition  of  their  emigration,  and  women  "  imported  for  the  purposes  of 
prostitution." 

It  was  further  provided  that — 

Every  vessel  arriving  in  the  United  States  may  be  inspected  under  the  direc- 
tion of  the  collector  of  the  port  at  which  it  arrives,  if  he  shall  have  reason  to 


°Act  of  Mar.  3,  1875 ;  18  Stat.,  pt  3,  p.  477. 


70  The  Immigration  Commission. 

believe  that  any  such  obnoxious  persons  are  on  board;  and  the  officer  making 
such  inspection  shall  certify  the  result  thereof  to  the  master  or  other  person  in 
charge  of  such  vessel,  designating  in  such  certificate  the  person  or  persons,  if 
any  there  be,  ascertained  by  him  to  be  of  either  of  the  classes  whose  importa- 
tion is  hereby  forbidden.  When  such  inspection  is  required  by  the  collector  as 
aforesaid,  it  shall  be  unlawful,  without  his  permission,  for  any  alien  to  leave 
any  such  vessel  arriving  in  the  United  States  from  a  foreign  country  until  the 
inspection  shall  have  been  had  and  the  result  certified  as  herein  provided ;  and 
at  no  time  thereafter  shall  any  alien  certified  to  by  the  inspecting  officer  as 
being  of  either  of  the  classes  whose  immigration  is  forbidden  by  this  section  be 
allowed  to  land  in  the  United  States,  except  -in  obedience  to  a  judicial  process 
issued  pursuant  to  law. 

The  act  of  August  3,  1882,°  prohibited  the  landing  at  United  States 
ports  of  any — 

convict,  lunatic,  idiot,  or  any  person  unable  to  take  care  of  himself  or  herself 
without  becoming  a  public  charge. 

This  act  also  provided  that  all  foreign  convicts,  except  those  con- 
victed of  political  offenses,  should,  upon  arrival,  be  sent  back  to  the 
nations  to  which  they  belonged.  In  1885  b  contract  laborers  were 
added  to  the  other  excluded  classes. 

The  first  really  comprehensive  immigration  law,  however,  was  en- 
acted in  1891. c  This  provided  for  a  medical  examination  of  immi- 
grants arriving  at  United  States  ports  by  surgeons  of  the  Marine- 
Hospital  Service,  and  for  the  exclusion  of  idiots,  insane  persons, 
paupers,  or  persons  likely  to  become  a  public  charge,  persons  suffer- 
ing from  a  loathsome  or  a  dangerous  contagious  disease,  criminals, 
polygamists,  and  certain  classes  of  assisted  immigrants.  The  act  of 
1891  further  provided— 

that  all  aliens  who  may  unlawfully  come  into  the  United  States  shall,  if  prac- 
ticable, be  immediately  sent  back  on  the  vessel  by  which  they  were  brought  in. 
The  cost  of  their  maintenance  while  on  land,  as  well  as  the  expense  of  the  re- 
turn of  such  aliens,  shall  be  borne  by  the  owner  or  owners  of  the  vessel  on 
which  such  aliens  came;  *  *  * 

This  legislation  marked  the  real  beginning  of  the  systematic  ex- 
amination of  immigrants  at  United  States  ports,  and  the  number  of 
rejections  which  resulted  soon  compelled  steamship  companies  to  exer- 
cise some  degree  of  care  in  the  selection  of  steerage  passengers  at 
foreign  ports. 

The  necessity  of  an  examination  abroad,  however,  was  greatly  in- 
creased by  two  subsequent  events.  The  first  of  these  occurred  in  1897, 
when  trachoma  d  was  classed  by  the  United  States  Public  Health  and 
Marine-Hospital  Service  as  a  "  dangerous  contagious  "  disease  within 
the  meaning  of  the  immigration  law  of  1891,  and  the  second  in  1903, 
when  Congress,  by  the  immigration  act  of  that  year,6  provided  that  a 
fine  of  $100  should  be  imposed  on  steamship  companies  for  bringing 
to  a  United  States  port  an  alien  afflicted  with  a  loathsome  or  dan- 
gerous contagious  disease,  when  the  existence  of  such  disease  might 


a  Immigration  act  of  August  3,  1882 ;  22  Stat,  p.  214. 

*  Contract  Labor  act  of  Feb.  26,  1885 ;  23  Stat.,  p.  332. 
c  Immigration  act  of  Mar.  3,  1891 ;  26  Stat.,  p.  1084. 

*  Granulation  of  the  conjunctiva  of  the  eyelids  attended  by  Inflammation. 
Webster. 

« Immigration  act  of  Mar.  3,  1903;  sec.  9,  32  Stat.,  pt.  1,  p.' 1213. 


" 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


71 


have  been  detected  by  a  competent  medical  examination  at  the  foreign 
port  of  embarkation. 

As  already  noted,  previous  to  this  enactment  the  law  merely  pro- 
vided that  steamship  companies  should  return  rejected  aliens  at  their 
own  expense,  a  requirement  obviously  difficult  of  enforcement,  and, 
in  any  event,  not  very  expensive  to  the  carrier.  The  fine  of  $100 
in  each  case  of  a  loathsome  or  dangerous  contagious  disease  that 
might  have  been  detected  at  a  foreign  port,  however,  made  the  elimi- 
nation of  such- cases  a  business  necessity,  and  it  was  not  long  until  a 
much  more  thorough  and  effective  examination  abroad  was  instituted 
by  the  steamship  companies. 

The  immigration  law  of  1907,°  at  present  in  force,  increased  the 
causes  for  which  a  fine  of  $100  may  be  imposed  on  steamship  com- 
panies to  include  also  idiots,  imbeciles,  epileptics,  and  persons  af- 
flicted with  tuberculosis,  whose  condition  might  have  been  detected 
at  the  foreign  port  of  embarkation. 


IMMIGRANTS  REJECTED  AT   UNITED  STATES  PORTS. 

The  effect  of  the  various  laws  in  debarring  undesirable  immi- 
grants since  1892  is  indicated  by  the  following  table,  which  shows  the 
number  rejected  by  years  at  all  United  States  ports  as  compared 
with  the  total  number  of  immigrants  admitted  in  such  years : 

TABLE  40. — Immigrants  admitted  and  aliens  debarred  at  United  States  ports 
during  the  fiscal  years  1892  to  1910,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner  General  of  Immigration.] 


Year. 

Immigrants 
admitted. 

Aliens 
debarred. 

Ratio. 

1892. 

579,  663 

2,  164 

1  to  268 

1893 

439,  730 

1.053 

1  to  418 

1894 

285,  631 

1,389 

1  to  206 

1895.                                                                          

258,536 

2,419 

1  to  107 

1890  

343,267 

2,799 

1  to  123 

1897 

230,  832 

1,617 

1  to  143 

1898 

229,  299 

3  030 

1  to    76 

1899                                                                                                 

311,715 

3,798 

1  to    82 

1900 

448,  572 

4,246 

1  to  106 

1901 

487,918 

3,516 

1  to  139 

1902.. 

648,  743 

4,974 

1  to  130 

1903 

857,  046 

8,769 

1  to   98 

1904 

812,  870 

7,994 

1  to  102 

1905  

1,026,499 

11,879 

1  to    86 

1906.                                                                                            

1,100,735 

12,  432 

1  to    89 

1907 

1,285,349 

13,064 

1  to    98 

1908... 

782,  870 

10,902 

Ito    72 

;1909... 

751,  786 

10,411 

Ito    72 

1910                       .                                                                                      

1,041,570 

24,  270 

1  to    43 

Total.                                                                 

11,922,631 

130,  721 

Ito    91 

It  will  be  remembered  that  in  1897  the  United  States  Public  Health 
ind  Marine-Hospital  Service  classed  trachoma  as  a  "  dangerous 
contagious  "  disease,  within  the  meaning  of  the  United  States  immi- 


a  Immigration  act  of  Feb.  20,  1907. 
70524°— VOL  4—11 6 


72  The  Immigration  Commission. 

p 

gration  law.    The  cause  of  this  action  is  explained  in  a  publication  of 
the  Marine-Hospital  Service,  as  follows :  ° 

The  increasing  prevalence  of  trachoma  in  the  United  States  attracted  wide- 
spread attention  for  some  years  prior  to  1897.  Cases  and  outbreaks  of  the  dis- 
ease, especially  among  school  children  and  the  alien  population,  were  noted  by 
numerous  observers,  and  because  of  the  contagiousness  of  the  disease  and  the 
seriousness  of  its  sequelae,  it  was  regarded  as  a  menace  to  the  public  health. 

Fewer  cases  had  been  observed  among  native-born  Americans,  and  the  in- 
crease was  attributed  to  the  influx  of  a  large  alien  population  to  the  congested 
centers  along  the  Atlantic  seaboard  and  elsewhere. 

During  the  past  twenty-five  years  immigrants  have  come  from  as  many 
countries.  During  the  first  fifteen  years  of  this  quarter  of  a  century  the  bulk 
of  immigration  came  from  northern  Europe,  principally  Germany,  Scandinavia, 
and  the  British  Isles — countries  in  which  trachoma  is  relatively  infrequent. 
During  the  past  twelve  years  the  tide  of  immigration  from  southern  Europe  has 
been  steadily  increasing,  until  at  the  present  time  the  larger  part  of  the  alien 
population  arriving  at  our  shores  originates  in  Italy,  Austria-Hungary,  the 
Russian  Empire,  and  countries  bordering  on  the  northern  and  eastern  shores 
of  the  Mediterranean. 

This  change  in  the  source  of  arriving  immigrants  and  resulting  difference  in 
the  character  of  the  people  is  very  significant,  and  in  all  probability  accounts  for 
the  marked  increase  of  the  disease  noted  above. 

Prior  to  1897  ophthalmologists  and  representative  bodies  urged  that  imme- 
diate steps  be  taken  to  prevent  the  further  importation  of  the  disease,  in  the 
belief  that  such  precautions  would  be  an  important  factor  in  the  elimination 
of  the  disease  from  the  country.  Dr.  Miles  Standish,  of  Boston,  an  eminent 
authority  on  diseases  of  the  eyes,  in  an  article  which  appeared  in  the  Medical 
Communications  of  the  Massachusetts  Medical  Society  (vol.  17,  No.  11), 
referred  to  this  question  in  part  as  follows : 

"  I  may  say  in  passing  that  the  presence  of  acute  trachoma  in  the  con- 
junctiva of  immigrants  should  be  a  good  an,d  sufficient  reason  for  turning  them 
back  whence  they  came.  A  large  proportion  of  these  cases  within  a  few 
months  after  their  arrival  become  incapacitated  and  are  public  charges.  And 
not  only  this,  but  were  it  not  for  the  new  cases  thus  introduced  in  the  great 
tenement  localities  of  our  large  cities,  it  is  my  opinion  that  the  disease  would 
soon  become  extremely  rare  in  this  part  of  the  country." 

No  doubt  existed  as  to  the  seriousness  of  trachoma.  Its  contagious  character 
was  admitted,  and  it  was  believed  that  fresh  importations  only  served  to 
propagate  the  disease  and  cause  additional  burdens  on  the  State.  A  communi- 
cation was  therefore  addressed  to  the  Commissioner  of  Immigration,  October 
30,  1897,  declaring  that  the  disease  should  be  classified  as  "  dangerous  con 
tagious,"  in  accordance  with  the  immigration  law'  of  1891,  thus  making  man- 
datory the  deportation  of  all  arriving  aliens  who  are  so  afflicted. 

Since  that  time  thousands  of  aliens  afflicted  with  trachoma  have  been  certi-, 
fied  at  United  States  ports  and  excluded  from  landing. 

The  effect  of  making  trachoma  a  cause  for  debarring  alien  immi- 
grants from  entering  United  States  ports  is  clearly  apparent  in  the 
preceding  table.  The  order,  as  above  stated,  was  issued  on  October 
30,  1897,  or  three  months  after  the  beginning  of  the  fiscal  year  1898, 
and  it  will  be  noted  that  rejections  during  that  year  reached  a  total 
of  3,030  as  compared  with  1,617  in  the  preceding  fiscal  year  1897,  an 
increase  of  87.4  per  cent,  while  the  ratio  of  rejections  to  admissions 
increased  from  1  to  143  in  1897  to  1  to  76  in  1898. 

As  indicated  by  the  table,  the  proportion  of  rejections  to  admis- 
sions has  decreased  notably  in  some  years  since  1898,  but  this  is  due 
to  causes  other  than  loathsome  or  dangerous  contagious  diseases,  as 
will  be  seen  from  the  next  table  which  shows  the  principal  causes 
for  which  aliens  were  rejected  in  the  years  under  consideration. 

0  Trachoma,  its  Character  and  Effects.  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital 
Service  of  the  United  States.  Washington,  1907. 


. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


73 


TABLE  41. — Aliens  debarred  at  all  United  States  ports  during  the  fiscal  years 
1892  to  1910.  inclusive,  by  cause. 

[Compiled  from  annual  reports  of  the  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Year. 

Total 
debarred. 

Cause  of  debarment. 

Loathsome 
or 
dangerous 
contagious 
diseases. 

Otrer 
phj  sical 
or  rhei  tal 
diseases 
or  defects. 

Pauf  ers 
or  persons 
likely  to 
become 
public 
charges.  • 

Contract 
laborers. 

Allother 
causes. 

18ci2 

2,164 
1,053 
1,389 
2,419 
2,799 
1,617 
3,030 
3,798 
4,246 
3,516 
4,974 
8,769 
7,994 
11,874 
12,  432 
13,064 
10,902 
10,411 
24,  270 

80 
81 
15 

21 
11 
9 
6 
11 
7 
13 
20 
33 
22 
34 
24 
49 
130 
231 
218 
1,246 
726 
696 

1,002 
431 

802 
1,714 
2,010 
1,277 
2,261 
2,599 
2,974 
2,798 
3,944 
5,812 
4,798 
7,898 
7,069 
6,866 
3,710 
4,402 
15,918 

932 
518 
553 
694 
776 
328 
417 
741 
833 
327 
275 
1,086 
1,501 
1,164 
2,314 
1,434 
1,932 
1,172 
1,786 

129 
12 
10 
5 

1893       

1894                             

1895 

1896       

2 
1 

258 
348 
393 
309 
709 
1,773 
1,560 
2,198 
2,273 
3,822 
2,900 
2,382 
3,123 

1897                            

4 
81 
90 
13 
60 
12 
74 
86 
484 
545 
724 
1,114 
1,729 
2,747 

1898 

1899 

1900                     

1901 

1902        

1903 

1904 

1905        

1906 

1°07 

1908        

1909 

1910 

Year. 

Per  cent. 

Loathsome 
or 
dangerous 
contagious 

diseases. 

Other 
physical 
or  mental 
diseases 
or  defects. 

Paur  ers 
or  re?  sons 
like  y  to 
become 
public 
charges. 

Centre  ct 
laborers. 

All  other 
causes. 

1892 

3.7 
7.7 
1.1 

1.0 
1.0 
.6 
.2 
.4 
.4 
.4 
.5 
.8 
.6 
.7 
.3 
.6 
1.1 
1.9 
1.7 
11.4 
7.0 
2.8 

46.3 

40.9 
57.7 
70.9 
71.8 
79.0 
74.6 
68.4 
70.0 
79.6 
79.3 
66.3 
60.0 
66.5 
56.9 
52.6 
34.0 
42.3 
65.6 

43.1 
49.2 
39.8 
28.7 
27.7 
20.3 
13.8 
19.5 
19.6 
9.3 
5.5 
12.4 
18.8 
9.8 
18.6 
11.0 
17.7 
11.3 
7.4 

6.0 
1.1 
.7 
.2 

1893 

1894       .                                         

1895 

1896 

.1 
.1 
8.5 
9.2 
9.3 
8.8 
14.3 
20.2 
19.5 
18.5 
18.3 
29.3 
26.6 
22  9 
12!  9 

1897                                                      

.2 
2.7 
2.4 
.3 
1.7 
.2 
.8 
1.1 
4.1 
4.4 
5.5 
10.2 
16.6 
11.3 

1898 

1899  

1900  .                      

1901 

1902  

1903  

1904                                           t 

1905  

1906  

1907 

i     1908 

'     1909.  .  . 

i     1910  

It  will  be  noted  from  the  above  table  that  between  1898  and  1909 
there  was  a  great  increase  in  the  proportion  of  rejections  on  account 
of  loathsome  and  dangerous  contagious  diseases,  as  well  as  on  account 
of  other  physical  or  mental  diseases  or  defects,  while  there  was  a 
large  decrease  in  the  proportion  of  those  rejected  as  paupers  or  per- 
sons likely  to  become  public  charges.  The  change  in  this  regard  in 
the  fiscal  year  1910  was  due  to  the  fact  that  an  unusually  large  num- 
ber of  aliens  were  rejected  as  paupers  or  persons  likely  to  become 


74  The  Immigration  Commission. 

public  charges,  the  fluctuation  being  due,  in  all  probability,  to  admin- 
istrative interpretation  of  the  law. 

Since  the  enactment  of  the  immigration  law  of  1903,  when  carriers 
were  for  the  first  time  subjected  to  a  penalty,  other  than  the  obliga- 
tion of  returning  those  rejected,  for  bringing  diseased  aliens  of  cer- 
tain classes  to  United  States  ports,  fines  for  such  action  have  been 
assessed  in  various  fiscal  years  as  follows: 

1904-                                                                                               _  $28,400 

1905 27, 300 

3906 . 24,300 

1907 37,  200 

1908 26,700 

1909 27,400 

1910 29,  900 

While  the  amount  of  fines  imposed  in  any  one  year  has  not  been 
large,  compared  with  the  rejections  of  aliens  on  account  of  loathsome 
or  dangerous  contagious  diseases,  ,as  will  be  seen  by  reference  to  the 
table  on  page  73,  it  is  certain  that  the  law  in  this  regard'  has  been 
exceedingly  useful  in  preventing  the  embarkation  of  diseased  emi- 
grants at  foreign  ports. 

The  two  sections  of  the  law  of  1907  which  are  responsible  for  the 
steamship  companies'  interest  in  an  effective  medical  examination  of 
emigrants  at  ports  of  embarkation  abroad  are  as  follows : 

SEC.  -9.  That  it  shall  be  unlawful  for  any  person,  including  any  transporta- 
tion company  other  than  railway  lines  entering  the  United  States  from  foreign 
contiguous  territory,  or  the  owner,  master,  agent,  or  consignee  of  any  vessel  to 
bring  to  the  United  States  any  alien  subject  to  any  of  the  following  disabilities : 
Idiots,  imbeciles,  epileptics,  or  persons  afflicted  with  tuberculosis  or  with  a 
loathsome  or  dangerous  contagious  disease,  and  if  it  shall  appear  to  the  satis- 
faction of  the  Secretary  of  Commerce  and  Labor  that  any  alien  so  brought  to 
the  United  States  was  afflicted  with  any  of  the  said  diseases  or  disabilities  at 
the  time  of  foreign  embarkation  and  that  the  existence  of  such  disease  or  dis- 
ability might  have  been  detected  by  means  of  a  competent  medical  examination 
at  such  time,  such  person  or  transportation  company,  or  the  master,  agent, 
owner,  or  consignee  of  any  such  vessel  shall  pay  to  the  collector  of  customs  of 
the  customs  district  in  which  the  port  of  arrival  is  located  the  sum  of  one 
hundred  dollars  for  each  and  every  violation  of  the  provisions  of  this  section ; 
and  no  vessel  shall  be  granted  clearance  papers  pending  the  determination  of 
the  question  of  the  liability  to  the  payment  of  such  fine,  and  in  the  event  such 
fine  is  imposed,  while  it  remains  unpaid,  nor  shall  such  fine  be  remitted  or 
refunded.  *  *  * 

SEC.  19.  That  all  aliens  brought  to  this  country  in  violation  of  law  shall,  if 
practicable,  be  immediately  sent  back  to  the  country  whence  they  respectively 
came  on  the  vessels  bringing  them.  The  cost  of  their 'maintenance  while  on. 
land  as  well  as  the  expense  of  the  return  of  such  aliens  shall  be  borne  by  the. 
owner  or  owners  of  the  vessels  on  which  they  respectively  came;  and  if  any 
master,  person  in  charge,  agent,  owner,  or  consignee  of  any  such  vessel  shall 
refuse  to  receive  back  on  board  thereof,  or  on  board  of  any  other  vessel  owned 
or  operated  by  the  same  interests,  such  aliens,  or  shall  fail  to  detain  them 
thereon,  or  shall  refuse  or  fail  to  return  them  to  the  foreign  port  from  which 
they  came,  or  to  ray  the  cost  of  their  maintenance  while  on  land,  or  shall  make 
any  charge  for  the  return  of  any  such  alien,  or  shall  take  any  security  from 
him  for  the  payment  of  such  charge,  such  master,  person  in  charge,  agent, 
owner,  or  consignee  shall  be  deemed  guilty  of  a  misdemeanor  and  shall,  on 
conviction,  be  punished  by  a  fine  of  not  less  than  three  hundred  dollars  for 
each  and  every  such  offense;  and  no  vessel  shall  have  clearance  from  any  port 
of  the  United  States  while  any  such  fine  is  unpaid.  *  *  * 


The  measures  taken  by  steamship  companies  at  the  various  po 
of  Europe  to  avoid  the  penalties  imposed  by  these  sections  will  appear 
later. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  •  75 


THE   UNITED   STATES  QUARANTINE  LAW. 

Mention  has  been  made  of  the  United  States  quarantine  law  as  a 
partial  safeguard  against  the  embarkation  of  diseased  emigrants  for 
the  United  States.  It  is  this  law  which  authorizes  American  con- 
sular officials,  acting  as  quarantine  officers,  to  participate  with  more 
or  less  effectiveness,  according  to  circumstances,  in  the  inspection  of 
emigrants  abroad,  and  as  the  activities  of -such  officers  at  European 
ports  will  be  frequently  referred  to  in  what  follows  such  parts  of  the 
quarantine  law  of  1893°  as  relate  to  their  duties  in  this  regard  are 
given  herewith  in  order  that  the  situation  may  be  fully  understood : 

SEC.  1.  That  it  shall  be  unlawful  for  any  merchant  ship  or  other  vessel  from 
any  foreign  port  or  place  to  enter  any  port  of  the  United  States  except  in 
accordance  with  the  provisions  of  this  act  and  with  such  rules  and  regulations 
of  State  and  municipal  health  authorities  as  may  be  made  in  pursuance  of,  or 
consistent  with,  this  act;  and  any  such  vessel  which  shall  enter,  or  attempt 
to  enter,  a  port  of  the  United  States  in  violation  thereof  shall  forfeit  to  the 
United  States  a  sum.  to  be  awarded  in  the  discretion  of  the  court,  not  exceed- 
ing five  thousand  dollars,  which  shall  be  a  lien  upon  said  vessel,  to  be  recovered 
by  proceedings  in  the  proper  district  court  of  the  United  States.  *  *  * 

SEC.  2.  That  any  vessel  at  any  foreign  port  clearing  for  any  port  or  place  in 
the  United  States  shall  be  required  to  obtain  from  the  consul,  vice-consul,  or 
other  consular  officer  of  the  United  States  at  the  port  of  departure,  or  from 
the  medical  officer  where  such  officer  has  been  detailed  by  the  President  for 
that  purpose,  a  bill  of  health,  in  duplicate,  in  the  form  prescribed  by  the  Sec- 
retary of  the  Treasury,  setting  forth  the  sanitary  history  and  condition  of  said 
vessel,  and  that  it  has  in  all  respects  complied  with  the  rules  and  regulations 
in  such  cases  prescribed  for  securing  the  best  sanitary  condition  of  the  said 
vessel,  its  cargo,  passengers,  and  crew ;  and  said  consular  or  medical  officer  is 
required,  before  granting  such  duplicate  bill  of  health,  to  be  satisfied  that  the 
matters  and  things  therein  stated  are  true;  and  for  his  services  in  that  behalf 
he  shall  be  entitled  to  demand  and  receive  such  fees  as  shall  by  lawful  regu-  * 
lation  be  allowed,  to  be  accounted  for  as  is  required  in  other  cases. 

The  President,  in  his  discretion,  is  authorized  to  detail  any  medical  officer 
of  the  Government  to  serve  in  the  office  of  the  consul  at  any  foreign  port  for 
the  purpose  of  furnishing  information  and  making  the  inspection  and  giv- 
ing the  bills  of  health  hereinbefore  mentioned.  Any  vessel  clearing  and  sailing 
from  any  such  port  without  such  bill  of  health,  and  entering  any  port  of  the 
United  States,  shall  forfeit  to  the  United  States  not  more  than  five  thousand 
dollars,  the  amount  to  be  determined  by  the  court,  which  shall  be  a  lien  on  the 
same,  to  be  recovered  by  proceedings  in  the  proper  district  court  of  the  United 
States.  *  *  * 

SEC.  3.  *  *  *  The  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  shall  make  such  rules  and 
regulations  as  are  necessary  to  be  observed  by  vessels  at  the  port  of  departure 
and  on  the  voyage,  where  such  vessels  sail  from  any  foreign  port  or  place  to 
any  port  or  place  in  the  United  States,  to  secure  the  best  sanitary  condition 
of  such  vessel,  her  cargo,  passengers,  and  crew;  which  shall *be  published 
and  communicated  to  and  enforced  by  the  consular  officers  of  the  United 
States.  *  *  * 

SEC.  4.  That  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Supervising  Surgeon-General  of  the 
rine-Hospital  Service,  under  the  direction  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury, 
perform  all  the  duties  in  respect  to  quarantine  and  quarantine  regulations 
ich  are  provided  for  by  this  act,  and  to  obtain  information  of  the  sanitary 
dition  of  foreign  ports  and  places  from  which  contagious  and  infectious 
diseases  are  or  may  be  imported  into  the  United  States,  and  to  this  end  the 

Jular  officer  of  the  United  States  at  such  ports  and  places  as  shall  be  desig- 
d  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  shall   make  to  the   Secretary  of  the 
sury  weekly  reports  of  the  sanitary  condition  of  the  ports  and  places  at 
which  they  are  respectively  stationed,  according  to  such  forms  as  the  Secre- 
tary of  the  Treasury  shall  prescribe.     *     *     * 

An  act  granting  additional  quarantine  powers  and  imposing  additional 
ties  upon  the  Marine-Hospital  Service.  Approved  Feb.  15,  1893 ;  27  Stat.  L., 
449. 


E 


76  The  Immigration  Commission. 

SEC.  5.  That  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  shall  from  time  to  time  issue  to 
the  consular  officers  of  the  United  States  and  to  the  medical  officers  serving 
at  any  foreign  port,  and  otherwise  make  publicly  known,  the  rules  and  regu- 
lations made  by  him,  to  be  used  and  complied  with  by  vessels  in  foreign  ports, 
for  securing  the 'best  sanitary  conditions  of  such  vessels,  their  cargoes,  pas- 
sengers, and  crew,  before  their  departure  for  any  port  in  the  United.  States, 
and  in  the  course  of  the  voyage.  *  *  * 

SEC.  7.  That  whenever  it  shall  be  shown  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  President 
that  by  reason  of  the  existence  of  cholera  or  other  infectious  or  contagious 
diseases  in  a  foreign  country  there  is  serious  danger  of  the  introduction  of  the 
same  into  the  United  States,  and  that  notwithstanding  the  quarantine  defense 
this  danger  is  so  increased  by  the  introduction  of  persons  or  property  from  such 
country  that  a  suspension  of  the  right  to  introduce  the  same  is  demanded  in 
the  interest  of  the  public  health,  the  President  shall  have' power  to  prohibit,  in 
whole  or  in  part,  the  introduction  of  persons  and  property  from  such  countries 
or  places  as  he  shall  designate  and  for  such  period  of  time  as  he  may  deem 
necessary. 

It  will  be  noted  from  the  above-quoted  provisions  of  the  quaran- 
tine law  that  consular  officers  are  required  to  satisfy  themselves  that 
ships  sailing  to  United  States  ports,  as  well  as  the  cargo,  passengers, 
and  crew  of  such  ships,  are  in  good  sanitary  condition.  This  is  the 
basis  for  such  consular  examinations  of  emigrants  as  are  in  force  at 
European  ports. 

An  important  provision  of  the  law  is  that  which  authorizes  the 
President  to  detail  medical  officers  to  serve  in  the  office  of  the  consul 
at  any  port  for  the  purpose  of  making  the  quarantine  law  effective. 
This  authority  has  been  exercised  at  various  times.  In  fact,  during 
the  winter  of  1899-1900  officers  of  the  Marine-Hospital  Service  were 
on  duty  at  the  American  consular  offices  in  London,  Liverpool,  Glas- 
gow, Queenstown,  Southampton,  Havre,  Marseille,  Hamburg, 
»Bremen,  Antwerp,  Rotterdam,  Naples,  Genoa,  Barcelona,  and  Cadiz. 
This  detail  was  made  on  account  of  the  appearance  of  plague  in 
various  parts  of  Europe.  The  plague  having  disappeared,  these 
officers  were  recalled  in  the  summer  of  1900,  with  the  exception  of 
four,  who  were  detailed  for  service  for  a  time  in  the  offices  of  the 
American  consuls-general  in  London,  Paris,  Berlin,  and  Vienna,  and 
one  who  remained  at  Naples,  where,  as  will  be  explained,  officers  of 
the  Marine-Hospital  Service  have  since  been  stationed  for  the  pur- 
pose of  examining  emigrants. 

INSPECTION  OF  EMIGRANTS  IN   EUROPE. 

How  to  prevent  the  embarkation  at  foreign  ports  of  emigrants 
who,  under  the  immigration  law,  can  not  be  admitted  at  United 
States  ports,  is  a  serious  problem,  in  which  the  welfare  of  the  emi- 
grant is  the  chief  consideration.  In  a  purely  practical  sense,  except 
for  the  danger  of  contagion  on  shipboard,  the  United  States  is  not 
seriously  affected  by  the  arrival  of  diseased  persons  at  ports  of 
entry,  because  the  law  does  not  permit  them  to  enter  the  country. 

From  a  humanitarian  standpoint,  however,  it  is  obviously  of  the 
greatest  importance  that  emigrants  of  the  classes  debarred  by  law 
from  entering  the  United  States  be  not  allowed  to  embark  at  foreign 
ports.  This  is  accomplished  in  a  large  measure  under  the  present 
system  of  inspection  abroad,  for  in  ordinary  years  at  least  five  in- 
tending emigrants  are  turned  back  at  European  ports  to  one  debarred 
at  United  States  ports  of  arrival. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  77 

In  view  of  the  importance  of  the  subject,  the  Commission  made  a 
careful  investigation  of  examination  systems  prevailing  at  the  ports 
of  Amsterdam,  Antwerp,  Bremen,  Cherbourg,  Christiania,  Copen- 
hagen, Fiume,  Genoa,  Glasgow,  Hamburg,  Harve,  Libau,  Liverpool, 
Londendorry,  Marseille,  Messina,  Naples,  Palermo,  Patras,  Piraeus, 
Queenstown,  Rotterdam,  and  Southampton,  from  which  ports  prac- 
tically all  emigrants  for  the  United  States  embark. 

There  is  little  uniformity  in  the  systems  of  examination  in  force 
at  these  ports.  At  Naples,  Palermo,  and  Messina,  under  authority 
of  the  United  States  quarantine  law,  and  by  agreement  with  the 
Italian  Government  and  the  steamship  companies,  the  medical  exami- 
nation of  steerage  passengers  is  made  by  officers  of  the  United  States 
Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service,  who  exercise  practically 
absolute  control  in  this  regard.  These  officers  examine  for  defects 
contemplated  by  the  United  States  immigration  law  every  intended 
emigrant  holding  a  steerage  ticket  and  advise  the  rejection  of  those 
whose  physical  condition  would  make  their  admission  to  the  United 
States  improbable.  While  acting  unofficially  these  officers  have  the 
support  of  both  government  and  steamship  officials,  and  their  sug- 
gestions relative  to  rejections  are  always  complied  with. 

The  other  extreme,  so  far  as  United  States  control  is  concerned, 
exists  at  Antwerp,  where  the  Belgian  Government  is  unwilling  to 
yield  even  partial  control  of  the  situation,  this  attitude  being  due  in 
part  to  a  former  disagreement  incidental  to  the  administration  of 
the  United  States  quarantine  law  at  that  port.  At  this  port  not  even 
American  consular  officers  are  permitted  to  interfere  in  the  examina- 
tion of  emigrants.  Between  these  extremes  there  exists  a  variety 
of  systems  in  which,  for  the  most  part,  American  consular  officials 
perform  more  or  less  important  functions,  as  outlined  in  the  United 
States  quarantine  law  previously  referred  to.  As  a  practical  illus- 
tration of  the  value  of  examinations  at  the  various  ^European  ports 
in  preventing  the  embarkation  of  diseased  or  otherwise  undesirable 
emigrants,  the  Commission,  as  will  appear  later,  has  made  a  compara- 
tive study  showing  rejections,  by  cause,  at  United  States  ports  of 
emigrants  from  different  ports  of  Europe.0 

The  examination  of  intending  emigrants,  however,  is  not  confined 
entirely  to  ports  of  embarkation,  but  in  several  instances  is  required 
when  application  for  a  steamship  ticket  is  made  or  before  the  emi- 
grant has  proceeded  to  a  port  of  embarkation.  The  most  conspicuous 
example  of  such  preliminary  examination  is  the  control-station  sys- 
tem which  the  German  Government  compels  the  steamship  companies 
to  maintain  on  the  German-Russian  and  German- Austrian  frontiers. 
There  are  13  of  these  stations  on  the  frontier  and  1  near  Berlin. 
Germany,  as  a  matter  of  self -protection,  requires  that  all  emigrants 
from  eastern  Europe  intending  to  cross  German  territory  to  ports  of 
embarkation  be  examined  at  such  stations,  and  such  as  do  not  comply 
with  the  German  law  governing  the  emigrant  traffic  through  the 
Empire  or  who  obviously  would  be  debarred  at  United  States  ports, 
are  rejected.  During  the  year  ending  June  30,  1907,  11,814  out  of 
455,916  intended  emigrants  inspected  were  turned  back  at  these 
stations.  The  German  control-station  system  is  discussed  at  greater 
length  elsewhere.1' 


°See    p.    SO.  &See    p.    93. 


78  The  Immigration  Commission. 

In  some  countries  an  effort  is  made  to  prevent  intending  emigrants 
from  leaving  home  unless  it  is  evident  that  they  will  meet  the  re- 
quirements of  examinations  at  control  stations,  ports  of  embarka- 
tion, or  of  the  United  States  immigration  laws.  This  is  particu- 
larly true  of  Hungary,  where  at  several  points  there  is  local  super- 
vision of  the  departure  of  emigrants  for  seaports.  While  this 
supervision  is  largely  due  to  Hungary's  purpose  of  controlling  emi- 
gration, particularly  where  emigrants  are  liable  to  military  service, 
the  system  prevents  many  from  leaving  home  who  would  be  rejected 
at  ports  of  embarkation  on  account  of  disease.  Members  of  the 
Commission  witnessed  an  examination  of  this  nature  at  Budapest 
and  at  Kassa,  the  northern  terminus  of  the  Hungarian  state  railway, 
where  a  government  control  station  had  recently  been  established. 
Formerly  the  examination  at  Kassa  was  controlled  by  the  city  police, 
but  at  the  time  of  the  committee's  visit  it  was  under  the  supervision 
of  the  frontier  state  police.  It  was  the  duty  of  the  officer  in  charge 
at  Kassa  to  examine  all  intended  emigrants  on  their  arrival  at  the 
railway  station  and  to.  see  that  their  departure  was  in  accordance 
with  both  the  Hungarian  and  the  United  States  law.  There  was  no 
medical  examination,  but  the  officer  advised  those  whose  physical 
condition  was  obviously  defective  that  they  would  probably  be  re- 
jected at  the  port  of  embarkation  or  at  the  United  States  port  of 
arrival.  Such  emigrants,  however,  were  allowed  to  proceed  if  they 
were  disposed  to  do  so.  A  case  of  this  nature  was  observed  by 
members  of  the  Commission  at  the  police-control  station  at  Budapest, 
where  a  youthful  emigrant  who  met  the  requirements  of  the  Hun- 
garian law  was  allowed  'to  proceed  to  Fiume  with  a  warning  that 
he  would  be  rejected  there. 

The  numbers  of  rejections  at  the  police-control  stations  in  Hun- 
gary is  not  inconsiderable.  According  to  the  police  records,  9.489 
emigrants  arrited  at  Kassa  during  the  calendar  year  1906  and  262 
were  rejected,  while  during  the  first  five  months  of  1907.  6,526  emi- 
grants arrived  and  207  were  rejected. 

Medical  examinations,  with  a  view  to  determining  the  admissi- 
bility  of  emigrants  under  the  United  States  law,  are  not  uncommon 
in  connection  with  the  sale  of  steamship  tickets.  A  member  of 
the  Commission,  found  this  to  be  the  practice  in  Warsaw,  where  the 
ticket  business  is  carried  on  secretly.  At  Gothenburg  it  was  stated 
that  steamship  agents  were  particular  not  to  sell  tickets  to  emigrants 
whom  they  suspected  of  being  diseased  until  the  applicant  had  passed 
a  private  medical  examination.  The  most  conspicuous  example  of 
examinations  in  connection  with  the  purchase  of  United  States  tickets 
was  found  in  Greece,  and  this  resulted  from  a  most  forcible  illustra- 
tion of  the  rigidity  of  the  United  States  law. 

In  1906  the  Austro-Americano  Company,  which  was  then  new  in 
the  emigrant  carrying  business,  had  over  300  emigrants  refused 
admission  to  the  United  States  and  returned  on  a  single  voyage. 
On  arrival  at  Trieste  these  returned  emigrants  mobbed  the  steamship 
company's  office,  and  the  experience  resulted  in  the  establishment  by 
the  Austro-Americano  Company  of  a  systematic  scheme  of  examining 
intended  emigrants  in  Greece.  Agents  of  the  company  in  that 
country  sent  their  head  physician  to  study  the  medical  examination 
of  immigrants  at  United  States  ports,  and  physicians  were  pr~ 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  79 

vided  for  the  forty  subagencies  of  the  company  in  different  parts  of 
Greece.  Under  the  system  in  force  in  Greece,  before  any  document 
is  given  to  an  intended  emigrant  he  is  examined  by  the  physician 
attached  to  the  subagency.  If  that  physician  accepts  him  he  re- 
ceives a  medical  certificate,  makes  a  deposit  toward  the  price  of  his 
ticket,  and  space  is  reserved  for  him  on  a  steamer.  When  he  goes 
to  the  port  of  embarkation,  the  emigrant  is  examined  by  the  com- 
pany's head  physician,  and  if  accepted  is  permitted  to  complete  his 
purchase  of  a  ticket.  On  the  day  of  sailing  all  emigrants  are  again 
examined  at  the  company's  office.  Following  the  inauguration  of 
this  system  of  examinations  there  was  a  great  and  immediate  reduc- 
tion in  the  number  of  rejections  at  United  States  ports  of  immigrants 
brought  from  Greece  by  the  Austro- Americano  Line. 

In  Italy  it  is  the  policy  of  the  Government  to  examine  the  records 
of  intended  emigrants  at  the  time  application  is  made  for  a  passport, 
and  unless  the  applicant  can  comply  with  the  Italian  and  United 
States  laws  the  passport  is  refused.  But  this  refers  particularly  to 
the  cases  of  criminals  and  convicts  rather  than  to  the  physically  de- 
fective, and  usually  Italian  and  many  other  emigrants  are  given  their 
first  medical  examination  at  ports  of  embarkation. 

From  records  of  steamship  companies  aitd  official  records  at  ports 
of  embarkation  the  Commission  secured  data  relative  to  rejections  at 
most  of  the  principal  ports  of  Europe,  and  also  records  of  rejec- 
tions at  the  German  control  stations,  for  the  thirteen  months  ending 
December  31.  1907.  During  that  period  11,882  intended  emigrants 
destined  to  the  ports  of  Bremen,  Hamburg,  and  Rotterdam  were 
turned  back  at  the  control  stations  referred  to,  and  27,799  more  were 
rejected  at  the  ports  of  Bremen,  Fiume,  Genoa,  Glasgow,  Hamburg, 
Havre,  Libau,  Liverpool,  Messina,  Naples,  Palermo,  Patras,  Queens- 
town,  Rotterdam,  and  Trieste,  a  total  of  39,681.°  It  was  impossible 
to  secure  data  respecting  rejections  at  some  ports,  and  at  others 
complete  data  were  not  available.  Consequently,  the  total  given 
above  undoubtedly  falls  considerably  short  of  the  total  number  who 
were  turned  back. 

During  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1907,  a  total  of  13,064  immi- 
grants were  rejected  at  United  States  ports,  and  for  the  three  fiscal 
years  ending  June  30,  1909,  the  total  number  of  immigrants  from 
all  sources  rejected  was  34,377,  or  5,304  less  than  were  turned  back 
at  the  European  ports  and  control  stations  above  mentioned  in  a 
period  of  thirteen  months. 

The  large  number  of  rejections  at  United  States  ports  is  not  es- 
sentially an  unfavorable  reflection  on  the  medical  examinations  con- 
ducted 'in  Europe  for  the  reason  that  the  latter  are  in  the  main 
onfined  to  the  physical  condition  of  emigrants,  while  at  United 
•tates  ports  the  examination  is  much  broader,  as  may  be  illustrated 
y  the  fact  that  more  are  rejected  there  as  paupers  and  persons  likely 
o  become  public  charges  than  on  account  of  physical  defects.6  It  is, 
of  course,  in  the  interest  of  the  steamship  companies  that  persons 
likely  to  be  rejected  at  United  States  ports  be  denied  the  privilege 
of  crossing  the  ocean,  for  rejected  persons  must  be  returned  at  the 
xpense  of  the  company  bringing  them,  and  besides  there  is  the 

°See  Table  45,  p.  122.  6See  table,  p.  73. 


80  The  Immigration  Commission. 

likelihood  of  a  fine  being  imposed  for  bringing  diseased  persons. 
But  this  is  not  all,  for,  in  addition  to  the  requirements  of  the 
United  States  law  relative  to  the  return  of  rejected  immigrants  to 
ports  of  embarkation,  European  laws,  as  a  rule,  require  that  steam- 
ship companies  forward  those  returned  to  their  homes,  or  home 
countries,  which  in  many  cases  are  at  a  considerable  distance  from 
the  ports  at  which  the  rejected  ones  embarked.  The  Italian  law 
relative  to  emigrants  returned  from  foreign  ports  imposes  even 
greater  burdens  on  the  carriers.  Under  that  law  the  returned  emi- 
grant is  entitled  to  damages  from  the  carrier  if  he  can  prove  that 
the  carrier  was  aware,  before  his  departure  from  Italy,  that  he  could 
not  be  admitted  under  the  law  of  the  country  to  which  he  emigrated. 
A  tribunal  known  as  the  arbitration  commission  has  been  established 
in  each  Province  of  Italy  to  examine  cases  of  this  nature,  and  the 
emigrant  who  has  been  returned  may  make  a  claim  before  that  com- 
mission without  expense  to  him.  In  many  cases,  besides  returning 
the  passage  money,  the  carrier  is  compelled  to  pay  the  returned 
emigrant  for  loss  of  wages  incurred  by  reason  of  his  journey  across 
the  sea.  For  these  reasons  the  transportation  of  emigrants  who  can 
not  be  admitted  to  the  United  States  is  usually  unprofitable,  but  not- 
withstanding this  fact  some  companies  are  willing  to  assume  con- 
siderable risk  for  the  sake  of  increasing  their  steerage  business.  In 
the  main,  however,  the  examinations  conducted  at  the  various  ports 
are  good  and  effective,  so  far  as  concerns  the  physical  condition  of 
emigrants,  and  as  a  safeguard  against  the  transportation  of  the  dis- 
eased, who  are  certain  to  be  rejected  at  United  States  ports,  they  are 
of  the  greatest  importance,  a  fact  whicli  the  Commission  believes  is 
not  always  fully  realized  by  students  of  the  immigration  problem  in 
the  United  States. 

INSPECTION  AT  PORTS  AND  CONTROL  STATIONS. 

In  order  that  the  various  systems  of  examination  in  force  at 
European  ports  may  be  understood,  a  description  of  the  method  of 
handling  and  examining  emigrants  at  the  principal  ports  is  given 
herewith. 

ANTWERP. 

Unlike  other  European  ports,  American  officials  have  no  part  in 
the  examination  or  embarkation  of  emigrants  sailing  from  Antwerp 
for  the  United  States.  Belgium  will  not  tolerate  the  least  interfer- 
ence on  the  part  of  officials  of  foreign  governments  in  the  matter,  and 
consequently  the  American  consular  authorities  are  not  permitted  to 
even  perfunctorily  perform  the  duties  required  by  the  United  States 
quarantine  law  in  connection  with  the  departure  of  vessels  for  United 
States  ports. 

The  inspection  of  emigrants  departing  from  Antwerp  and  bound 
for  the  United  States  is  entirely  under  the  supervision  of  the  Belgian 
commission  of  emigration,  which  is  composed  of  a  commissioner,  an 
assistant  commissioner,  a  chief  surgeon,  an  assistant  surgeon,  and 
nine  inspectors.  The  governor  of  the  Province  is  ex  officio  president 
of  this  commission.  The  commission  has  been  in  operation  since  1884. 
The  object  of  the  organization  is  to  see  to  the  safety  and  well-being 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  81 

of  emigrants  while  they  are  in  Belgium;  to  secure  them  against  un- 
scrupulous exploiters;  to  inspect  their  lodging  houses;  to  prescribe 
necessary  sanitary  measures ;  to  isolate  all  cases  of  contagious  disease. 
The  commission  is  always  willing  to  carry  out  the  inspection  in 
accordance  with  the  requirements  of  foreign  countries  as  far  as  they 
are  compatible  with  the  Belgian  law,  but  the  Government  recognizes 
no  power  in  any  foreign  official  to  exercise  authority  or  supervision. 
A  few  hours  before  sailing  emigrants  pass  an  inspection  under 
Belgian  laws  by  Belgian  officials.  The  steamship  line  is  represented 
by  its  chief  physician  and  the  surgeon  of  the  outgoing  ships.  Every 
emigrant  is  carefully  examined,  particularly  as  to  the  condition  of 
his  eyes  and  skin.  If  passed  he  receives  an  inspection  card  which 
admits  him  to  the  steamer  and  without  which  he  can  not  go  aboard. 
These  cards  are  stamped  by  the  Belgian  inspectors  rather  than  by 
American  consular  or  medical  officers,  as  is  usual  at  European  ports. 
On  two  occasions  in  recent  years  officers  of  the  United  States 
Public  Health»and  Marine-Hospital  Service  have  been  detailed  for 
service  at  Antwerp  in  connection  with  the  inspection  of  emigrants 
and  emigrant-carrying  ships  sailing  for  United  States  ports.  Fol- 
lowing the  cholera  epidemic  at  Hamburg  in  1892,  Congress  enacted 
the  quarantine  law  of  February  15,  1893,  and  in  April  of  the  latter 
year  an  officer  of  the  service  referred  to  was  stationed  at  Antwerp, 
as  a  few  cases  of  cholera  had  been  reported  at  that  port.  This  officer 
was  permitted  by  the  Red  Star  Line  to  act  officially  on  their  ships 
sailing  for  the  United  States,  but  was  allowed  to  attend  the  inspection 
of  emigrants  on  shore  only  in  a  non official  capacity.  The  detail 
ended  in  December,  1893,  when  United  States  Marine-Hospital  offi- 
cers stationed  at  various  European  ports  were  recalled.  An  officer  of 
this  service  was  again  detailed  for  service  at  Antwerp  in  December, 
1899,  when  the  plague  was  prevalent  in  eastern  Europe.  This  officer 
was  allowed  to  be  present  at  the  inspection  of  emigrants,  but  merely 
as  a  spectator,  and  the  examination,  as  before,  was  exclusively  con- 
ducted by  the  Belgian  officials. 

Only  one  steamship  line,  the  Red  Star,  carries  emigrants  from  the 
port  of  Antwerp  to  the  United  States.  This  line  has  a  fleet  of  six 
steamers,  two  of  which  transport  emigrants  exclusively.  Most  of 
the  emigrants  arrive  on  the  day  previous  to  the  sailing  and  are 
lodged  in  the  numerous  boarding  houses  for  this  purpose,  which  are 
supervised  by  the  sanitary  authorities  of  the  port  and  the  Belgian 
commission  of  emigration.  Emigration  from  Belgium  is  small,  and 
most  of  the  steerage  passengers  carried  by  the  Red  Star  line  come 
from  eastern  Europe. 

The  Commission  did  not  secure  a  record  of  rejections  at  Antwerp, 
but  as  in  the  case  of  other  ports  at  which  eastern  Europeans  apply 
for  passage  a  considerable  numbor  are  turned  back.  A  large  propor- 
tion of  the  emigrants  intending  to  sail  from  Antwerp,  however,  pass 
through  the  control  stations  on  the  German- Austrian  frontier,  and 
many,  of  course,  are  rejected  as  a  result  of  the  examination  there  who 
otherwise  would  be  turned  back  at  Antwerp. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that,  although  American  officials  have  no 
part  in  the  examination  of  emigrants  at  Antwerp,  the  records  of  re- 
jections at  United  States  ports  indicate  that  the  examination  there 
is  more  effective  than  at  most  European  ports.  During  the  period 


82  The  Immigration  Commission. 


covered  by  the  Commission's  inquiry,  as  will  appear  later,  the  per 
cent  of  steerage  passengers  embarking  at  Antwerp  who  are  rejected 
at  United  States  ports  is  much  smaller  than  among  emigrants  from 
Bremen,  Hamburg,  and  Rotterdam.  Practically  the  same  classes  of 
emigrants  embark  at  these  ports  as  at  Antwerp,  and  at  all  but  the 
latter  American  consular  officers  have  a  part  in  the  examination. 

BRITISH    PORTS.  , 

The  British  aliens  act  of  1905  a  provides  that — 

An  immigrant  shall  not  be  landed  in  the  United  Kingdom  from  an  immigrant 
ship  except  at  a  port  at  which  there  is  an  immigrant  officer  appointed  under 
this  act,  and  shall  not  be  landed  at  tiny  such  port  without  the  leave  of  that 
officer  given  after  an  inspection  of  the  immigrants  made  by  him  on  the  ship,  or 
elsewhere  if  the  immigrants  are  conditionally  disembarked  for  the  purpose,  in 
company  with  a  medical  inspector,  suc.h  inspection  to  be  made  as  soon  as 
practicable,  and  the  immigration  officer  shall  withhold  leave  in  the  case  of  any 
immigrant  who  appears  to  him  to  be  an  undesirable  immigrant  within  the 
meaning  of  this  section. 

It  is  further  provided  that — 

For  the  purposes  of  this  section  an  immigrant  shall  be  considered  an  un- 
desirable immigrant  if  he  can  not  show  that  he  has  in  his  possession  or  is  in 
a  position  to  obtain  the  means  of  decently  supporting  himself  and  his  de- 
pendents (if  any)  ;  or  if  he  is  a  lunatic  or  an  idiot,  or  owing  to  any  disease 
or  infirmity  appears  likely  to  become  a  charge  upon  the  rates  or  otherwise  a 
detriment  to  the  public ;  or  if  he  has  been  sentenced  in  a  foreign  country  with 
which  there  is  an  extradition  treaty  for  a  crime,  not  being  an  offense  of  a 
political  character,  which  is,  as  respects  that  country,  an  extradition  crime 
within  the  meaning  of  the  extradition  act,  1870 ;  or  if  an  expulsion  order  under 
this  act  has  been  made  in  his  case;  but,  in  the  case  of  an  immigrant  who 
proves  that  he  is  seeking  admission  to  this  country  solely  to  avoid  prosecution 
or  punishment  on  religious  or  political  grounds  or  for  an  offense  of  a  political 
character,  or  persecution,  involving  danger  of  imprisonment  or  danger  to  life 
or  limb,  on  account  of  religious  belief,  leave  to  laud  shall  not  be  refused  on  the 
ground  merely  of  want  of  means,  or  the  probability  of  his  becoming  a  charge 
on  the  rates,  *  *  * 

The  above  provisions  of  law,  however,  afford  no  protection  to  the 
United  States,  for  aliens  in  transit  through  Great  Britain  to  another 
country  are  not  considered  as  "  immigrants  "  within  the  meaning  of 
the  British  law,  as  wfll  be  seen  from  section  8  of  the  aliens  act,  which 
provides  in  part  as  follows : 

The  expression  "immigrant"  in  this  act  means  an"  alien  steerage  passenger 
who  is  to  be  landed  in  the  United  Kingdom,  but  does  not  include  any  passenger 
who  shows  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  immigration  officer  or  board  concerned  with 
the  case  that  he  desires  to  land  in  the  United  Kingdom  only  for  the  purpose  of 
proceeding  within  a  reasonable  time  to  some  destination  out  of  the  Unired 
Kingdom;  or  any  passengers  holding  prepaid  through  tickets  to  some  such 
destination,  if  the  master  or  owner  of  the  ship  by  which  they  are  to  be  taken 
away  from  the  United  Kingdom  gives  security  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  sec- 
retary of  state  that,  except  for  the  purposes  of  transit  or  under  other  circum- 
stances approved  by  the  secretary  of  state,  they  will  not  remain  in  the  United 
Kingdom  or,  having  been  rejected  in  another  country,  reenter  the  United  King- 
dom, and  that  they  will  be  properly  maintained  and  controlled  during  their 
transit.  *  *  * 

It  is  apparent  from  the  above-quoted  sections  of  the  aliens  act  that 
transmigrants  of  any  class  are  free  to  enter  Great  Britain,  provided 
there  is  an  assurance  that  undesirables  will  not  be  permitted  to  remain 

0  5  Edw.,  7  ch.,  13. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  83 


in  the  country.  The  attitude  of  Great  Britain  differs  from  that  of 
Germany  in  this  regard,  for  the  law  of  the  latter  country  provides 
that  intending  emigrants  to  the  United  States  shall  not  be.  permitted 
to  pass  through  German  territory  if  it  is  obvious  that  they  could  not 
be  admitted  at  United  States  ports.0  The  situation  in  Canada  is 
similar  to  that  in  Germany,  the  Canadian  immigration  law  provid- 
ing that  no  immigrant,  passenger,  or  other  person,  unless  he  is  a 
Canadian  citizen,  or  has  Canadian  domicile,  shall  be  permitted  to 
land  in  Canada,  or  in  case  of  having  landed  in  or  entered  Canada 
shall  be  permitted  to  remain  therein,  who  belong  to  any  of  the  follow- 
ing classes,  hereinafter  called  "  prohibitive  classes  " :  Idiots,  imbeciles, 
feeble-minded  persons,  epileptics,  insane  persons,  and  persons  who 
have  been  insane  within  five  years  previous.  Persons  afflicted  with 
any  loathsome  disease  or  with  a  disease  which  is  contagious  or  in- 
fectious or  which  may  become  dangerous  to  the  public  health,  whether 
such  persons  intend  to  settle  in  Canada  or  only  to  pass  through 
Canada  in  transit  to  some  other  country. 

In  assuming  no  authority  over  persons  in  transit  the  British  aliens 
act  puts  on  the  steamship  companies  the  responsibility  of  turning 
back  at  British  ports  of  embarkation  emigrants  who  are  deemed  as 
undesirable  within  the  meaning  of  the  United  States  immigration 
law. 

Under  the  British  merchant  shipping  act  of  1894-1897,  however, 
a  medical  inspection  of  emigrants  is  made  at  every  port  of  embarka- 
tion. This  is  provided  for  in  the  following  sections  of  the  act 
referred  to: 

Medical  inspection. 

SEC.  306.   (1)  An  emigrant  ship  shall  not  clear  outward  or  proceed  to  sea 

until   (a)  either  a  medical  practitioner,  appointed  by  the  emigration  officer  at 

the  port  of  clearance,  has  inspected  all  the  steerage  passengers  and  crew  about 

to  proceed  in  the  ship,  and  has  certified  to  the  emigration  officer,  and  that 

officer  is  satisfied,  that  none  of  the  steerage  passengers  or  crew  appear  to  be 

by  reason  of  any  bodily  or  mental  disease  unfit  to  proceed,  or  likely  to^endanger 

the  health  or  safety  of  the  other  persons  about  to  proceed  in  the  ship;  or 

(&)  the  emigration  officer,  if  he  can  not  on  any  particular  occasion  obtain  the 

attendance  of  a  medical  practitioner,  grants  written  permission  for  the  purpose. 

(2)  The   inspection   shall   take  place  either   on  board  the  ship,  or,   in  the 

j  discretion  of  the  emigration  officer,  at  such  convenient  place  on  shore  before 

!  embarkation,  as  he  appoints,  and  the  master,  owner,  or  charterer  of  the  ship 

i  shall  pay  to  the  emigration  officer  in  respect  of  the  inspection  such  fee,  not 

exceeding  twenty  shillings  for  every  hundred  persons  or  fraction  of  a  hundred 

;  persons  inspected,  as  the  board  of  trade  determine. 

(8)  If  this  section  is  not  complied  with  in  the  case  of  ajiy  emigrant  ship,  the 
master  of  the  ship  shall  for  each  offence  be  liable  to  a  fine  not  exceeding  one 
hundred  pounds. 

SEC.  307.  (1)  If  the  emigration  officer  is  satisfied  that  any  person  on  board 
or  about  to  proceed  in  any  emigrant  ship  is  by  reason  of  sickness  unfit  to  pro- 
ceed, or  is  for  that  or  any  other  reason  in  a  condition  likely  to  endanger  the 
health  or  safety  of  the  other  persons  on  board,  the  emigration  officer  shall  pro- 
hibit the  embarkation  of  that  person,  or,  if  he  is  embarked,  shall  require  him 
to-be  relanded;  and  if  the  emigration  officer  is  satisfied  that  it  is  necessary 
for  the  purification  of  the  ship  or  otherwise  that  all  or  any  of  the  persons  on 
board  should  be  relanded,  he  may  require  the  master  of  the  ship  to  reland  all 
those  persons,  and  the  master  shall  thereupon  reland  those  persons,  with  s 
much  of  their  effects  and  with  such  members  of  their  families  as  can  not,  in 
judgment  of  such  emigration  officer,  be  properly  separated  from  them. 


84  The  Immigration  Commission. 

(2)  If  any  requirement  of  this  section  is  not  complied  with  in  the  case  of 
any  emigrant  ship,  the  master,  owner,  or  charterer  of  the  ship,  or  any  of  them, 
shall  for  each  offence  be  liable  to  a  fine  not  exceeding  two  hundred  pounds. 

(3)  If  any  person  embarks  when  so  prohibited  to  embark,  or  fails  without 
reasonable  cause  to  leave  the  ship  when  so  required  to  be  relanded,  that  person 
may  be  summarily  removed,  and  shalf  be  liable  to  a  fine  not  exceeding  forty 
shillings  for  each  day  during  which  he  remains  on  board  after  the  prohibition 
or  requirement. 

(4)  Upon  such  relanding  the  master  of  the  ship  shall  pay  to  each  steerage 
passenger   so   relanded,   or,   if  he  is   lodged  and   maintained   in   any  hulk   or 
establishment  under  the  superintendence  of  the  board  of  trade,  then  to  the 
emigration  officer  at  the  port,  subsistence  money  at  the  rate  of  one  shilling  and 
sixpence  a   day  for  each  statute  adult  until  he  has  been  reembarked  or  de- 
clines or  neglects  to  proceed,  or  until  his  passage  money,  if  recoverable  under 
this  part  of  this  act,  has  been  returned  to  him. 

Similar  provisions  of  law  have  been  in  force  at  British  ports  for 
more  than  thirty  years. 

It  will  be  noted  that  the  British  law  is  intended  solely  to  prevent 
the  embarkation  of  emigrants  or  members  of  the  crew  who  appear  to 
be  by  reason  of  any  bodily  or  mental  disease  unfit  to  proceed,  or 
likely  to  endanger  the  health  or  safety  of  other  persons  about  to 
proceed  in  the  ship. 

While  the  requirements  of  the  United  States  immigration  law  are 
not  taken  into  account,  the  examination  by  British  medical  officers  is 
of  value  in  preventing  the  sailing  of  some  undesirable  emigrants,  but 
its  effectiveness  in  this  regard  is  greatly  impaired  by  the  fact  that 
trachoma  is  not  regarded  as  a  dangerous  disease  within  the  meaning 
of  the  British  law,  which,  of  course,  necessitates  a  thorough  medical 
inspection  of  emigrants  by  the  steamship  companies. 

The  method  of  conducting  the  examination  of  emigrants  at  the 
principal  British  ports  of  embarking  is  shown  in  what  follows : 

Glasgow. 

The  method  of  medical  examination  in  practice  here  is  identical 
with  the  one  which  prevails  at  Liverpool.  Continental  emigrants, 
upon  their  arrival  at  Glasgow,  are  assigned  to  the  several  boarding 
houses  licensed  by  the  city  of  Glasgow  for  the  purpose,  and  conducted 
under  the  supervision  of  the  steamship  companies.  As  soon  as  pos- 
sible after  their  arrival  at  the  boarding  houses  they  are  examined  by 
a  resident  physician  and  by  an  eye  specialist,  both  employed  by  the 
steamship  companies.  The  resident  physician  makes  daily  examina- 
tions of  such  emigrants  until  the  day  of  sailing.  Whenever  the  eye 
specialist  finds  the  emigrant  suffering  from 'some  eye  trouble  which, 
in  his  opinion,  would  yield  to  treatment  within  a  reasonable  time  he 
is  put  under  treatment  and  held  at  Glasgow  until  such  time  as  the 
disease  is  cured.  Those  whom  he  considers  incurable  are  returned  to 
their  homes.  The  expense  in  connection  with  this  treatment  is  borne 
by  the  steamship  companies.  It  frequently  happens  that  such  emi- 
grants are  held  at  Glasgow  under  treatment  for  as  long  as  two  or 
three  weeks.  Emigrants  suffering  from  other  diseases  which  can  be 
cured  in  a  short  time  are  also  held  and  treated  at  the  steamship 
company's  expense  until  they  are  fit  to  sail.  On  the  day  of  sailing 
the  emigrants  are  collected  and  taken  to  the  railway  station  and 
placed  in  a  special  train  which  conveys  them  to  Greenock,  at  which 
point  they  embark  on  the  steamer.  The  final  examination  takes  place 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  85 

at  the  gangplank  as  they  proceed  from  the  tender  to  the  steamer. 
Present  at  this  final  examination  are  the  American  consul  or  vice- 
consul,  the  British  Board  of  Trade  doctor,  the  doctor  of  the  ship 
about  to  sail,  and  police  officers  and  detectives.  The  examining  officer 
is  the  ship  surgeon  and  in  doubtful  cases  he  consults  with  the  board 
of  trade  doctor  and  with  the  American  consular  officer.  This  sys- 
tem of  examination  has  been  in  force  at  the  port  of  Glasgow  for  a 
considerable  period,  the  only  departure  of  importance  being  that 
when  several  passengers  were  rejected  at  Ellis  Island  because  of 
trachoma  the  steamship  companies  appointed  an  eye  specialist  to 
examine  the  eyes  of  intending  emigrants. 

The  baggage  of  emigrants  is  not  disinfected.  The  usual  "  inspected 
and  passed  "  label  is  stamped  by  an  employee  of  the  steamship  com- 
pany, who  is  furnished  a  rubber  consular  seal  by  the  consulate  for 
that  purpose. 

The  American  consul  at  Glasgow  stated  that  he  did  not  give  any 
special  attention  to  the  medical  examination  of  emigrants,  as  he  was 
satisfied  that  the  steamship  companies  realized  their  responsibility 
and  that  they  are  honest  in  their  efforts  to  avoid  bringing  to  America 
any  alien  who  would  be  returned  because  of  some  loathsome  or  con- 
tagious disease.  He  said,  however,  that  he  had  always  found  the 
steamship  companies  very  willing  to  accept  any  suggestions  in  the 
matter. 

During  the  period  December  1,  1906,  to  December  31,  1907,  there 
were  40  rejections  at  Glasgow  on  account  of  the  Anchor  Line,  26  of 
which  were  for  trachoma.  The  Allan  Line  reported  only  2  re- 
jections during  the  same  period,  both  of  which  were  for  trachoma. 
The  per  cent  of  rejections  a»t  United  States  ports  among  immigrants 
embarking  from  Glasgow  is  larger  than  for  any  other  British  port 
except  Londonderry.0 

Liverpool. 

Liverpool  is  one  of  the  four  principal  ports  of  Europe  for  the 

embarkation   of  emigrants,  the  others  being  Naples,  Bremen,  and 

.Hamburg.     Emigrants    from    all    parts    of    northern    and    eastern 

Europe  pass  through  the  port.     The  majority  of  the  people  from  the 

l   Continent  land  at  Hull  or  Grimsby,  where  they  are  taken  in  charge 

i  by  representatives  of  the  Liverpool  lines  and  directed  to  their  j)ort«of 

embarkation.     Several   agents  of  the  commission  employed  in  the 

investigation  of  steerage  conditions  on  trans- Atlantic  ships  passed 

through  the  port  of  Liverpool  in  the  guise  of  emigrants.     One  of 

these  agents  describes  his  experiences  there  as  follows: 

On  my  arrival  at  Liverpool  we  were  separated  into  groups  once  more.  Those 
destined  for  the  White  Star  Line  and  the  Dominion  Line  were  met  by  the 
agents  of  those  companies;  we  were  met  by  an  agent  of  the  Cunard  Line. 
Large  busses  with  a  seating  capacity  ranging  from  6  to  25  awaited  us  right  at 
the  depot.  Our  hand  baggage  was  put  on  top  and  off  we  went  to  the  hotel. 
On  our  way  we  were  divided  again  as  to  nationality,  for  the  companies  named 
try  as  far  as  possible  to  keep  each  nationality  under  one  roof,  or  at  least  in  one 
part  of  the  hotel,  thus  avoiding  unnecessary  difficulties.  Here  my  booted 
Polish  friends  and  their  crying  children  left  me  for  a  time  to  meet  me  again  on 
board  the  —  — .  I  was  sent  to  fhe  Scandinavian  Hotel  because  they  took  me 
for  a  Scandinavian. 


°See  table,  p.  126. 


86  The  Immigration  Commission. 

The  Cunard  Hotel  system  is  a  village  by  itself  in  the  center  of  Liverpool, 
and  consists  of  several  buildings,  holding  over  2,000  guests  if  need  be.  In 
those  hotels  second  as  well  as  third  cla%s  passengers  may  remain  until  their 
steamer  departs,  entirely  free  of  charge.  At  the  Hotel  Cunard,  where  we 
stayed,  we  were  welcomed  by  a  matron  and  a  hotel  keeper  in  the  uniform  of 
the  Cunard  Steamship  Company.  We  were  asked  most  kindly  to  eat  something 
before  we  retired.  I  said  I  did  not  care  for  anything,  but  they  insisted  that  I 
should  eat  something  or  at  least  drink  a  glass  of  milk.  Then  my  room  was 
shown  to  me.  It  held  10  beds  and  was  well  ventilated  and  provided  with 
steam  heat  and  electric  lights.  Both  beds  and  floor  were  clean.  I  did  not  see 
any  room  in  this  hotel  with  more  than  15  beds  in  it.  Women  are  strictly 
separated  from  men  in  the  sleeping  rooms. 

There  are  two  dining  rooms,  one  with  a  seating  capacity  of  about  500,  one 
with  200.  The  meals  are  wholesome.  A  printed  menu  was  found  in  several 
conspicuous  places.  The  Hebrews  who  stay  in  a  separate  hotel  get  kosher 
cooked  meals. 

The  toilet  and  bathrooms  were  strictly  sanitary  and  every  part  of  them  is 
marble  and  tile  lined.  The  water-closets  have  running  water.  The  hotel  pro- 
vided towels  and  soap.  Mostly  all  the  hotel  employees  were  Britonized  for- 
eigners, so  as  to  be  able  to  understand  the  foreign-speaking  guests.  In  our 
Scandinavian  hotel  for  instance  nearly  all  the  employees  were  Swedes. 

The  hotel  or  emigrant  boarding-house  system  above  described  is 
similar  to  those  maintained  by  the  other  steamship  lines  carrying 
passengers  from  Liverpool.  On  the  arrival  of  emigrants  at  the 
steamship  boarding  houses  they  are  examined  by  resident  physicians 
of  the  steamship  companies  who  visit  the  houses  daily.  In  cases  or 
suspected  cases  of  infectious  or  contagious  disease  the  emigrants 
are  either  rejected  or  held  for  further  observation. 

While  the  majority  of  rejections  at  Liverpool  are  made  at  the 
boarding  houses,  a  considerable  number  are  turned  back  at  the 
steamer  on  the  day  of  sailing.  Emigrants  are  required  to  board  the 
ship  several  hours  before  sailing,  and  there  the  final  examination  is 
made.  At  this  time  emigrants  are  examined  by  one  of  the  resident 
physicians  of  the  steamship  company,  by  the  ship's  doctor,  and 
finally  by  a  medical  officer  representing  the  British  Board  of  Trade. 
Under  the  British  law  one  or  more  board  of  trade  physicians  are 
stationed  at  every  port  from  which  emigrants  sail,  and  at  the  time 
of  the  committee's  visit  the  services  of  four  such  medical  officers  were 
required  in  connection  with  the  embarkation  of  emigrants  at  Liver- 
pool. When  the  examination  is  concluded  a  representative  of  the 
American  consulate  stamps  with  the  consular  seal  the  inspection 
cards  of  those  passed.  As  previously  explained,  the  British  Board 
of  Trade  doctors  do  not  inspect  emigrants  for  defects  contemplated 
by  the  United  States  immigration  law,  and  do  not  regard  trachoma 
as  a  dangerous  disease  within  the  meaning  of  the  British  merchant 
shipping  act.  Consequently  steamship  companies  are  forced  to  exer- 
cise every  precaution  to  prevent  the  embarkation  of  persons  likely 
to  be  rejected  at  United  States  ports.  As  usual,  particular  attention 
is  paid  to  trachoma,  and  eye  specialists  are  employed  by  the  various 
lines  to  examine  for  this  disease. 

The  various  steamship  companies  at  Liverpool  endeavor  to  have 
their  agents  on  the  continent  require  a  medical  examination  of  in- 
tended emigrants  in  connection  with  the  sale  of  tickets,  and  it  was 
stated  that  some  of  the  companies  allow  a  fixed  sum  to  cover  the 
cost  of  such  examination.  Cabin  passengers  are  not  medically  ex- 
amined at  Liverpool. 


: 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  87 

When  cholera,  plague,  or  other  infectious  or  contagious  diseases 
prevail  in  continental  countries  from  which  emigrants  come  such 
emigrants  are  detained  at  Liverpool  for  at  least  five  days,  and 
are  examined  daily  by  the  steamship  company's  resident  phy- 
sician, who,  after  the  completion  of  the  observation,  certifies  to 
the  American  consul  that  he  has  made  a  daily  inspection  of  the 
detained  persons,  that  they  are  free  from  disease,  and  that  they 
will  sail  on  the  ship  specified.  Until  this  certificate  is  presented 
the  consular  bill  of  health  is  not  issued.  On  the  arrival  of  pas- 
sengers from  infected  districts  arrangements  are  made  for  the 
disinfection  of  their  effects  under  the  supervision  of  the  American 
consulate.  This  baggage  is  disinfected  in  accordance  with  the 
United  States  quarantine  laws  and  regulations.  A  representative  of 
the  American  consulate  is  always  present  while  the  disinfecting 
process  is  in  progress  and  does  not  leave  the  premises  until  it  is 
completed.  The  committee  was  informed  that  the  various  steamship 
companies  are  always  ready  to  carry  out  the  requirements  and  sug- 
gestions of  the  consulate. 

Hon.  John  L.  Griffiths,  American  consul  at  Liverpool,  at  the  time 
of  the  Commission's  inspection,  made  the  following  statement  rela- 
tive to  the  situation  at  that  port : 

I  have  given  a  great  deal  of  attention  to  the  matter  of  the  examination  of 
third-class  passengers  sailing  from  this  port  to  America  and  think  that  the 
examinations  by  the  medical  representatives  of  the  Government  and  by  the 
ships'  surgeons  are  in  the  main  satisfactory.  I  have  had  recently  an  illus- 
tration at  this  consulate  of  the  rigid  character  of  these  medical  examinations. 
An  Armenian  girl  has  been  detained  in  Liverpool  for  over  six  months  on 
account  of  trachoma,  and  has  been  pronounced  cured  by  the  physician  attend- 
ing her,  and  after  such  pronouncement  has  been  twice  rejected,  the  first  time 
by  the  White  Star  Line,  and  the  second  time  by  the  Cunard  Company.  The 
fact  that  the  steamship  companies  are  required  to  bring  back  all  rejected 
passengers  and  are  penalized  for  taking  them  over  to  America  is  of  course, 
as  you  recognize,  a  most  efficient  safeguard. 

I  have  talked  frequently  with  the  medical  officers  who  conduct  the  examina- 
tions for  the  Government  and  for  the  steamship  companies,  and  have  been 
impressed  with  their  sincere  desire  to  do  everything  they  possibly  can  to  pre- 
vent the  sailing  of  any  persons  who  are  tainted  with  a  contagious  or  infectious 
disease.  Each  third-class  passenger  is  required  to  submit  to  at  least  three 
medical  examinations  before  being  finally  accepted  or  rejected.  I  required 
;an  affidavit  from  the  ship's  doctor  as  to  all  rejected  passengers  and  the  cause 
of  rejection,  so  that  evidence  may  be  preserved  of  these  facts.  There  is  a 
representative  from  the  consulate  present  at  the  final  examination  of  third- 
class  passengers  sailing  from  Liverpool  to  American  ports,  and  while  he  is 
not  a  medical  expert  and  does  not  in  any  way  control  the  medical  examination, 
he  does  not  stamp  the  "inspection  card"  until  after  the  passenger  has  been 
medically  examined  and  approved.  In  addition  to  this  the  vice-consul  or 
nyself  is  present  from  time  to  time  at  these  examinations.  During  the  three 
fears  and  more  that  I  have  been  at  the  Liverpool  consulate  there  has  been  no 
Complaint  as  to  ill-treatment  of  any  sort  on  the  part  of  third-class  passengers, 
ir  of  inadequate  accommodations,  or  inefficient  or  unpalatable  food  at  the 
>oarding  houses  in  Liverpool  which  are  maintained  by  the  steamship  companies. 

It  is  the  practice  of  steamship  companies  at  Liverpool  to  detain 
n  that  city  all  rejected  steerage  passengers  whose  physical  disabilities, 
n  the  opinion  of  the  company?s  physician,  would  be  likely  to  yield 
o  medical  treatment  within  a  reasonable  time.  But  this  is  only  done 
rhen  the  company  is  assured  by  reliable  persons  or  societies  that  the 
migrant  will  be  produced  when  demanded  by  the  steamship  com- 

79524°— VOL  4—11 7 


88  The  Immigration  Commission. 

pany  or  the  inspector  appointed  under  the  British  aliens  act.  This 
act  permits  the  transmigration  through  England  of  diseased  or  other- 
wise undesirable  aliens  who  would  not  be  permitted  to  remain  in  that 
country,  and  emigrants  other  than  British  finally  rejected  at  British 
ports  are  deported  to  the  country  whence  they  came.  The  British 
inspector  is  advised  when  emigrants  are  detained  for  treatment,  as 
above  explained,  and  is  also  informed  as  to  the  final  disposition  of 
case.  The  cost  of  the  detention  of  diseased  emigrants  held  for  treat- 
ment is  defrayed  in  various  ways.  In  the  case  of  Hebrews  it  is 
sometimes  borne  by  the  Jewish  board  of  guardians,  and  sometimes  by 
other  charitable  organizations,  and  in  some  cases  the  steamship  com- 
panies meet  the  expense. 

Londonderry. 

Two  steamship  companies,  the  Anchor  and  Allan  lines,  transport 
emigrants  from  Londonderry  to  the  United  States.  The  traffic  is 
not  large  from  this  port  and  there  are  few  rejections.  Emigrants 
are  given  a  rather  perfunctory  examination  by  the  medical  officer 
of  the  board  of  trade  when  they  board  the  tender  which  carries  them 
to  the  ship  at  Moville,  about  16  miles  distant,  and  only  in  cases  where 
the  emigrant  is  obviously  defective  physically  or  mentally  is  a  care- 
ful examination  made.  What  is  really  the  principal  examination  of 
emigrants  sailing  from  Londonderry  is  made  when  they  reach  the 
steamer  at  Moville.  Here  the  ship's  doctor  examines  all  passengers 
as  they  go  on  board.  The  American  consular  agent  at  London- 
derry attends  the  first  examination.  Emigrants  embarking  at  this 
port  are  described  as  unusually  strong  and  healthy.  The  manager  of 
the  Anchor  Line  stated  to  a  representative  of  the  Commission  that 
according  to  the  records  of  that  company  only  two  passengers  had 
been  rejected  during  the  previous  six  years.  The  manager  of  the 
Allan  Line  stated  that  no  records  of  this  nature  were  kept  by  that 
company,  but  that  in  his  opinion  not  more  than  six  passengers  a  year 
are  rejected. 

Queenstown. 

Queenstown  is  the  chief  port  of  embarkation  for  Irish  emigrants 
They  are  brought  from  all  parts  of  the  island  by  rail  and  are  lodged 
in  boarding  houses  while  awaiting  sailing.  Every  week  several  ships 
sailing  from  Liverpool  call  at  Queenstown  for  passengers,  and  usually 
emigrants  do  not  remain  at  that  port  more  than  one  night.  As  emi- 
grants board  the  tender  which  takes  them  to  the  ship  they  are  given 
the  usual  examination  by  a  British  board  of  trade  physician  in  the 
presence  of  the  American  consul  or  his  deputy.  The  board  of  trade 
doctor  and  the  American  consular  officer  go  with  the  emigrants  to 
the  ship,  when  they  are  given  another  examination  by  the  ship's 
doctor.  This  includes  both  second  and  third  class  passengers,  except 
those  who  are  American  citizens,  and  the  examination  is  made  chiefly 
for  trachoma.  The  American  consular  officer  then  makes  inquiry 
of  the  ship's  doctor  regarding  the  condition  of  the  ship's  passengers 
and  crew  since  leaving  Liverpool  and  issues  a  supplemental  bill  of 
health  accordingly.  When  necessary,  emigrants  are  vaccinated  by 
the  ship's  doctor  during  the  voyage.  Emigrants'  baggage  is  disin- 
fected only  when  some  epidemic  disease  is  prevalent  in  Ireland. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


89 


Under  normal  conditions  the  usual  "  inspected  and  passed  "  label  is 
affixed  to  the  baggage  and  stamped  with  the  American  consular  seal 
by  an  employee  of  the  steamship  company.  On  the  whole  the  exami- 
nation as  witnessed  at  Queenstown  impressed  the  committee  as  per- 
functory; but,  of  course,  the  necessity  of  a  thorough  medical  exami- 
nation is  not  so  great  there  as  at  ports  where  southern  and  eastern 
Europeans  embark.  The  number  and  causes  of  rejections  at  Queens- 
town  on  account  of  the  American  White  Star  and  Cunard  lines  during 
the  period  covered  by  the  Commission's  inquiry  are  shown  by  the 
following  table: 

TABLE  42. — Number  of  emigrants  rejected  at  Queenstown  from  December  1,  1906, 
to  December  31,  1907,  by  steamship  line  and  by  cause. 


Cause. 

American. 

Cunard. 

White  Star. 

Total. 

Trachoma  

2 

62 

22 

86 

Sore  eyes           %  . 

4 

18 

22 

15 

3 

18 

Total 

2 

81 

43 

126 

/Southampton. 

Ships  of  the  American  Line  have  sailed  from  the  port  of  South- 
ampton since  1882,  and  during  that  time  emigrants  have  been  ex- 
amined by  the  board  of  trade  physician  in   accordance  with  the 
British  regulation  governing  the  embarkation  of  passengers.     Emi- 
grants are  also  examined  by  the  ship's  doctor.    From  the  beginning 
the  authority  of  the  United  States  consul  in  emigration  matters  has 
been  recognized,  and  the  American  Line  has  enforced  strict  rules  to 
protect  steerage  passengers  from  the  danger  of  disease  on  shipboard. 
A  modern  disinfecting  plant  is  maintained  and  when  deemed  neces- 
sary the  baggage  and  clothing  of  emigrants  are  thoroughly  disin- 
j   fected.     A  large,  well-located  building,  erected  for  the  purpose,  is 
used  as  an  emigrant  station,  and  emigrants  arriving  prior  to  the  day 
of  sailing  are  housed  there.     The  emigrant  station  and  equipment  are 
!  inspected  b}^  the  United  States  consulate  at  irregular  times,  and  the 
i;  consul  stated  that  the  station  has  always  been  found  in  excellent 
I   order  and  the  disinfecting  apparatus  ready  for  immediate  use.    Par- 
.   ticular  attention  is  paid  to  conditions  of  health  prevailing  in  the 
various  parts  of  continental  Europe  furnishing  emigrants  to  the 
American  Line,  and  when  infectious  or  contagious  diseases  prevail 
the  traffic  from  the  affected  district  is  either  refused  or  subjected  to 
a  strict  examination  and  thorough  disinfection  on  arrival  at  South- 
ampton. 

The  details  of  the  examination  at  Southampton,  furnished  to  the 
Commission  by  Hon.  Albert  W.  Swalm,  United  States  consul  there, 
are  as  follows: 

On  the  morning  of  sailing  day  two  of  the  consular  force  go  on  board  the 
vessel.  *  *  *  All  emigrants  coming  from  noninfected  ports  are  examined 
by  two  duly  qualified  physicians.  One  is  the  surgeon  of  the  ship,  who  makes 
the  first  examination.  Those  he  rejects  are  put  in  charge  of  a  steward  and 
sept  at  one  side,  and  those  he  passes  go  on  to  the  second  physician,  who  repre- 
sents the  English  Board  of  Trade,  and  if  he  finds  anything  not  to  his  profes* 


90  The  Immigration  Commission. 

sional  liking,  the  emigrant  is  sent  to  the  rejected  line  and  kept  there.  The 
final  rejection  of  the  ship's  surgeon  stands  absolutely,  and  such  rejected  person 
is  not  allowed  free  action  thereafter,  as  the  company  is  held  by  the  govern- 
mental authorities  responsible  for  the  repatriation  of  that  individual  to  his 
former  home.  The  English  examination  also  includes  the  crew,  for  the  dis- 
covery of  any  disease  that  might  become  either  infectious  or  contagious.  Emi- 
grants are  landed  by  rail  in  a  large  dock  shed  and  the  examination  takes  place 
always  in  daylight  and  in  a  specially  well-lighted  passageway,  and  should  they 
be  needed  powerful  electric  lights  may  be  utilized.  Thus  each  emigrant  has 
to  pass  the  critical  examination  of  two  physicians,  while  all  the  second-class 
passengers  are  looked  after  in  practically  the  same  way.  No  baggage  of  any 
emigrant  is  allowed  to  be  put  on  board  until  the  emigrant  has  passed  the  medical 
examination.  Nor  is  any  such  baggage  allowed  to  go  on  board  until  it  has  the 
inspection  label  pasted  on,  and  this  includes  every  parcel  or  box.  The  emi- 
grant rolls  are  made  up,  of  course,  at  the  company's  office,  but  where  a  rejec- 
tion occurs  a  yellow  certificate  is  attached  to  the  sheet  and  the  name  or  names 
marked  out. 

This  method  of  inspection  has  been  in  vogue  in  much  the  same  way  as  far 
back  as  1382  for  the  American  Line,  and  the  English  method  of  examination 
dates  back  for  about  fifty  years. 

According  to  the  records  of  the  United  States  consulate,  intended 
emigrants  were  rejected  at  Southampton  in  various  years  as  follows: 

1904 422 

1905 594 

1906 487 

1907 226 

1908  (Jan.  1  to  Aug.  29) 441 

The  above  figures  include  rejections  for  the  American  and  White 
Star  lines,  both  of  which  carry  emigrants  from  this  port.  About  70 
per  cent  of  the  rejections  were  on  account  of  trachoma,  and  prac- 
tically all  rejected  had  steerage  tickets.  Under  the  regulations  sec- 
ond-class passengers  are  also  examined,  and  those  sailing  first  class 
are  examined  when  necessary,  but  only  five  cabin  passengers  had  been 
rejected  during  the  three  years  preceding  the  committee's  visit. 

In  the  opinion  of  Consul  SAvalm  the  system  of  examining  emigrants 
at  Southampton  can  not  well  be  bettered,  and  a  careful  enforcement 
of  all  the  requirements  of  the  law  will  accomplish  all  that  is  humanly 
possible,  unless  a  control  station  is  established  where  emigrants  can 
be  detained  for  extended  medical  observation  prior  to  embarkation. 
The  consul  was  also  of  the  opinion  that  if  intended  emigrants  could 
be  compelled  to  present  a  medical  certificate  when  applying  for  a 
steamship  ticket  much  hardship  would  be  avoided.  He  said  that  in 
a  number  of  cases  families  had  come  to  Southampton  after  sacrificing 
all  their  possessions  in  order  to  buy  steamship  tickets  and  had  been 
refused  the  privilege  of  sailing  because  some  member  of  the  family 
did  not  pass  the  medical  inspection. 

CHERBOURG. 

The  following  steamship  lines  carry  emigrants  irom  the  port  of 
Cherbourg  to  the  United  States :  The  Hamburg- American,  the  North 
German  Lloyd,  the  White  Star,  and  the  American.  Under  the 
French  law  emigrants  sailing  from  a  French  port  must  be  examined 
by  a  physician  designated  by  the  French  Government,  and  at  the  time 
of  the  committee's  inquiry  two  physicians  were  assigned  to  Cher- 
bourg for  the  purpose  of  making  the  examination.  The  steamship 
lines  pay  jointly  to  the  Government  the  expenses  of  the  examination. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


91 


The  examination  by  the  government  physicians  takes  place  in  the 
waiting  room  near  the  dock  immediately  before  sailing  time.  Be- 
sides the  two  doctors,  there  are  present  the  post  commissioner  of 
emigration  and  several  police  officers.  This  examination  is  of  the 
most  perfunctory  order,  rejections  being  rarely  made  by  them.  After 
this  the  emigrants  are  taken  out  to  the  ship  in  a  tender,  and  as  they 
go  aboard  they  are  examined  by  the  ship's  surgeon,  especially  for 
trachoma  and  favus.  Emigration  through  the  port  of  Cherbourg 
is  not  large,  and  complete  information  relative  to  rejections  was  not 
secured  by  the  Commission.  The  records  available,  however,  show 
that  one  person  holding  a  second-class  ticket  and  66  holding  steerage 
tickets  by  the  White  Star  Line  were  rejected  from  June  1,  1907,  to 
September  30,  1908,  and  that  a  total  of  950  persons  were  rejected  by 
the  American  Line  during  a  period  of  about  five  years  preceding 
the  latter  date. 

Rejections  of  persons  intending  to  embark  on  ships  of  the  Amer- 
ican Line  from  1903  to  September  30,  1908,  are  shown  by  the  follow- 
ing table : 

TABLE  43. — Number  of  emigrants  rejected  at  Cherbourg  (American  Line)  from 
1903  to   September  30,  1908. 


Year. 

Second 
class. 

Third 

class. 

Total. 

1903  

2 

37 

39 

1904     . 

6 

163 

169 

1905 

4 

249 

253 

1906  

12 

216 

228 

1907 

11 

201 

212 

1908,  Jan.  1  to  Sept.  30  

5 

44 

49 

Total 

40 

910 

950 

CHRISTIANIA. 


The  Scandinavian-American  Line  is  the  only  steamship  company 
carrying  emigrants  from  Christiania  direct  to  United  States  ports, 
and  a  large  part  of  the  Norwegian  emigration  is  carried  on  its  ships, 
while  the  remainder  embark  at  British  and  other  European  ports. 
Emigrants  sailing  directly  to  United  States  ports  are,  in  accordance 
with  the  laws  of  Norway,  examined  by  an  official  of  the  board  of 
health,  but  this  examination  is  not  required  for  emigrants  who  leave 
Norway  to  embark  at  foreign  ports.  The  Norwegian  emigration  law 
allows  the  official  examiantion  to  be  held  three  days  prior  to  the  sail- 
ing of  the  ship,  but,  as  a  rule,  it  is  made  on  the  day  of  sailing.  The 
examination  takes  place  in  a  waiting  room  near  the  steamship  quay, 
and  second-class  as  well  as  steerage  passengers  are  required  to  undergo 
it.  The  eyes,  tongue,  throat,  and  hands  are  carefully  examined. 
The  American  consul  has  no  part  in  the  examination  at  Christiania. 
The  steamship  company  has  an  American  consular  seal,  and  stamps 
each  inspection  card  and  the  baggage  labels,  while  the  consul  issues  a 
bill  of  health  for  ships  on  the  certificate  of  the  chief  of  the  board  of 
health  that  each  passenger  has  been  examined  and  found  free  from 
disease.  Emigrants'  baggage  is  not  disinfected  at  this  port.  No 
ecord  is  made  of  rejections  at  Christiania,  but  the  chief  of  the  board 


92  The  Immigration  Commission. 

of  health  stated  that  he  had  never  found  it  necessary  -to  reject  more 
than  2  or  3  per  cent  of  those  applying  for  transportation  by  the 
Scandinavian- American  Line.  The  United  States  Immigration  Serv- 
ice records  show  that  the  per  cent  of  rejections  is  lower  among 
immigrants  embarking  at  Christiania  than  at  most  other  European 
ports.0  This,  of  course,  is  due  in  part  to  the  fact  that  the  diseases  for 
which  most  southern  and  eastern  European  emigrants  are  rejected  at 
United  States  ports  are  not  prevalent  in  Norway. 

COPENHAGEN, 

The  Scandinavian- American  Line  is  the  only  steamship  company 
taking  emigrants  direct  from  Copenhagen  to  the  United  States,  and 
aside  from  the  fact  that  special  attention  is  now  given  to  diseases  of 
the  eye,  the  medical  examination  is  practically  the  same  as  when  this 
line  entered  the  trade.  By  an  agreement  with  other  lines  the  Scandi- 
navian-American confines  its  efforts  to  secure  steerage  business  to 
Scandinavia  and  Finland,  but  at  the  time  of  the  committee's  visit 
some  Russians  were  enibarking  at  Copenhagen.  Scandinavian  emi- 
grants are  not  examined  prior  to  their  arrival  in  Copenhagen,  but 
agents  of  the  company  in  Finland  are  required  to  have  applicants  for 
transportation  examined  before  tickets  are  sold. 

The  final  examination  takes  place  in  the  waiting  room  of  the  steam- 
ship company  on  the  day  of  sailing.  Steerage  passengers  then  pass 
before  a  police  inspector  of  the  city  of  Copenhagen,  the  city  physi- 
cian, and  the  American  counsul-general  or  vice-consul-general.  The 
doctors  examine  the  eyes  and  scalp,  and  if  passed  the  emigrant's  card 
is  stamped  by  the  inspector  of  police  and  also  with  the  American 
consular  seal.  When  Russian  emigrants  were  carried  they  were  re- 
quired to  present  a  certificate  of  good  health  when  applying  for  trans- 
portation. They  were  also  examined  by  a  police  surgeon  on  their 
arrival  in  Copenhagen,  and  again  on  sailing  day,  and  it  was  stated 
that  approximately  10  per  cent  were  rejected  on  account  of  disease. 
Very  few  Scandinavian  or  Finnish  emigrants  are  rejected.  Formerly 
first  and  second  cabin  passengers  were  examined  at  this  port,  but  this 
practice  was  discontinued. 

Baggage  of  emigrants  is  inspected  by  an  American  consular  officer, 
but  disinfection  is  not  required,  unless  there  is  an  epidemic  in  the 
territory  from  which  the  emigrant  comes. 

FITJME. 

Emigration  to  the  United  States  through  the  port  of  Fiume  began 
in  1904,  when  the  Hungarian  Government  contracted  with  the  Cunard 
Line  to  send  two  steamers  a  month  to  that  port.  Previous  to  that 
time  the  large  emigration  from  Hungary  embarked  at  various  ports, 
but  a  large  portion  of  it  was  directed  to  Fiume  when  a  through  steam- 
ship service  to  the  United  States  was  established.  The  system  of 
handling  and  examining  emigrants  at  Fiume  is  modeled  after  the 
system  iii  force  at  Hamburg.  This  was  adopted  after  a  Hungarian 
commission  had  studied  the  situation  at  that  port.  At  the  time  of 
the  committee's  visit  a  new  emigrant  station,  or  emigrant  hotel,  was 

«  See  table,  p.  126. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  93 

nearing  completion.  This  building,  which  is  said  to  have  cost  about 
$300,000,  is  of  steel  and  concrete  construction,  and  is  one  of  the  best 
emigrant  stations  in  Europe.  Railway  trains  carrying  intended  emi- 
grants are  run  directly  to  the  station.  Upon  their  arrival  these  emi- 
grants are  put  into  what  is  known  as  the  "  unclean  "  section  of  the 
station,  and  as  soon  as  practicable  are  given  a  medical  examination 
by  a  resident  physician  in  the  employ  of  the  steamship  company,  and 
whenever  deemed  necessary  they  are  required  to  bathe.  They  are 
then  transferred  to  the  "  clean  "  section  of  the  station,  where  they 
are  daily  inspected  by  physicians,  and  remain  there  until  the  day  of 
sailing.  At  the  time  of  embarkation  emigrants  are  marched  to  the 
steamer,  where  they  are  examined  by  a  physician  appointed  by  the 
American  consul  and  paid  by  the  steamship  company,  the  resident 
physician  of  the  steamship  company,  and  by  the  ship's  doctor.  The 
American  consul  is  always  present  when  the  final  medical  examina- 
tion takes  place,  and  baggage  is  disinfected  and  labeled  under  his 
direction.  The  consul  stated  that  every  possible  facility  was  afforded 
to  the  doctor  employed  by  the  consulate.  It  was  stated  to  the  com- 
mittee that  the  consulate  doctor  had  not  recently  found  it  necessary 
to  make  any  recommendations  for  rejections  over  the  decision  of  the 
steamship  company's  resident  physician,  for  the  reason  that  the 
latter  had  been  unusually  severe  in  rejecting  all  persons  having 
tubercular  affections  of  any  kind,  trachoma,  scars,  favus,  cancer, 
syphilis,  and  venereal  diseases  of  all  kinds,  and  that  but  few  emi- 
grants from  Fiume  were  rejected  at  New  York.  A  member  of  the 
Commission  witnessing  the  examination  at  Fiume  was  satisfied  that 
it  was  strict  in  the  highest  degree,  and  this  is  substantiated  by  the 
records  of  the  United  States  Immigration  Service  at  New  York, 
which,  as  will  appear  later,a  shows  that  the  per  cent  of  rejections  is 
much  smaller  among  immigrants  sailing  from  Fiume  than  from  any 
other  south  European  port. 

During  the  period  covered  by  the  committee's  inquiry,  December  1, 
1906,  to  December  31,  1907,  4,789  intended  emigrants  were  rejected 
at  Fiume. 

GERMAN   CONTROL  STATIONS  AND  PORTS. 

Control  stations. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  instances  of  emigrant  inspection  in 
Europe  is  the  control-station  system  on  the  German-Russian  and 
German-Austrian  frontier.  There  are  thirteen  of  these  stations 
located  at  railway  points  along  the  border,  and  through  them  passes 
a  great  tide  of  eastern  European  emigration  which  embarks  at  Brit- 
ish, French,  Dutch,  Belgium,  and  German  ports.  At  these  stations 
emigrants  are  required  by  a  law  of  Germany  to  submit  to  a  medical 
inspection,  and  those  not  meeting  the  requirements  of  that  country 
or  who  obviously  can  not  comply  with  the  physical  test  applied  to 
immigrants  at  United  States  ports  are  not  allowed  to  pass  over  Ger- 
man soil,  and  every  year  thousands  are  turned  back  to  the  country 
whence  they  came. 

The  system  had  its  origin  in  the  cholera  epidemic  of  1892,  when  the 
port  of  -Hamburg  was  badly  infected,  the  disease  presumably  being 

•See  table,  p.  126. 


§4  The  Immigration  Commission. 

introduced  by  Russian  emigrants  bound  for  the  United  States.  Im- 
mediately following  this  outbreak  it  was  decreed  that  such  emigrants 
should  not  be  allowed  to  pass  through  German  territory  and  sol- 
diers were  stationed  along  the  frontier  to  enforce  the  decree.  This 
regulation  w,as  in  effect  for  several  months  and  resulted  in  a  great 
loss  to  the  steamship  companies,  for  by  that  time  the  emigration 
movement  from  Russia  to  the  United  States  had  become  large.  The 
Hamburg- American  and  North  German  Lloyd  lines  were  finally  able 
to  effect  a  compromise  with  the  Government  whereby  the  steamship 
companies  were  to  erect  and  maintain  control  stations  at  frontier 
railway  towns  where  all  emigrants  should  undergo  a  thorough  ex- 
amination before  being  allowed  to  pass  through  Germany.  The  pur- 
pose of  these  stations  and  the  arrangements  under  which  they  were 
conducted  in  the  period  immediately  following  their  establishment 
are  shown  in  an  order  of  the  German  minister  of  the  interior,  dated 
April  3,  1895,  a  translation  of  which  was  published  in  the  annual 
report  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration 
of  that  year.  The  text  of  the  order  follows : 

By  reason  of  the  refusal  of  the  American  immigration  officials  to  land  pauper 
immigrants,  it  was  necessary  to  enact  measures  to  prevent  the  overburdening 
of  the  German  institutions  for  the  poor  with  such  alien  immigrants  as  had  been 
debarred  in  the  United  States  and  returned  to  German  ports  of  embarkation. 
For  that  purpose  it  had  been  ordered  that  all  alien  emigrants  crossing  the 
Russian-Prussian  or  the  Austro-Prussian  frontiers  on  their  way  to  the  seaports 
shall  be  subjected  to  an  examination  by  the  police,  and  those  who  have  been 
found  liable  to  refusal  by  the  American  authorities  as  paupers  shall  not  be 
granted  permission  to  continue  the  trips  to  the  seaports.  These  measures  were 
compiled  for  the  last  time  in  the  decree  of  October  8,  1893.  Furthermore,  in 
order  to  regulate  the  transit  of  emigrants  from  the  Russian  and  the  Austrian 
frontiers  through  Prussia  to  Hamburg  and  Bremen,  and  in  view  of  certain 
guaranties  furnished  by  them,  some  concessions  were  recently  made  to  the 
North  German  Lloyd,  in  Bremen,  and  to  the  Hamburg-American  Company,  in 
Hamburg,  as  to  their  contracts  for  the  transport  of  emigrants  corning  from 
Russia  and  Galicia  at  their  crossing  of  the  frontier.  According  to  that 
arrangement,  so-called  control  stations  were  established  by  the  above-named 
steamship  companies  on  the  Russian  frontier,  viz,  at  Bajorhen  (district  of 
Memel),  at  Eydtkuhnen  (district  of  Stalluponen),  at  Prostken  (district  of 
iLyck),  at  Illowo  (district  of  Neidenburg),  and  at  Ottlotschin  (district  of 
Thorn). 

At  these  stations  all  emigrants  are  subjected  to  an  examination  as  to  their 
health,  and  such  persons  as  do  not  seem  liable  to  be  refused  admission  by  the 
American  authorities  and  whose  transportation  to  America  is  undertaken  by  a 
representative  of  the  above-named  steamship  companies  will  be  permitted  to 
continue  their  journey  even  without  the  prescribed  certificates  as  to  their 
pecuniary  possessions,  passports,  or  cabin  tickets  still  in  force,  and  they  shall 
then  be  transported  by  the  representative  steamship  companies,  if  possible, 
in  separate  sections  and  without  being  brought  in  contact  with  other  people,  to 
the  ports  of  embarkation.  Similar  facilities  have  been  arranged  on  the  Austrian 
frontier  at  Myslowitz  (district  of  Kattowitz)  and  at  Ratibor,  at  which  sta- 
tions, however,  a  medical  examination  is  not  required,  but  the  name  of  each 
passenger  contracted  by  the  steamship  companies  is  recorded  under  police 
supervision  in  two  separate  registers.  On  the  other  side,  the  North  German 
Lloyd  and  Hamburg-American  companies  have  assumed  the  following  obli- 
gations : 

Both  companies  are  to  be  held  responsible  severally  and  jointly  for  expenses 
accruing  to  the  State,  communities,  or  institutions  for  the  poor— 

(a)  From  the  ^transportation  of  emigrants  admitted  to  those  stations,  re- 
spectively, at  either  Myslowitz  or  Kattowitz  under  the  easier  terms,  no  matter 
whether  or  not  the  emigrants  were  actually  received  in  the  stations,  and  in 
whatever  direction  or  for  whatever  reason  they  were  transported. 

([>)  From  food,  lodging,  and  medical  treatment  (and  eventually,  in  cases 
of  death,  burying)  for  such  emigrants  in  transit,  no  matter  whether  or  not 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  95 

such  expenses  were  incurred  at  those  stations  or  somewhere  else  in  Germany, 
or  during  the  transport  to  or  from  the  seaports. 

These  obligations  of  both  steamship  companies  remain  binding  toward  state, 
communal,  or  other  institutions  for  the  poor,  even  if  such  emigrants  as  have 
been  admitted  at  those  control  stations  should  purchase  tickets  from  other 
companies.  Whenever,  therefore,  emigrants  in  transit  of  the  above-described 
kind  should  fail  to  reach  the  respective  ports  of  their  destination,  or  should 
desire  to  return  from  America,  via  Germany,  to  their  original  countries,  all 
expenses  incurred  from  sojourn  or  transportation  (eventually  also  of  feeding) 
to  state,  communal,  or  other  institutions  for  the  poor  must  be  borne  by  the 
steamship  companies,  which  in  every  case  must  be  notified  whether  or  not  the 
individual  case  concerns  an  emigrant  who  had  been  received  at  the  frontier  by 
one  of  the  two  steamship  companies,  which  will  be  ascertained  by  an  examina- 
tion of  the  emigrant  or  by  the  papers  in  his  possession.  The  minister  of  the 
interior  will  act  as  agent  in  the  matter  of  settling  the  amount  of  expenses  to  be 
borne  by  those  companies  in  order  to  get  an  idea  of  the  number  and  the  amount 
of  such  cases.  It  is  hoped  and  expected  that  they  will  not  be  ver^  numerous, 
as  it  is  in  the  very  greatest  interest  of  the  steamship  companies  themselves  to 
avert  such  expenses  by  using  their  utmost  discretion. 

At  the  time  of  the  committee's  visit  control  stations  were  main- 
tained at  the  following  border  points:  Russian  frontier — Bajohren, 
Eydtkuhnen,  Illowo,  Insterburg,  Ostrowo,  Ottlatschin,  Posen,  Prost- 
ken,  Tilsit;  Austrian  frontier — Bingerbruck,  Leipsig,  Myslowitz, 
and  Ratibor.  An  interior  station  was  maintained  at  Ruhleben,  near 
Berlin,  where  emigrants  not  passing  through  the  border  stations  were 
inspected.  These  control  stations  are  maintained  by  the  two  German 
steamship  lines,  the  Hamburg- American  and  North  German  Lloyd, 
and  the  Holland- American,  Red  Star,  White  Star,  Cunard,  Amer- 
ican, and  French  lines,  for,  by  a  concession  of  the  Government,  emi- 
grants booked  for  passage  on  the  foreign  lines  mentioned  are  per- 
mitted to  pass  through  the  station  and  over  German  territory.  Emi- 
grants holding  tickets  by  lines  other  than  those  mentioned  are  not 
permitted  to  pass  the  control  stations.  Rejections  on  this  account  are 
frequent,  the  total  for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1907,  being  664.  If 
such  emigrants  are  willing  and  able  to  purchase  tickets  by  one  of  the 
licensed  lines,  they  are  of  course  allowed  to  proceed,  but  otherwise 
they  must  seek  another  route  to  their  port  of  embarkation.  The  sta- 
tions are  under  the  supervision  of  the  German  Government  and  police 
officers  are  in  constant  attendance.  These  officers  examine  emigrants 
in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  German  regulations,  with  espe- 
cial regard  to  the  matter  of  steamship  tickets  referred  to. 

Members  of  the  Commission  visited  the  control  stations  at  Mys- 
lowitz, Ottlotschin,  Bajohren,  and  Eydtkuhnen,  but  witnessed  the 
inspection  of  emigrants  only  at  Myslowitz.  This  is  located  at  the 
junction  of  the  three  countries,  Germany,  Russia,  and  Austria,  and 
is  one  of  the  most  important  stations.  Like  most  of  the  stations  it 
is  equipped  for  the  housing  of  emigrants  awaiting  transportation  to 
ports  of  embarkation,  and  is  provided  with  a  steam  disinfecting  plant 
whicli  is  ready  for  use  at  all  times.  The  German  regulation  formerly 
required  that  the  clothing  and  other  effects  of  all  emigrants  be 
disinfected  at  control  stations,  but  at  the  time  under  consideration 
this  was  done  only  when  the  examining  physician  deemed  such  a 
course  advisable.  Facilities  for  bathing  were  also  provided,  and  this 
was  compulsory  when  advised  by  the  medical  examiner.  The  Mys- 
lowitz station  was  equipped  with  an  emergency  hospital  with  accom- 
modations for  about  100  persons,  and  the  commissioners  were 
informed  that  in  cases  of  contagious  or  infectious  disease  afflicted 


96 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


persons  and  all  those  with  whom  they  had  come  in  contact  were 
removed  there  for  treatment  or  observation. 

As  witnessed  by  members  of  the  Commission  the  inspection  of 
emigrants  at  control  stations  is  more  nearly  like  the  examination  at 
United  States  ports  than  is  the  usual  examination  at  European  ports 
of  embarkation.  This  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  amount  of  money 
possessed  by  emigrants  is  taken  into  account  there,  while  at  ports 
of  embarkation  this  is  not  considered.  As  usual  the  medical  ex- 
amination was  particularly  directed  toward  the  discovery  of 
trachoma  and  favus. 

An  agent  of  the  Commission  employed  in  the  investigation  of  the 
steerage  on  emigrant-carrying  ships  passed  through  the  control 
station  at  Myslowitz,  and  her  experiences  there  are  recorded  in  the 
Commission's  report  on  Steerage  Conditions.0 

During  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1907,  a  total  of  1,199,566 
European  immigrants  were  admitted  at  United  States  ports,  and 
during  the  same  period  455,916  intended  emigrants  were  inspected 
at  German  control  stations.  While  the  above  numbers  are  not 
strictly  comparable  it  is  clear  that  approximately  one-third  of  all 
emigrants  from  Europe  to  the  United  States  pass  through  these 
stations,  and  that  fact  emphasizes  their  importance  in  the  system  of 
emigration  selection  abroad  which  the  United  States  immigration 
law  has  made  necessary. 

Through  the  courtesy  of  the  Hamburg-American  Line's  officials 
at  Hamburg,  the  Commission  secured  an  interesting  statistical  state- 
ment relative  to  activities  at  the  various  stations  during  the  year 
ending  June  30,  1907.  This  is  shown  in  brief  in  the  following  table : 

TABLE  44. — Number  of  emigrants  inspected  at  German  control  stations,   and 
number  and  per  cent  rejected,  by  stations,  year  ending  June  30,  1907. 

[Compiled  from  statistics  furnished  by  the  Hamburg-American  Line.] 


Control  station. 

Number  of 
emigrants 
inspected. 

Emigrants  rejected. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Russian  frontier: 

3,875 
21,512 

28,683 

282 

638 
1,677 
360 
380 
838 
1,064 
386 
1,048 

7.3 
3.0 
5.8 
4.0 
3.5 
6.3 
14.0 
1.7 
9.7 

Illowo  

Insterburg                             

8,948 
10,  773 
13,  221 
7,609 
22.  408 
10,835 

O  ttlotsohin         -  .'  

Posen                              \.  .  . 

Tilsit            

Total                 

127,864 

6,673 

5.2 

Austrian  frontier: 

637 
92.  414 
113  343 

78 
454 
1.969 
2,343 

12.2 
.5 
1.7 
2.3 

Ratibor       

103,215 

Total                   

309,  609 

4,844 

1.6 
1.6 

27e 

18,  443 

297 

455,916 

11,814 

"Steerage   Conditions.      Reports  of   the    Immigration   Commission,   vol.   37.      (&    Do< 
No.  753,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


97 


During  the  period  covered  by  the  above  table  13,064  aliens  were 
debarred  for  all  causes  at  all  United  States  ports,  or  only  1,250 
more  than  were  turned  back  at  the  German  control  stations  alone. 

The  causes  of  rejections  at  the  stations  are  shown  in  the  following 
table: 

TABLE  45. — Number  of  emigrants  rejected  at  German  control  stations,  by  cause, 
year  ending  June  80,  1907. 

[Compiled  from  statistics  furnished  by  the  Hamburg- American  Line.] 


Cause. 

Number 
rejected. 

Per  cent  of 
total. 

Medical: 
Trachoma  •  

5  000 

42  32 

Favus  

510 

4  32 

Granulosis  

3  779 

31  99 

White  pox..   .. 

14 

12 

Cataract  

1 

(a\ 

Croup  

27 

23 

Rash     . 

50 

42 

Consumption  

3 

03 

Lupus  

4 

03 

Blind 

7 

06 

Measles  

10 

08 

Jaundice  

2 

02 

Fever         

102 

86 

Catarrh 

112 

95 

Cripple  

14 

.12 

Other  diseases  

281 

2  38 

Total  

9,916 

83.93 

Other  than  medical: 

755 

6.39 

Unlicensed  lines  ... 

664 

5.62 

Other  reasons 

489 

4.14 

Total  

1,908 

16.15 

Grand  total 

11  814 

100.00 

a  Less  than  one  one-hundredth  of  1  per  cent. 

It  will  be  noted  from  the  above  table  that  diseases  of  the  eye  are 
the  principal  causes  of  rejection,  trachoma  and  granulosis  together 
accounting  for  74.3  per  cent  of  all  rejections  made.  It  will  also  be 
noted  that  1,908  persons,  or  16.2  per  cent  of  the  whole,  were  rejected 
for  reasons  other  than  medical,  which  is  a  much  larger  proportion 
than  is  shown  at  ports  of  embarkation.  It  would  appear,  however, 
that  of  this  class  of  rejections  only  755,  classified  as  "  without  means," 
were  turned  back  because  of  the  likelihood  that  they  would  be  rejected 
under  the  provisions  of  the  United  States  immigration  law. 

A  description  of  the  examinations  in  force  at  Bremen  and  Ham- 
burg follows. 

Bremen. 

The  laws  of  Bremen  relative  to  emigration  through  that  port  are 
similar  to  the  laws  of  Hamburg,  and  the  systems  of  handling  emi- 
grants are  much  alike  at  both  ports.  The  North  German  Lloyd  is 
the  only  steamship  line  carrying  passengers  from  Bremen,  and  the 
steerage  business  of  the  company  is  largely  in  the  hands  of  F.  Missler, 
a  general  ticket  agent,  with  headquarters  at  Bremen  and  agencies  and 
subagencies  in  every  part  of  Austria  and  Hungary,  as  well  as  in  other 
emigrant-furnishing  countries.  Mr.  Missler  is  reputed  to  be  a  shrewd 

.d  capable  business  man,  and  certainly  he  has  achieved  success  in 


98  The  Immigration  Commission. 

securing  steerage  passengers  for  the  North  German  Lloyd.  In  Aus- 
tria and  Hungary  the  advertising  matter  distributed  by  agents  selling 
steerage  tickets  by  this  line  may  or  may  not  contain  any  reference 
to  the  steamship  company  represented,  but  invariably  the  name  and 
picture  of  Mr.  Missler  are  conspicuously  displayed,  and  he  is  well 
known  to  thousands  of  the  emigrating  classes  who  have  never  heard 
of  the  North  German  Lloyd. 

At  the  time  of  the  committee's  visit  emigrants  embarking  at  Bremen 
were  practically  in  charge  of  Mr.  Missler's  agents  during  their  stay 
in  the  city.  For  the  most  part  they  were  housed  in  a  new  emigrant 
hotel  owned  jointly  by  the  North  ^German  Lloyd  and  Mr.  Missler. 
This  is  located  on  the  outskirts  of  the  city  and  is  a  model  of  its 
kind.  Emigrants  were  maintained  at  this  hotel  at  a  low  price 
while  awaiting  sailing.  Russian  Jews  were  not  allowed  at  the 
new  building,  but  were  housed  at  one  of  the  older  buildings.  The 
Jewish  quarters  were  not  so  well  equipped  as  the  new  station,  but 
they  were  comfortable  and,  it  appeared,  were  well  conducted.  It  is 
not  compulsory  that  emigrants  patronize  either  of  these  stations, 
however,  and,  as  at  Hamburg,  some  emigrants  were  lodged  at  board- 
ing houses  in  the  city.  These  boarding  houses  are  licensed  by  the 
government  of  Bremen  and  are  closely  watched  by  the  Bremen  health 
office.  The  authorities  here,  as  at  Hamburg,  are  especially  watchful 
in  the  case  of  emigrants  from  Russia,  and  when  an  epidemic  prevails 
in  that  country  they  are  examined  on  arrival  at  Bremen  and  kept 
under  medical  surveillance  until  danger  of  infection  is  past. 

The  final  medical  examination  of  all  emigrants  takes  place  in  a 
building  adjoining  the  railway  station  when  the  train  for  Bremer- 
haven  is  boarded.  This  examination  is  conducted  by  a'  physician 
employed  by  the  American  consul,  who  is  reimbursed  by  the  steam- 
boat company  for  expenditures  on  this  account. 

Particular  attention  is  paid  to  the  eyes,  and  in  this  the  consulate's 
physician  is  assisted  by  a  specialist.  Emigrants  are  also  examined 
as  "to  their  general  physical  condition.  At  times  when  emigration  is 
large  several  medical  assistants  participate  in  the  examination,  and 
usually  the  ship's  doctor  is  present.  The  American  consul  or  vice- 
consul  always  attends  the  final  inspection,  and  the  Commission  was 
informed  that  the  steamship  company  invariably  acted  favornbly 
upon  the  consul's  advice  in  the  matter  of  rejections.  At  Bremen 
every  emigrant  is  vaccinated  before  boarding  the  ship.  Second- 
class  passengers  from  Russia  and  Hungary  are  examined  as  to  the 
condition  of  their  eyes.  As  is  the  case  at  Hamburg,  police  officers 
are  always  present  at  the  final  inspection  for  the  purpose  of  detecting 
military  deserters,  criminals,  etc.,  and  the  Commission  was  informed 
that  the  German  police  will,  on  request,  return  to  Austria-Hungary 
any  Austrian  or  Hungarian  who  has  not  performed  the  military 
service  required  by  that  country. 

During  the  thirteen  months  ending  December  31,  1907,  3,178  in- 
tended emigrants  were  rejected  at  the  port  of  Bremen,  and  8,110  more 
intending  to  embark  at  Bremen  were  rejected  at  the  various  control 
stations.  This  total  number  of  rejections,  11,288,  was  greater  than 
at  any  other  European  port  for  the  period  covered  by  the  Commis- 
sion's inquiry,  Napes,  with  10,224  rejections,  being  the  nearest  com- 
petitor. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


99 


The  causes  for  which  rejections  were  made  at  Bremen  and  control 
stations  on  account  of  the  North  German  Lloyd  Line  are  shown  by 
the  following  table : 

TABLE  46. — Number  of  persons  intending  to  embark  at  Bremen  who  icere  rejected 
at  control  stations  and  at  Bremen  from  December  1,  1906,  to  December  31, 
1907,  by  cause. 


Cause. 

Rejected  at— 

Total. 

Bremen. 

Control 
stations. 

Trachoma  

1,571 
28 
1,101 
34 
444 

3,998 
2,751 
348 
426 

587 

5,569 
2,779 
1,449 
460 
1,031 

Granulosa 

Other  diseases  of  eye  

Favus  

Other  diseases  

Total  

3,178 

8,110 

11,288 

It  is  interesting  to  note  in  this  connection  that  during  the  period 
covered  by  the  Commission's  inquiry  the  per  cent  of  rejections  at 
United  States  ports  was  larger  among  immigrants  sailing  from 
Bremen  than  from  any  European  port  excepting  Marseille  a*id 
the  Greek  port  or  Piraeus.0 

Hamburg. 

Although  emigrants  sailing  from  Hamburg  for  the  United  States 
had  been  subjected  to  some  sort  of  medical  inspection  since  1870,  it 
was  not  until  the  outbreak  of  cholera  in  1892  that  it  became  anything 
more  searching  than  a  scrutiny  of  the  emigrants  passing  in  line  be- 
fore the  inspectors.  At  that  time  those  suspected  of  having  con- 
tagious diseases,  such  as  smallpox,  measles,  and  scarlet  fever,  were 
given  a  more  careful  examination,  but  many  cases  of  favus  and 
trachoma  were  allowed  to  pass  unnoticed  until  rejections  at  United 
States  ports  of  persons  afflicted  with  these  diseases  and  the  imposi- 
tions of  fines  upon  the  steamship  companies  for  bringing  them  in- 
creased the  vigilance  of  the  examining  officials.  After  the  outbreak 
of  cholera  the  Hamburg- American  Line  engaged  an  American  physi- 
cian to  watch  the  disinfection  of  baggage  at  Hamburg  and  the  medi- 
cal examination  of  emigrants  to  the  United  States.  Later  a  physi- 
cian of  the  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service  was  detailed 
for  duty  at  Hamburg  to  enforce  the  United  States  quarantine  regu- 
lations, but  this  officer  was  recalled,  with  other  officers  of  the  service, 
and  the  examination  was  carried  on  as  before,  except  that  increasing 
attention  was  paid  to  cases  of  favus  and  trachoma. 

The  Auswandererhallen  of  the  Hamburg- American  Line,  which  is 
the  only  steamship  company  carrying  emigrants  from  the  port  of 
Hamburg,  consists  of  a  small  but  regularly  laid  out  village  on  the 
outskirts  of  the  city.  Along  the  streets  of  this  village,  each  of  which 
bears  a  name  appropriate  to  the  place  and  the  business  conducted 
there,  are  various  buildings  devoted  to  the  housing,  feeding,  and  ex- 


1 


<»  See  table,  p.  126. 


100  The  Immigration  Commission. 

amining  of  the  many  thousands  of  emigrants  who  annually  sail  from 
that  port  for  the  United  States. 

This  station  has  been  in  existence  for  many  years,  but  recently  its 
capacity  was  greatly  increased  by  the  erection  of  a  large  number  of 
new  buildings,  most  of  which  were  in  use  at  the  time  of  the  com- 
mittee's visit.  The  so-called  old  station  is  a  collection  of  one-story 
brick  buildings,  and  the  buildings  of  the  newer  station  are  of  the 
same  general  type,  although  somewhat  larger.  The  entire  village  is 
surrounded  by  a  paling  of  a  height  sufficient  to  prevent  persons 
leaving  the  grounds  except  by  the  regular  exits.  Within  the  village 
are  Protestant  and  Catholic  chapels  and  a  Jewish  synagogue,  in  each 
of  which  services  are  regularly  conducted. 

The  Auswandererhallen  is  sufficiently  large  to  comfortably  house 
4,000  persons  at  a  time,  and  is  regarded  as  the  most  complete  emi- 
grant station  in  Europe.  Sleeping  accommodations  at  this  station 
are  in  large,  well-ventilated,  and  well-kept  dormitories.  The  dining 
halls  are  also  large,  airy,  and  clean,  and  the  food  furnished  on  the 
occasion  of  the  committee's  visit  was  plentiful  and  excellent.  The 
customary  rule  of  separating  women  and  men,  except  in  the  case 
of  families,  is  followed,  not  only  as  regards  sleeping  dormitories  but 
in  the  dining  halls  as  well. 

Emigration  through  the  port  of  Hamburg  originates  chiefly  in 
Austria-Hungary  and  Russia,  and,  as  previously  explained,  these 
emigrants,  as  a  rule,  pass  through  the  German  control  stations  on  the 
Russian  and  Austrian  frontiers,  and  the  emigrant  trains  bringing 
them  to  Hamburg  discharge  their  passengers  at  the  gates  of  the 
Auswandererhallen.  Arriving  emigrants  are  first  placed  in  the  "  un- 
clean "  section  of  the  station  and,  as  soon  as  convenient,  are  given  a 
thorough  medical  examination  by  physicians  of  the  Hamburg- Amer- 
ican Line,  who  must  be  approved  by  the  Hamburg  government. 
The  examination  for  trachoma  is  made  by  an  eye  specialist,  and  all 
are  particularly  inspected  for  diseases  of  an  epidemic  character.  The 
station  is  at  all  times  subject  to  inspection  by  medical  officers  of  the 
Hamburg  government,  and  cases  of  a  severe  character  must  be  re- 
ported to  the  state  authorities.  At  this  examinntion  the  pvnminin<r 
physician  determines  whether  the  emigrant  shall  be  compelled  to  sub- 
mit  to  a  bath  and  to  the  disinfection  of  his  clothing  and  baggage. 
The  bath  and  disinfection  were  compulsory  after  the  epidemic  of 
cholera  in  1892  until  May  15,  1907,  when  "the  steamship  company 
succeeded  in  persuading  the  Hamburg  government  to  modify  the 
regulation  to  include  only  such  emigrants  as  were  designated  by  the 
examining .  physician.  The  bath  and  disinfection  house  is  clean, 
well  arranged,  and  well  equipped  for  the  purpose. 

After  the  medical  examination  emigrants,  with  the  exception  of 
those  from  Russia,  are  free  to  visit  the  city  and  to  remain  at  emigrant 
boarding  houses  there  if  they  choose.  It  was  stated,  however,  that 
from  three-fourths  to  four-fifths  of  the  emigrants  elected  to  remain 
at  the  Auswandererhallen.  After  passing  the  examination  emi- 
grants are  transferred  from  the  "  unclean  "  to  the  "  clean  "  section 
of  the  station,  the  Russian  Jews  being  housed  and  fed  in  quarters 
separate  from  emigrants  of  other  races.  As  previously  stated,  these 
Russian  emigrants  are  not  permitted  to  leave  the  station  until  the 
day  of  sailing,  this  rule,  it  was  said,  being  due  to  a  regulation  of 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  101 

the  Hamburg  government  rather  than  to  the  initiative  of  the  steam- 
ship company.  Russian  Jews  pay  a  fixed  charge  covering  their 
entire  stay  at  the  Auswandererhallen,  whether  that  stay  be  long  or 
short,  but  other  classes  are  charged  a  fee  which  at  the  time  of&the 
committee's  visit  was  2  marks  (46  cents)  a  day.  A  hotel  is  main- 
tained in  connection  with  the  station  where  emigrants  can  have  better 
accommodations  at  a  small  advance  in  price.  A  hospital  is  main- 
tained within  the  grounds,  and  at  the  time  of  the  committee's  visit 
a  larger  hospital  was  under  construction.  The  new  hospital  is  some- 
what removed  from  the  other  buildings  of  the  station,  and  is  suffi- 
ciently large  to  accommodate  all  the  occupants  of  any  one  of  the 
sleeping  dormitories  at  the  station,  so  that  in  the  event  of  an  epi- 
demic disease  breaking  out  in  a  dormitory  all  its  occupants  can  be 
isolated  until  danger  from  contagion  is  past.  This  hospital  was 
erected  at  the  instance  of  the  Hamburg  authorities,  who,  since  the 
cholera  epidemic  of  1892,  have  enforced  stringent  regulations  govern- 
ing the  handling  of  emigrants  at  that  port.  In  fact,  the  Auswan- 
dererhallen, while  owned  and  operated  by  the  Hamburg-American 
Line,  is  under  the  constant  supervision  of  the  Hamburg  police,  a 
special  commissioner  of  that  department  being  permanently  assigned 
to  the  station.  As  an  illustration  of  the  care  exercised  by  the  gov- 
ernment of  Hamburg  to  prevent  the  introduction  of  disease  by  emi- 
grants, it  may  be  stated  that  the  Hamburg- American  Company  is 
required  to  maintain  an  elaborate  disinfection  plant  where  sewage 
from  the  Auswandererhallen  is  thoroughly  disinfected  before  reach- 
ing the  city  sewers.  Emigrants  quartered"  in  boarding  houses  in  the 
city  are  examined  daily  by  medical  officers  of  the  Hamburg  govern- 
ment as  a  precautionary  measure. 

The  final  examination  of  emigrants  is  made  on  the  day  of  em- 
barkation as  emigrants  go  aboard  the  tender  which  carries  them  to 
the  ship.  This  is  done  by  medical  officers  of  the  Hamburg  govern- 
ment, assisted  by  a  resident  physician  of  the  Hamburg-American 
Company.  The  ship's  doctor  is  usually  present  also.  At  this  exami- 
nation emigrants  who  have  been  lodged  elsewhere  than  at  the  Aus- 
wandererhallen are  carefully  examined  for  trachoma  and  favus  by  a 
specialist  employed  by  the  steamship  company. 

An  American  consular  officer  invariably  is  present  at  the  final 
examination,  and  also  representatives  of  the  Hamburg  emigration 
service,  and  officers  of  the  criminal  police,  whose  duty  is  to  inspect  for 
criminals,  military  deserters,  etc.  At  the  time  of  the  committee's 
inquiry  American  consular  officers  did  not  assume  nluch  authority  in 
connection  with  the  examination  and  embarkation  of  emigrants,  but 
it  was  stated  that  their  suggestions  or  requests  were  always  readily 
complied  with,  and  that  doubtful  cases  were  sometimes  submitted  to 
them  for  decision. 

Emigrant  baggage  of  certain  classes,  such  as  bedding,  not  disin- 
fected at  a  control  station  is  disinfected  at  Hamburg,  and  this  is  done 
in  the  case  of  all  baggage  coming  from  districts  where  epidemic  dis- 
eases prevail.  At  the  Auswandererhallen  the  process  of  disinfection 
is  carried  on  under  the  direction  of  police  commissioners  stationed 
there,  with  occasional  inspection  under  the  authority  of  the  American 
consul-general.  The  baggage  of  emigrants  housed  outside  the  emi- 
grant station  is  inspected  and  disinfected  under  the  direction  of  the 
American  consul-generaL 


102 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


First  and  second  cabin  passengers  are  not  subjected  to  a  medical 
examination  at  Hamburg.  Emigrants  embarking  at  Hamburg  are 
not  vaccinated  prior  to  embarkation,  but  all  steerage  passengers  ex- 
cept American  citizens  are  vaccinated  by  the  ship's  doctor  soon  after 
sailing. 

All  disbursements  made  by  the  American  consul-general  in  con- 
nection with  the  examination  of  emigrants  and  the  disinfection  of 
their  baggage  are  refunded  by  the  Hamburg- American  Line. 

During  the  period  December  1,  1906,  to  December  31,  1907,  cov- 
ered by  the  Commission's  inquiry,  2,094  intended  emigrants  were 
rejected  at  Hamburg,  and  3,233  intending  to  embark  at  Hamburg 
were  turned  back  at  the  various  control  stations.  The  causes  for 
which  these  rejections  were  made  are  shown  in  the  following  table: 

TABLE  47. — Number  of  persons  intending  to  embark  at  Hamburg  who  were  re- 
jected at  control  stations  and  at  Hamburg,  from  December  1, 1906  to  December 
81,  1907,  by  cause. 

[Compiled  from  statistics  furnished  by  the  Hamburg- American  Line.] 


Cause. 

Rejected  at— 

Total. 

Control 
stations. 

Ham- 
burg. 

1,768 
1,017 
240 
20 

188 

2,343 
0 
324 
10 
17 

4,111 
1,017 

564 
30 
205 

Conjunctivitis                               

Favus                                                                                            

Total                                                                                

3,233 

2,694 

5,927 

HAVRE. 


The  decree  of  the  French  Government,  May  21,  1861,  required  all 
emigrant  ships  to  be  inspected  by  a  physician,  who  had  been  regularly 
appointed  by  the  French  commissioner  of  emigration.  This  decree 
was  the  beginning  of  medical  inspection  at  Havre  and  it  is  still  in 
force. 

This  action  of  the  French  Government  was  supplemented  in  1884 
by  the  United  States  State  Department,  which  instructed  the  consul 
at  Havre  to  designate  a  local  physician  to  act  as  sanitary  inspector 
for  all  vessels  bound  for  the  United  States.  His  duties  were  to 
examine  passengers,  baggage,  and  merchandise  and  to  report  by 
cable  if  any  contagious  or  infectious  disease  was  aboard  at  the  time 
of  departure.  This  precaution,  however,  had  been  occasioned  by  the 
appearance  of  cholera  in  Europe  and  was  discontinued  in  1885  upon 
the  disappearance  of  that  plague. 

The  medical  examination  of  emigrants  as  it  is  now  carried  on  in 
Havre  is  based  on  the  requirements  of  the  immigration  laws  of  1893 
and  the  quarantine  regulations  of  February  24,  1893.  It  has,  how- 
ever, been  slightly  modified  by  changes  in  our  immigration  and  quar- 
antine laws  and  supplemented  by  consular  regulations. 

Emigrants  who  depart  from  Havre  for  the  United  States  are 
brought  to  that  port  by  two  special  trains  which  arrive  at  least  four 
and  a  half  hours  before  the  sailing,  so  that  at  least  that  much  time  ' ~ 


1 


•  Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  103 

afforded  for  the  inspection.  One  of  these  special  emigrant  trains 
comes  from  Modane,  Italy,  and  brings  Italians,  Syrians,  Armenians, 
and  Greeks.  The  last  three  come  from  their  respective  countries  by 
steamers  to  Marseille,  where  they  are  subjected  to  a  medical  exami- 
nation by  the  French .  health  authorities  before  they  are  allowed  to 
land.  If  admitted  they  are  dispatched  by  train  to  Macon,  a  railway 
junction  in  the  east  of  France,  where  it  joins  the  section  from 
Modane,  Italy.  The  other  emigrant  train  starts  from  Basel,  Switzer- 
land, carrying  emigrants  from  Austria-Hungary,  Germany,  Kou- 
mania,  and  Switzerland.  They  congregate  at  Basel  and  proceed  to- 
gether to  Havre.  Upon  their  arrival  at  Havre  the  emigrants  are  sent 
to  a  large  waiting  room  which  adjoins  the  examination  room. 

The  medical  examination  is  made  by  the  resident  physician  of  the 
Compagnie  Generale  Transatlantique,  assisted  by  any  other  surgeons 
of  that  line  who  may  be  in  port,  the  surgeon  of  the  ship  on  which 
the  emigrants  are  sailing,  an  oculist  employed  by  the  steamship  com- 
pany, and  a  doctor  representing  the  French  commissioner  of  immi- 
gration. The  American  consul  also  participates  in  the  examination. 
Each  emigrant  is  vaccinated  by  one  of  the  company's  doctors  and 
given  a  red  card  on  which  is  printed  the  word  "  Vaccinated." 
Another  doctor  then  examines  his  scalp  and  skin,  and  a  third  his  eyes. 
If  he  is  found  free  from  any  disease  which  would  be  a  cause  of  rejec- 
tion at  New  York  he  is  allowed  to  retain  the  vaccination  card,  with- 
out which  he  can  not  go  aboard  the  ship.  If  the  emigrant  is  sus- 
pected of  any  disease  which  might  be  a  cause  of  rejection  he  is  de- 
prived of  his  red  card  and  held  for  a  second  examination.  The  final 
decision  in  the  doubtful  cases  is  made  after  a  consultation  of  the 
examining  force. 

In  addition  to  the  medical  examination  the  baggage  of  emigrants 
is  inspected,  and  if  it  comes  from  countries  where  epidemics  prevail 
it  is  disinfected  in  accordance  with  the  requirements  of  the  United 
States  quarantine  laws  and  regulations.  Passengers  coming  from 
cholera-infected  districts  are  detained  for  five  days  previous  to  em- 
barkation; those  from  plague-infected  countries  for  seven  days;  and 
those  who  have  been  exposed  to  the  infection  of  typhus  fever  for 
twelve  days.  First  and  second  clask  passengers  sailing  from  this  port 
are  not  examined.  Exception,  however,  to  this  rule  is  made  of  sec- 
ond-class passengers  who  arrive  in  the  emigrant  trains. 

The  following  are  the  number  and  cause  of  rejections  that  were 
made  at  the  port  of  Havre  during  the  period  December  1,  1906,  to 
December  31,  1907: 


Trachoma 147 

Pellagra 47 

Herpes 34 

Conjunctivitis 19 

Psoriasis 16 

Tuberculosis 13 

Eczema    11 

Whooping  cough 

Chicken  pox 8 

Favus 8 

Deformities  __            7 


Measles 5 

Partial  paralysis 4 

Partial  blindness 3 

Gastritis 

Mumps 2 

Rachitis 

Advanced  pregnancy 

Cancer 1 

Goiter 

Total—  340 


' 


70524°— VOL  4— 11- 


104  The  Immigration  Commission. 


LIBAU. 


A  committee  of  the  Commission  visited  Libau  and  at  that  time  ships 
of  the  Russian  East  Asiatic  Company  and  the  Russian  Volunteer  Fleet 
were  carrying  emigrants  from  the  port  of  Libau.  A  little  later,  how- 
ever, the  service  of  the  latter  company  was  suspended.  It  was  stated 
to  the  committee  that  formerly  there  was  considerable  rivalry  between 
the  two  steamship  lines,  but  differences  had  been  adjusted  and  both 
were  represented  at  Libau  by  one  firm  of  general  ticket  agents.  The 
committee  was  informed  that  applicants  for  steerage  tickets  at  sub- 
agencies  in  the  interior  of  Russia  were  required  to  undergo  a  physical 
examination  by  a  local  physician.  If  passed  by  this  physician  an  order 
is  given  on  the  head  office  of  the  company  at  Libau  for  a  ticket.  Upon 
arrival  at  Libau  intending  emigrants  are  examined  by  a  physician 
employed  by  the  steamship  line,  and  certificates  are  issued  to  physi- 
cally sound  persons.  Without  this  certificate  the  'purchase  of  a  ticket 
can  not  be  completed.  There  is  no  emigrant  station  at  Libau  where 
persons  could  be  housed  while  awaiting  embarkation,  and  this  want  is 
supplied  by  emigrant  boarding  houses.  The  committee  inspected 
several  of  these  houses.  Some  were  clean,  others  exceedingly  dirty, 
and  none  were  provided  with  facilities  for  bathing.  Occupants  pay 
about  10  cents  a  night  for  lodging.  Occupants  have  the  use  of  the 
kitchen  for  cooking  their  own  food,  or  meals  will  be  furnished  by  the 
house  if  desired.  All  of  the  boarding  houses  visited  were  kept  by 
Hebrews,  but  in  no  instance  were  the  guests  confined  to  any  one  race, 
and  Poles,  Hebrews,  and  Lithuanians  were  dwelling  in  apparent  har- 
mony under  one  roof,  and  in  many  instances  in  the  same  room.  The 
committee  was  informed  that  the  two  steamship  companies  contem- 
plated erecting  conjointly  an  emigrant  hotel  or  station  or  possibly 
an  emigrant  village  similar  to  Auswandererhallen  at  Hamburg. 

The  examination  of  emigrants  by  the  company's  resident  physician 
is  supplemented  by  an  inspection  by  the  ship's  doctor  at  the  time  of 
embarkation.  This  official,  at  the  time  of  the  committee's  visit,  paid 
little  attention  to  emigrants  holding  a  medical  certificate  from  the 
resident  physician,  but  confined  his  attention  mainly  to  those  without 
certificates  or  whose  certificates  bore  a  notation  or  request  for  further 
examination.  The  municipality  of  Libau  also  employs  a  physician 
whose  duty  it  is  to  examine  emigrants  arriving  at  Libau.  The  com- 
mittee was  informed  that  this  examination  amounted  to  little  except 
during  an  outbreak  of  cholera  in  Russia,  when  the  municipal  physi- 
cian carefully  examined  emigrants  on  their  arrival  and  daily  during 
their  stay  in  Libau. 

The  American  consular  agent  at  Libau  had  practically  no  part  in 
the  examination  of  emigrants  at  the  time  of  the  committee's  visit. 
At  the  examination  witnessed  this  official  was  represented  at  the 
dock  by  a  clerk  who  could  not  speak  English,  and  who  mechanically 
placed  the  consular  seal  on  every  inspection  card  presented  to  him 
without  even  looking  at  the  person  to  whom  the  card  had  been  issued. 
The  committee  did  not  see  the  consular  agent,  but  was  informed  that, 
like  his  clerk,  he  could  not  speak  English.  It  was  stated  that  he 
never  attended  the  embarkation  of  emigrants,  and  in  fact  only  signed 
the  ship's  bill  of  health  when  it  was  sent  to  his  house  or  office. 

No  records  of  rejections  are  kept  at  the  American  consular  agency, 
and  the  manager  of  the  Russian  East  Asiatic  Company  stated  th  J 
no  record  was  made  of  rejections  on  account  of  that  line. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


105 


Rupture 6 

Conjunctivitis 1 

Total__  _  654 


Such  records  were  kept  for  ships  of  the  Russian  Volunteer  Fleet, 
however,  while  that  line  was  carrying  emigrants  from  Libau,  and 
from  December  1,  1906,  to  May  10, 1908,  a  total  of  654  persons  were 
rejected  at  Libau,  from  the  following  causes: 

Trachoma 402 

Trachoma  and  favus 87 

Favus 84 

Catarrh 56 

Favus  and  catarrh 18 

A  member  of  the  committee  who  embarked  at  Libau  on  a  ship  of 
the  Russian  Volunteer  Fleet  noted  that  a  large  force  of  Russian 
police  was  stationed  at  the  dock  pending  the  departure  of  the 
steamer,  and  that  a  number  of  police  officers  remained  on  the  steamer 
until  the  outer  harbor  was  reached.  On  this  occasion  several  hun- 
dred friends  of  the  emigrants,  who  had  come  to  witness  the  em- 
barkation, were  driven  from  the  dock  by  mounted  policemen  before 
the  ship  sailed,  while  any  attempt  on  the  part  of  emigrants  on  board 
the  ship  to  shout  or  sing  was  promptly  suppressed  by  the  police  on 
board.  It  was  explained  that  this  is  occasioned  by  the  fact  that 
many  of  the  emigrants  are  revolutionists  who  feel  that  once  on 
board  a  ship  bound  for  America  they  have  taken  the  first  step  toward 
freedom,  and  accordingly  they  have  in  the  past  given  vent  to  their 
feelings  by  singing  the  Marseillaise  and  waving  red  flags.  To  pre- 
vent a  repetition  of  such  scenes  the  police  control  mentioned  was 
inaugurated. 


MAKSEILLE. 


When  a  committee  of  the  Commission  visited  Marseille  there  was 
but  one  steamship  line',  the  Cyprien  Fabre,  carrying  emigrants  direct 
from  that  port  to  the  United  States,  and  the  number  carried  was 
small.  But  notwithstanding  this  the  city  is  an  important  emigration 
center,  its  importance  in  this  regard  being  due  to  the  fact  that  nearly 
all  the  Mediterranean  lines  which  carry  emigrants  from  the  Levan- 
tine and  Black  Sea  regions  discharge  them  at  Marseille.  Conse- 
quently the  city  is  practically  a  detention  camp  for  thousands  of 
Turks,  Syrians,  and  other  peoples  of  southeastern  Europe,  some  of 
whom  embark  at  Marseille,  while  the  majority  are  forwarded  by  emi- 
grant trains  to  Havre,  Cherbourg,  or  Boulogne,  where  they  take  pas- 
sage for  the  United  States.  Still  others  embark  at  St.  Nazaire, 
France,  for  the  port  of  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico.  Among  the  latter  are 
many  diseased  persons  who  have  been  assured  that  they  can  reach  the 
United  States  in  no  other  way,  while  others  who  doubtless  would  be 
admitted  at  United  States  ports  are  deluded  into  going  via  Mexico 
by  the  spoilers  who  prey  upon  ignorant  emigrants  at  Marseille  and 
eastern  Mediterranean  ports.  Immigration  of  this  class  through 
Mexico  has  for  many  years  been  one  of  the  serious  problems  of  the 
United  States  Immigration  Service.  In  the  annual  report  of  the 
Commissioner-General  of  Immigration  for  1908  (p.  144),  the  super- 
vising inspector  of  the  Mexican  border  comments  on  the  situation 
as  follows : 

The  influx  of  Syrians  by  way  of  the  Mexican  border  is  a  matter  of  long 
standing,  and  represents  now,  as  it  has  for  several  years  past,  a  constant 
attempt  on  the  part  of  members  of  this  race  to  secure  entrance  to  the  United 


106  The  Immigration  Commission. 

States  through  Mexico,  as  a  result  either  of  being  refused  passage  for  Atlantic 
ports  of  the  United  States  or  through  advices  given  by  unscrupulous  individuals 
at  the  various  rendezvous  of  immigrants  in  Europe  to  the  effect  that  the  route 
to  the  United  States  via  Mexico,  while  longer  and  more  expensive,  afforded  a 
surer  means  of  ingress  into  this  country.  A  very  large  percentage  of  Syrian 
arrivals  at  Mexican  border  ports  are  found  to  be  suffering  with  diseases  of  a 
contagious  character,  or  to  have  been  suffering  from  same  at  some  time  in  the 
past;  and  practically  the  entire  remainder  is  made  up  of  aliens  who  have  been 
told  by  runners  in  Europe  that  they  were  afflicted  with  some  excludable  ail- 
ment, when,  in  reality,  no  disability  of  such  character  existed.  Syrian  immi- 
gration by  way  of  the  Mexican  border  is,  therefore,  likely  to  continue  in  con- 
siderable volume  until  such  time  as  the  impression  is  removed  at  the  seaports 
of  southern  Europe  that  the  Mexican  route  affords  a  more  favorable  means  for 
Syrian  aliens  to  secure  entry  into  the  United  States  than  by  the  usually  traveled 
lines  leading  to  the  Atlantic  coast  ports  of  this  country. 

Trachoma  and  other  loathsome  or  dangerous  contagious  diseases 
within  the  meaning  of  the  United  States  immigration  law  are  particu- 
larly prevalent  in  countries  which  furnish  most  of  the  emigrants 
traveling  via  Marseille.  In  fact  the  committee  was  informed  by  a 
steamship  agent  whose  territory  embraced  Greece  and  the  near  east 
that  70  per  cent  of  the  people  in  Syria  are  afflicted  with  trachoma, 
and  that  on  account  of  the  prevalence  of  the  disease  his  company  had 
given  up  the  idea  of  getting  much  Syrian  business. 

Emigrants  gathered  at  Marseille  are  quartered  in  lodging  houses, 
several  of  which  were  inspected  by  the  committee  and  found  to  be 
extremely  dirty,  as  were  most  of  the  occupants.  As  a  rule  the 
steamship  tickets  held  by  emigrants  arriving  at  Marseille  entitle 
them  to  lodging,  without  board,  during  their  stay  at  that  port.  Emi- 
grants who  are  unable  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  physical  ex- 
amination to  which  they  are  subjected  at  Marseille  often  remain 
there  for  treatment  in  the  hope  of  finally  being  allowed  to  sail  for  the 
United  States. 

It  is  the  custom  of  the  Fabre  Line,  and  of  all  other  steamship  com- 
panies having  ticket  agencies  at  Marseille,  not  to  sell  tickets  to  the 
United  States  to  emigrants  until  they  produce  a  medical  certificate 
from  the  company's  doctor  to  the  effect  that  their  physical  condition 
complies  with  the  requirements  of  the  United  States  law.  The  Fabre 
Line  also  employs  a  specialist  in  eye  diseases  who  examines  espe- 
cially for  trachoma.  The  final  examination  of  emigrants  sailing 
direct  from  Marseille  is  made  by  the  ship's  doctor  in  the  presence  of 
an  American  consular  officer,  and  the  inspection  and  disinfection  of 
baggage  is  under  the  direction  of  the  American  consulate-general  in 
accordance  with  the  United  States  quarantine  laws.  The  Fabre  Line 
ships  have- no  second-class  cabins,  and  carry  only  a  small  number  of 
first-class  passengers  from  Marseille.  These  are  not  subjected  to  a 
medical  inspection  before  purchasing  tickets  unless  there  is  reason  to 
believe  that  they  are  traveling  first  class  in  order  to  escape  the 
steerage-passenger  examination.  Emigrants  are  vaccinated  in  the 
presence  of  an  American  consular  officer. 

No  record  is  kept  of  rejections  at  Marseille,  but  the  Fabre  Com- 
pany stated  that  the  number  of  applicants  for  passage  by  that  line 
rejected  at  the  preliminary  and  final  examinations  was  equal  to  about 
30  per  cent  of  the  total  number  transported. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  107 


PATBAS. 


Direct  emigration  from  the  Greek  port  of  Patras  to  the  United 
States  began  in  1904,  when  13  emigrants  departed.  The  number  in- 
creased to  429  in  1905,  7,921  in  1906,  and  21,207  in  1907.  After  the 
initial  attempt  at  transporting  emigrants  direct  from  Greek  ports 
several  steamship  companies  entered  the  business,  but  as  a  rule  these 
did  not  long  continue,  and  at  the  time  the  Commission  inspection  was 
made  the  great  majority  of  emigrants  sailed  on  steamers  of  the 
Austro-Americano  Line.  Emigrants  embarking  at  Patras  are  drawn 
from  Greece,  Macedonia,  Asia  Minor,  and  the  islands  of  the  Archi- 
pelago. 

There  is  no  provision  of  Greek  law  governing  the  medical  inspec- 
tion of  emigrants  or  members  of  ships'  crews  sailing  from  ports  of 
Greece,  and  the  examination  of  emigrants  is  entirely  in  the  hands  of 
the  steamship  companies  and  United  States  consular  authorities. 
Previous  mention  has  been  made  of  the  unique  system  of  medical  ex- 
amination prevailing  in  connection  with  emigration  from  the  port 
of  Patras.  This  system,  it  will  be  remembered,  grew  out  of  the  re- 
jection at  New  York  of  a  large  number  of  Greek  emigrants  sailing 
on  a  ship  of  the  Austro-Americano  Line.  Following  this  incident 
the  company  inaugurated  a  system  which  included  not  only  an  ex- 
amination at  the  time  of  embarkation,  but  also  one  in  connection 
with  the  sale  of  steamship  tickets  to  intended  emigrants.  At  the 
time  of  the  committee's  visit  this  company  had  forty  ticket  agencies 
and  subagencies  in  various  parts  of  the  country  and  at  each  of  these 
the  company  provides  for  a  medical  examination  of  intended  emi- 
grants at  the  time  application  is  made  for  a  ticket.  An  emigrant 
accepted  by  an  examining  physician. is  required  to  make  a  deposit 
toward  the  cost  of  a  steamship  ticket,  is  given  a  certificate  showing 
that  he  has  passed  the  first  examination,  and  a  reservation  on  the 
steamer  is  made.  On  reaching  Patras  the  intending  emigrant  is 
again  examined  by  the  steamship  company's  head  physician,  and  if 
accepted  is  allowed  to  complete  the  purchase  of  a  ticket.  On  the  day 
of  sailing  all  emigrants  are  brought  to  the  company's  office  and  again 
examined.  As  each  passes  the  doctor  he  is  stamped  on  the  wrist  with 
one  of  seven  stamps.  No  one  knows  until  the  morning  of  sailing 
which  stamp  is  to  be  used,  and  when  that  is^  determined  the  captain 
of  the  ship  is  notified  In  a  sealed  envelope  just  before  the  final  in- 
spection is  commenced,  and  no  one  is  admitted  to  the  ship  unless  both 
his  ticket  and  his  wrist  bear  the  proper  inspection  mark.  This  pre- 
caution is  taken  to  prevent  the  substitution  of  another  person  for  one 
who  has  successfully  passed  the  examination,  a  practice  that  is  not 
uncommon  at  some  ports  of  embarkation.  It  would  seem  that  the 
method  adopted  to  prevent  this  at  Patras  would  make  substitution 
difficult,  as  the  ink  used  on  the  stamp  is  of  a  special  kind,  containing 
a  nitrate  which  makes  'it  indelible  and  unalterable  for  some  time. 
The  head  physician  of  the  Austro-Americano  Line  had  studied  the 
system  of  examining  immigrants  at  United  States  ports  and  was 
familiar  with  the  requirements  of  the  United  States  law  in  that 
regard.  The  other  examining  physicians  employed  by  the  company 
were,  according  to  the  United  States  consul  at  Patras,  well-qualified 


108  The  Immigration  Commission. 

medical  men.  The  committee  was  informed  that  out  of  the  last 
7,000  emigrants  sailing  from  Patras  ,not  one  had  been  rejected  at  a 
United  States  port  on  account  of  loathsome  or  contagious  diseases. 
This  was  attributed  to  the  vigilance  of  the  steamship  company  at  the 
port  of  embarkation.  The  records  of  rejections  at  United  States 
ports,  however,  do  not  substantiate  the  above  statement,  for  during 
the  months  of  January,  February,  and  March,  1907,  a  period  covered 
by  the  statement,  seven  immigrants  out  of  1,397  sailing  from  Patras 
were  debarred  at  United  States  ports  on  account  of  trachoma,  and 
the  per  cent  rejected  for  all  medical  reasons  was  considerably  above 
the  average  for  all  ports  of  Europe.  Notwithstanding  this,  however, 
the  committee  believes  the  system  of  examination  in  force  at  Patras 
is,  both  theoretically  and  practically,  a  most  excellent  one. 

Another  feature  of  the  examination  at  Patras  not  observed  else- 
where was  that  emigrants  were  required  to  sign  a  statement  relative 
to  their  criminal  record,  the  amount  of  money  in  their  possession, 
and  other  matters  referred  to  in  the  examination  at  United  States 
ports. 

All  baggage  brought  to  Patras  by  emigrants  is  placed  in  a  ware- 
house and  subjected  to  inspection  and  a  thorough  disinfection  before 
being  transferred  to  the  ship.  The  United  States  consul  or  his  as- 
sistant receives  the  key  to  the  warehouse  and  holds  it  until  the  disin- 
fection process  is  completed,  and  then  issues  stamped  labels,  which  are 
fixed  to  each  article  of  baggage.  At  times  ships  regularly  sailing  from 
Patras  call  for  emigrants  at  the  Greek  port  of  Zante,  and  on  such 
occasions  a  United  States  consular  assistant  is  detailed  to  supervise 
the  inspection  of  baggage,  but  the  passengers  are  not  examined  until 
the  ship  reaches  Patras.  At  Calamatta,  where  a  few  emigrants 
occasionally  embark,  the  French  consular  agent  supervises  the  in- 
spection of  baggage  and  the  medical  examination. 

During  the  thirteen  months  ending  December  31,  1907,  a  total  of 
1,174  emigrants  intending  to  embark  at  Patras  for  the  United  States 
on  steamers  of  the  Austro- Americano  Line  were  rejected.  The 
causes  of  rejection  in  these  cases  were  as  follows: 

Trachoma 1,  052 

Malarial   diseases 29 

General  debility 19 

Loss  of  hands  or  fingers 28 

Crippled  and  deformed • 35 

Disfiguring  scars 10 

Imbecility 1 

Total 1, 174 

During  1907  emigrants  intending  to  sail  by  the  Prince  Line  were 
rejected  at  various  ports  as  follows: 

Patras 191 

Calamatta .. 06 

Zante 14 

Total 271 

During  the  period  covered  by  the  committee's  investigation  some 
emigrants  sailed  from  Patras  by  the  Hellenic  Transatlantic  Steamship 
Line,  but  data  relative  to  the  number  of  rejections  made  on  account 
of  that  line  were  not  available. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  109 


PIBAEUS. 


The  examination  of  emigrants  at  Piraeus  is  conducted  by  the 
steamship  companies  and  the  system  in  force  at  the  time  the  com- 
mittee's inspection  was  made  was  similar  to  that  at  Patras.  Emi- 
grants were  carried  from  this  port  on  ships  of  three  transatlantic 
companies,  the  Prince  Line,  the  Fabre  Line,  and  the  Austro- Amer- 
icano. The  examination  was  conducted  by  the  ship's  doctor  in  the 
presence  of  a  United  States  consular  officer.  Persons  applying  for 
passage  on  ships  of  the  Austro- Americano  Line  were  subjected  to  an 
examination  under  the  direction  of  the  ticket  agent  selling  the  trans- 
portation, but  on  the  whole  the  inspection  at  this  port  appeared  to  be 
more  perfunctory  than  at  Patras. 

Data  are  not  available  to  show  the  number  of  rejections  on  account 
of  the  Austro-Americano  line  during  the  period  covered  by  the  com- 
mittee's inquiry,  but  the  representatives  of  the  company  at  Piraeus 
stated  that  only  about  3  per  cent  of  those  applying  for  passage  were 
rejected.  The  reasons  given  for  the  small  number  of  rejections  were 
that  a  large  number  of  the  emigrants  came  from  Thessaly  and 
Macedonia,  where  the  people  are  healthy,  and  that  the  examination 
at  Piraeus  was  only  preliminary  to  a  more  careful  inspection  when 
the  ship  reached  Patras. 

While  at  Patras  a  member  of  the  Commission  inspected  the  Greek 
ship  Moraitis,  which  had  just  sailed  from  Piraeus. :  This  was  the 
first  Greek  emigrant  ship,  and  was  built  solely  for  emigrant  and 
cargo  traffic.  The  ship  made  but  few  trips  under  the  original  com- 
pany, which  failed,  and  no  record  of  rejections  could  be  secured. 


ROTTERDAM. 


The  Holland-American  Line  entered  the  emigrant-carrying  trade 
from  the  port  of  Rotterdam  nearly  forty  years  ago.  For  several 
years  the  only  medical  inspection  was  a  casual  one  made  by  the  ship's 
doctor  as  the  emigrants  passed  in  line  before  him.  Later,  on  account 
of  the  prevalence  of  cholera  in  Europe,  the  company  employed  a 
resident  physician  and  a  more  thorough  medical  examination  was 
inaugurated.  Following  the  epidemic  of  cholera  at  Hamburg  in 
1892  the  United  States  Government  detailed  an  officer  of  the  Public 
Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service  for  duty  at  Rotterdam,  as  was 
done  in  the  case  of  several  other  European  ports.  This  official  re- 
;  mairied  at  Rotterdam  only  until  the  epidemic  of  cholera  subsided,  but 
i  during  that  time  he  advised  with  the  local  physicians  relative  to  the 
rejection  of  emigrants  in  connection  with  his  duties  as  a  sanitary 
officer.  The  system  of  examination  at  the  time  of  the  committee's 
visit  had  been  in  force  about  fourteen  years,  except  that  two  physi- 
cians were  employed  as  emigration  increased,  and  two  eye  specialists 
were  added  to  the  staff  in  1903  when  a  more  rigid  examination  for 
trachoma  was  necessitated  by  rejections  at  United  States  ports  on 
account  of  that  disease. 

Emigrants  from  the  interior  of  Europe  who  purchase  their  tickets 
at  agencies  of  the  Holland- American  Line  are  brought  to  Rotter- 
dam four  or  five  days  before  the  departure  of  the  steamer  on  which 
they  expect  to  sail.  Emigrants  from  Russia  are  given  orders  for 


110  The  Immigration  Commission. 

tickets  by  subagents  of  the  company  in  that  country,  and  if  they  are 
passed  at  the  control  stations  on  the  German  frontier  they  receive 
their  tickets  from  other  agents  in  the  border  towns  and  proceed 
to  Rotterdam.  Emigrants  from  nearby  points  usually  arrive  at 
the  port  on  the  day  before  sailing.  All  emigrants  for  the  Holland- 
American  Line  are  met  on  arrival  in  the  city  by  uniformed  runners 
and  conducted  to  the  emigrant  station  or  hotel  which  is  maintained 
by  the  company.  This  station  was  inspected  by  members  of  the 
Commission  and  by  an  agent  of  the  Commission  engaged  in  the 
investigation  of  steerage  conditions,  and  the  impression  was  .that, 
although  erected  nearly  twenty  years  ago,  it  was  one  of  the  best  of 
several  similar  stations  in  Europe.  The  building  is  large,  well 
equipped,  and  well  kept. 

Instead  of  the  large  sleeping  dormitories  which  are  the  rule  at 
most  European  emigrant  stations,  the  Rotterdam  station  is  divided 
into  small  rooms  similar  to  steerage  staterooms  on  a  steamship.  The 
walls  of  these  rooms  extend  only  part  way  to  the  ceiling,  and  they 
are  fitted  with  four  or  six  iron  berths  similar  to  those  used  in  the 
steerage.  The  steerage  of  Holland-American  steamers  is,  as  a 
rule,  divided  into  staterooms  instead  of  large  domitories,  and  offi- 
cials of  the  company  stated  to  the  committee  that  the  similar  equip- 
ment at  the  emigrant  station  accustomed  emigrants  to  the  accom- 
modations on  shipboard.  The  building  is  well  lighted  and  ventilated, 
and  spacious  wash  and  bath  rooms  are  provided.  The  building  is  so 
constructed  that  should  occasion  arise  it  would  be  possible  to  effec- 
tually quarantine  800  persons.  The  emigrant  station  at  Rotterdam 
has  been  rather  severely  criticized  °  and  the  committee  was  informed 
that  in  previous  years  emigrants  had  not  been  sufficiently  protected 
from  the  spoilers  who,  everywhere  and  in  every  way  possible,  seek 
to  get  what  little  money  they  may  have.  It  was  stated,  however, 
that  conditions  in  this  regard  were  greatly  improved  at  the  time  of 
the  committee's  visit,  and  that  the  steamship  company  did  whatever 
was  possible  to  protect  the  emigrants. 

As  previously  stated  emigrants,  as  a  rule,  arrive  at  Rotterdam 
several  days  prior  to  their  embarkation.  This  gives  opportunity  for 
a  thorough  medical  inspection,  and  each  immigrant  is  examined 
daily  by  the  company's  resident  physicians.  On  the  day  before 
sailing  emigrants  are  examined  for  eye  diseases  by  two  specialists 
employed  by  the  steamship  company.  The  final  examination  is 
made  from  3  to  6  hours  before  the  departure  of  the  steamer.  This 
is  attended  by  the  American  consul-general  or  his  deputy,  a  physi- 
cian employed  by  the  consulate-general,  the  ship's  doctor,  an  officer 
of  the  state  committee  charged  with  the  supervision  of  emigration 
through  the  Netherlands,  and  a  Rotterdam  police  officer  whose  duty 
it  is  to  watch  for  fugitives  from  justice.  According  to  the  United 
States  quarantine  regulations  the  inspection  cards  of  all  emigrants 
permitted  to  embark  are  stamped  with  the  consular  seal.  All  second- 
class  passengers,  except  American  citizens  having  passports,  and 
citizens  of  the  Netherlands  and  Germany,  are  subjected  to  the  exami- 
nation prescribed  for  steerage  passengers.  Emigrants  are  vaccinated 
as  soon  as  practicable  after  the  vessel  sails. 


0  See  "  On  the  Trail  of  the  Immigrant,"  Steiner. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe. 


Ill 


At  the  time  the  Commission's  inspection  was  made  ships  of  the 
"Russian  East  Asiatic  Line  from  Libau  called  at  Rotterdam  for  pas- 
sengers. Emigrants  intending  to  sail  on  ships  of  this  line  were  quar- 
tered in  so-called  hotels  maintained  by  philanthrophy  or  charity,  or 
at  private  hotels,  of  which  there  were  several  conducted  more  espe- 
cially for  the  accommodation  of  emigrants.  Steerage  passengers 
embarking  on  boats  of  the  Russian  East  Asiatic  Line  at  Rotterdam 
were  inspected  by  a  physician  who  is  a  member  of  the  state  com- 
mittee on  the  supervision  of  emigration.  This  physician  also  in- 
spected emigrants  who  had  boarded  the  ship  at  Libau. 

During  the  period  January  1,  1904,  to  September  4,  1908,  a  total 
of  2,523  emigrants  intending  to  embark  on  ships  of  the  Holland- 
American  Line  were  rejected  at  Rotterdam.  The  distribution  of 
these  rejections  by  years  and  cause  is  shown  by  the  following  table: 

TABLE  48. — Number  of  emigrants  rejected  at  Rotterdam    (Holland-American 
Line)  from  January  1,  1904,  t°  September  4,  190$,  by  years  and  cause. 


Cause. 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908,  to 
Sept.  4. 

Total. 

Trachoma 

739 

704 

461 

228 

96 

2  228 

Favus        

45 

88 

59 

66 

13 

271 

Other  causes                                   

7 

9 

5 

3 

24 

Total  

791 

801 

525 

297 

109 

2,523 

During  the  thirteen  months  especially  covered  by  the  committee's 
inquiry— December  1,  1906,  to  December  31,  1907—303  Holland- 
American  Line  emigrants  were  rejected  at  Rotterdam,  and  555  were 
turned  back  on  account  of  the  same  line  at  Vienna,  the  Austrian 
headquarters  of  the  line,  and  at  the  German  control  stations.  Tra- 
choma was  the  cause  of  the  great  majority  of  these  rejections. 

Those  rejected  were  distributed  according  to  country  or  province 
of  origin,  as  follows : 


Russia 561 

Hungary 202 

Roumania 27 

Austria 22 

Galicia 17 

The  Netherlands  __  14 


Croatia 7 

Germany 5 

Turkey 2 

Belgium 1 

Total__  -   858 


No  data  were  secured  relative  to  rejections  at  Rotterdam  on  ac- 
count of  the  Russian  East  Asiatic  Line. 


TRIESTE. 


Trieste  is  the  only  trans- Atlantic  port  of  Austria,  and  a  consid- 
erable number  of  immigrants  embark  there  on  ships  of  the  Austro- 
Americano  and  Cunard  lines.     These  emigrants  are  drawn  chiefly 
from  Austria,  Hungary,  Russia,  and  the  Balkan  States.     The  first 
ship  to  carry  emigrants  from  Trieste  to  the  United  States  sailed  on 
June  9,  1904,  and  for  a  little  more  than  a  year  the  medical  examina- 
ion  was  confined  to  that  made  by  the  ship's  doctor,  when  the  Austro- 
A.mericano  Company  employed  a  resident  physician  to  take  charge 
)f  the  medical  inspection  of  all  emigrants.     The  American  consul 


112  The  Immigration  Commission. 

at  Trieste  has  attended  personally,  or  by  deputy,  all  examinations 
since  the  beginning  of  the  traffic,  and  Austrian  police  officers  are 
present  for  the  purpose  of  inspecting  passports  and  military  papers 
of  the  emigrants.  The  Austro-Americano  policy  of  examining 
prospective  emigrants  in  connection  with  the  sale  of  tickets,  previ- 
ously described,0  is  enforced  at  Trieste  as  well  as  at  the  Greek  ports 
of  Patras  and  Piraeus,  but  no  records  are  available  to  show  how 
many  applicants  are  rejected  at  such  preliminary  examinations. 
Except  in  the  case  of  American  citizens,  the  medical  examination  of 
first  and  second  class  passengers  at  Trieste  by  the  steamship  com- 
pany is  the  same  as  that  prescribed  for  steerage  passengers,  but  no 
American  consular  inspection  is  made  of  cabin  passengers. 

The  Austro-Americano  Company  owns  a  large  building  at  Servi- 
ola,  a  suburb  of  Trieste,  known  as  the  "  Pension  of  the  Austro- 
Americano  Company."  This  building  contains  more  than  TOO  beds 
and  emigrants  awaiting  embarkation  are  lodged  there.  The  inspec- 
tion and  medical  examination  take  place  at  the  pension.  Emigrants 
are  first  required  to  pass  before  a  captain  of  police,  who,  with  the 
assistance  of  detectives,  examines  their  passports,  military  papers, 
etc.  If  these  are  not  satisfactory,  all  documents  are  taken  from  the 
emigrant  and  he  is  detained  under  police  guard  for  further  exami- 
nation. The  police  inspection,  however,  is  made  solely  for  local 
reasons,  rather  than  to  prevent  the  embarkation  of  persons  debarred 
by  the  United  States  immigration  law. 

After  passing  the  police  inspection,  emigrants  enter  a  large  room, 
where  they  are  examined  by  the  resident  physician  of  the  Austro- 
Americano  Line  assisted  by  a  nurse  and  the  physician  of  the  steam- 
ship on  which  the  emigrants  are  to  sail.  As  is  the  case  at  all  ports, 
particular  attention  is  given  to  the  eyes.  This  is  the  principal  and 
final  medical  examination,  but  previous  to  this  the  resident  physician 
examines  persons  lodged  at  the  pension.  At  the  final  examination 
persons  likely  to  be  debarred  at  United  States  ports  for  medical 
reasons  are  rejected,  but  those  only  slightly  affected  are  allowed  to 
proceed  if  it  is  thought  by  the  examining  physicians  that  they  can 
be  cured  during  the  voyage. 

From  the  medical  examination  the  emigrants  pass  before  the 
American  consul.  This  official  exercises  unusual  authority  in  reject- 
ing emigrants,  and  it  was  stated  to  the  committee  that  his  request 
that  an  emigrant  be  not  allowed  to  embark  on  the  ground  that  he  was 
generally  or  specifically  undesirable  was  invariably  respected  by  the 
steamship  company.  The  consul  pays  particular  attention  to  cases 
of  young  girls  traveling  alone,  and  if  they  can  not  show  that  they 
are  emigrating  with  the  permission  of  their  parents  or  that  they  are 
going  to  relatives  in  the  United  States,  they  are  usually  debarred  at 
the  consul's  request  and  turned  over  to  the  police,  who  require  the 
steamship  lines  to  return  them  to  their  homes.  In  the  case  of  Aus- 
trian girls  the  police  act  without  the  advice  of  the  consul,  but  they 
make  no  effort  to  stop  girls  coining  from  other  countries. 

The  examination  system  just  described  applies  only  to  passengers 
intending  to  sail  by  the  Austro-Americano  Line,  but  a  similar  system 
prevails  in  the  case  of  those  embarking  on  ships  of  the  Cunard  Line. 

•See  p.  107, 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  113 

Emigrants  seeking  passage  on  Cunard  ships  are  examined  by  the 
company's  resident  physician  on  their  arrival  at  Trieste  and  those 
clearly  not  qualified  are  immediately  rejected.  The  final  examina- 
tion takes  place  on  board  the  ship  just  prior  to  sailing.  As  passen- 
gers board  the  ship  they  are  examined  by  the  company's  resident  phy- 
sician and  the  ship's  doctor.  Those  rejected  are  deprived  of  their 
tickets  and  other  papers  and  are  required  to  leave  the  ship  at  once. 
Those  passed  are  then  inspected  by  a  police  captain  and  the  American 
consul.  First  and  second  cabin  passengers,  excepting  American  citi- 
zens, are  subject  to  practically  the  same  examination  as  is  given  those 
holding  steerage  tickets.  This  method  of  examination  has  been  in 
force  since  1903,  when  the  Cunard  Line  began  taking  emigrants  from 
Trieste. 

The  baggage  of  passengers  sailing  on  ships  of  the  Austro- Ameri- 
cano Line  is  disinfected  at  the  company's  pension.  While  the  proc- 
ess is  under  way  the  door  of  the  disinfecting  room  is  locked  and  sealed 
with  the  American  consular  seal.  The  key  is  retained  by  the  con- 
sular officer  in  charge  until  the  disinfection  is  completed. 

According  to  the  American  consul,  Hon.  George  M.  Hotschick,  the 
medical  examination  of  the  Austro- Americano  Line  at  Trieste  was 
formerly  very  superficial  and  ineffective.  He  states  that  during 
the  month  of  April,  1906,  three  Austro-Americano  ships  carrying 
1,610  emigrants  sailed  from  Trieste  for  New  York.  Of  this  num- 
ber 514,  or  nearly  one-third  of  the  total  number  carried,  were  refused 
admission  to  the  United  States  and  were  returned  to  Trieste.  This 
resulted  in  the  immediate  adoption  of  a  more  rigorous  examination 
at  that  port  which  at  once  reduced  the  number  of  rejections  to  a 
minimum.  Consul  Hotschick  states  that  in  May  and  June  of  the 
same  year,  1906,  three  ships  of  the  same  line  sailed  with  1,156  emi- 
grants, of  whom  only  two  were  rejected  at  New  York.  With  the 
reorganization  of  the  system  the  American  consul  became  an  im- 
portant factor  in  the  examination  of  emigrants  at  Trieste  as  pre- 
viously shown,  and  it  is  probable  that  he  exercises  greater  authority 
in  this  regard  than  the  American  consul  at  any  other  European  port. 
In  fact,  the  situation  at  Trieste  at  the  time  of  the  committee's  visit 
probably  represented  the  possible  maximum  of  consular  control  of 
normal  emigration  from  a  foreign  port  under  the  present  United 
States  quarantine  laws  and  regulations. 

During  the  period  covered  by  the  committee's  inquiry,  December  1, 
1906,  to  December  31,  1907,  the  number  of  intended  emigrants  re- 
jected at  Trieste  on  account  of  the  two  steamship  lines  mentioned 
were  as  follows : 

Austro-Americano  Line 279 

Cunard  Line 118 

Total -  397 

ITALIAN   PORTS. 

In  1899  Assistant  Surgeon  Heiser,  of  the  United  States  Public 
Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service,  was  detailed,  under  authority 
of  the  quarantine  law  of  1893,  for  service  at  the  port  of  Naples  on 
account  of  the  prevalence  of  the  plague  in  Egypt.  In  connection 
~rith  his  quarantine  functions  Dr.  Heiser  made  an  examination 


114  The  Immigration  Commission. 

of  all  emigrants  departing  for  the  United  States,  but  later,  on  the 
request  of  the  steamship  companies,  and  by  agreement  with  the 
Italian  Government,  he  began  to  examine  emigrants  for  defects 
contemplated  by  the  United  States  immigration  law,  and  to  recom- 
mend for  rejection  those  whom  he  believed  would  be  refused  admis- 
sion at  United  States  ports.  This  arrangement  has  since  been  con- 
tinued. The  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  surgeons  have 
no  official  standing  in  Italy,  except  that  of  quarantine  officers  at- 
tached to  American  consulates,  and  the  examination  of  emigrants  as 
conducted  by  such  officers  at  the  above-named  ports  is  in  reality 
unofficial,  and  is  effective  only  because  the  Italian  Government  and 
the  steamship  companies  invariably  accept  their  decisions  in  the  mat- 
ter of  rejections. 

At  the  time  of  the  committee's  visit  Passed  Asst.  Surg.  Allan  J. 
McLaughlin  was  in  charge  of  the  examination  at  Naples,  and  was 
assisted  by  Assistant  Surgeon  Foster  of  the  service,  and  Acting 
Assistant  Surgeon  Bunocore,  an  Italian  specialist  in  diseases  of  the 
eye.  That  Doctor  McLaughlin's  authority,  although  only  delegated 
by  the  Italian  Government  and  the  steamship  companies,  was  prac- 
tically absolute,  is  shown  by  his  reply  to  an  inquiry  by  the  committee 
as  to  whether  his  rejections  were  accepted  by  the  steamship  companies 
and  the  Government.  Doctor  McLaughlin  said : 

By  the  company  and  the  Government;  by  the  Italian  officer  representing  the 
navy  who  goes  on  board  the  ship ;  by  the  doctor  of  the  port ;  by  the  inspector  of 
emigration ;  by  the  entire  commission.0  There  is  never  a  question.  They  some- 
times ask  for  a  second  inspection  if  the  man  is  rejected  by  one  of  my  assistants, 
but  that  is  all,  and  of  course  that  is  always  made. 

The  agreement  under  which  emigrants  are  examined  by  United 
States  medical  officers  at  Naples  extends  also  to  the  ports  of  Palermo 
and  Messina,  and  the  examinations  there  are  made  by  Italian  physi- 
cians, who  are  acting  assistant  surgeons  of  the  United  States  Public 
Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service.  These  officers  have  the  same 
duties  and  exercise  the  same  authority  as  do  the  medical  officers  at 
Naples.  The  expense  of  the  medical  examination  at  these  ports  is 
borne  by  the  United  States  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Serv- 
ice, the  annual  salaries  of  medical  officers,  assistants,  and  clerks  at 
Naples  and  Palermo  being  $11,290,  while  incidental  expenses  amount 
to  about  $500  additional. 

The  inspection  and  disinfection  of  emigrant  baggage  at  Naples, 
Palermo,  and  Messina  is  also  made  under  the  direction  of  the  United 
States  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  surgeons,  but  in  this  they 
act  officially  as  quarantine  officers,  and  the  expense  is  borne  by  the 
steamship  companies. 

The  agreement  under  which  the  medical  examination  of  emigrants 
at  Italian  ports  is  made  by  United  States  officers  was  largely  pos- 
sible because  of  the  sincere  desire  of  the  Italian  Government  to  pro- 
tect Italian  emigrants.  The  willingness  of  the  steamship  companies 
to  agree  to  such  an  arrangement  is  easily  understood,  for  the  United 
States  immigration  law,  through  restrictions  and  fines,  makes  a 
thorough  examination  at  ports  of  embarkation  absolutely  essentif* 
to  the  carriers,  and  the  fact  that  the  United  States  Government  coi 

•Italian  Emigration  Commission. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  115 

ducts  the  examination  at  Italian  ports  merely  relieves  the  steamship 
companies  from  the  expense  and  trouble  of  doing  it. 

The  reason  for  the  attitude  of  the  Italian  Government,  however,  is 
entirely  different  from  that  of  the  steamship  companies.  Italians 
constitute  the  great  majority  of  all  emigrants  sailing  from  the  ports 
of  Italy  for  the  United  States.  In  this  respect  the  emigration  situa- 
tion there  is  materially  different  than  in  other  countries  from  whose 
ports  large  numbers  of  emigrants  sail,  and  consequently  Italy's  inter- 
est in  the  emigration  movement  is  unlike  that  of  other  nations  gen- 
erally. Only  a  small  fraction  of  the  emigrant  traffic  to  the  United 
States  through  the  ports  of  England,  Germany,  France,  Belgium,  and 
the  Netherlands  originates  in  those  countries,  and  it  is  only  natural 
that  the  problem  there  should  be  protection  from  emigration,  rather 
than  the  protection  of  the  emigrant.  Of  course  the  laws  of  the 
countries  named  dp,  in  a  measure,  promote  the  welfare  of  the 
emigrant,  but  such  is  not  their  primary  purpose. 

The  emigration  law  of  Italy,  however,  is  designed  to  protect  the 
Italian  emigrant  not  only  at  the  ports  of  embarkation  but  on  the  sea, 
and  after  their  arrival  in  a  foreign  country,  and  it  is  the  desire  of  the 
Government  to  prevent,  so  far  as  is  possible,  the  embarkation  of  those 
likely  to  be  subjected  to  the  hardship  and  disappointment  of  rejection 
at  United  States  ports.  This  is  one  of  the  purposes  for  which  the 
Italian  emigration  commission  was  created,  and  as  it  is  only  reason- 
able that  United  States  medical  officers,  experienced  in  the  examina- 
tion of  immigrants  at  United  States  ports,  should  be  better  able  than 
Italian  physicians  to  determine  the  admissibility  of  intended  emi- 
grants under  the  United  States  law,  the  commission  and  Government 
are  fully  in  accord  with  the  present  system.  Consequently  the  pur- 
poses of  both  the  steamship  companies  and  the  Italian  Government 
are  served  at  the  expense  of  the  United  States,  which  country,  in  the 
opinion  of  the  committee,  as  will  appear  later,  receives  little  or  no 
practical  benefit  that  does  not  accrue  under  the  examination  systems 
in  force  at  other  ports  of  Europe. 

The  details  of  the  examination  at  the  four  Italian  emigration 
ports— Naples,  Palermo,  Messina,  and  Genoa— follow : 

Naples. 

In  recent  years  Naples  has  led  all  European  ports  in  the  number 
of  emigrants  embarking  for  the  United  States.  At  the  time  of 
the  committee's  visit  12  steamship  companies,  including  the  White 
Star,  North  German  Lloyd,  Navigazione  Generate  Itahana.  La 
Veloce,  Fabre,  Lloyd-Italiano,  Hamburg- American,  Anchor,  Lloyd- 
Sabaudo,  Spanish,  Sicula-Americanp,  and  the  Prince  lines  carried 
immigrants  from  this  port.  The  above  lines  are  mentioned  in  the 
order  of  their  importance  as  emigrant  carriers  at  the  time  under 
consideration.  Emigrants  arriving  in  Naples  are  quartered  in  board- 
ing houses,  which  are  under  the  supervision  of  the  Government,  and 
are  frequently  examined  by  sanitary  officers  and  emigration  officials. 
Steamship  companies  are  required  to  board  emigrants  for  one  day 
prior  to  sailing,  and  if  departure  is  delayed  they  must  continue  to 
maintain  them  until  the  ship  sails  and  in  addition  must  pay  each 
2  lire  (40  cents)  a  day  as  damages  for  his  detention. 


II 


116  The  Immigration  Commission. 

The  medical  examination  of  emigrants  at  Naples  takes  place  in 
the  Capitaneria,  a  large  building  on  the  water  front,  just  prior  to 
the  sailing  of  the  ship.  Emigrants  pass  in  line  before  two  sur- 
geons of  the  United  States  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital 
Service,  one  of  whom  examines  for  trachoma  and  the  other  for  favus 
and  other  defects.  The  inspection  is  made  in  the  presence  of  the 
Italian  emigration  commission,  representatives  of  the  police  depart- 
ment, and  a  detail  of  carabinieri  reali,  or  military  police.  Usually 
there  are  also  present  the  ship's  doctor,  a  doctor  of  the  port,  the 
Italian  naval  surgeon,  who  represents  the  Government  on  all  ships 
taking  emigrants  from  Italian  ports,  and  an  inspector  of  emigration. 
Persons  rejected  by  the  United  States  medical  officers  are  imme- 
diately removed  from  the  inclosure.  Persons  not  rejected  pass  before 
a  police  officer,  who  examines  their  passports,  and  if  this  is  satis- 
factory the  emigrant  then  goes  aboard  a  lighter  and  is  carried  to  the 
ship.  At  the  gangway  or  the  vessel  emigrants  are  met  by  police 
officers  and  a  representative  of  the  United  States  medical  officials, 
who  sees  that  inspection  cards  are  properly  stamped  and  baggage 
labeled  to  indicate  that  it  has  passed  the  sanitary  inspectors.  Knives 
are  also  taken  from  the  emigrants  at  this  time  by  the  police.  If 
everything  is  satisfactory  at  this  point  the  seal  of  the  United  States 
Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service  is  stamped  on  the  in- 
spection card.  After  passing  the  first  group  of  inspectors  emigrants 
are  again  examined  for  trachoma  and  favus  by  the  ship's  doctor. 
This  supplementary  medical  visit  on  this  ship  was  inaugurated  at 
the  request  of  the  United  States  medical  officer  in  charge  to  prevent 
substitution,  which  previous  to  that  time  had  been  quite  common. 
The  usual  method  of  substitution  was  as  follows:  A  healthy  man 
who  had  no  intention  of  going  to  the  United  States  would  pass 
through  the  medical  inspection  on  shore  without  difficulty  and  re- 
ceive the  inspection  card  entitling  him  to  board  the  steamer.  Out- 
side he  would  pass  the  card  to  a  waiting  diseased  man  and  the  latter 
would  go  to  the  ship.  Doctor  McLaughlin  explained  the  origin  of 
the  medical  examination  by  the  ship's  doctor  at  the  gangway  as 
follows : 

*  *  *  This  supplemental  visit  at  the  gangplank  was  started  by  an  incident 
which  I  will  relate.  I  reported  these  facts  in  my  annual  report  July  1,  1906. 
It  is  rare  to  have  a  case  found  at  New  York  for  which  they  can  fine  the  com- 
pany. I  reported  that  it  would  be  impossible  to  stop  this  substitution  with 
the  force  I  had.  Within  two  months  after  that  a  steamer  went  into  New  York 
with  10  cases  of  trachoma.  She  hailed  from  Naples.  The  company  was  fined 
$1,000.  Any  one  of  the  10  cases  could  have  been  detected  by  a  layman,  they 
were  so  grave.  They  were  not  cases  which  required  any  skill  to  detect  them. 
It  was  palpable  that  the  emigrants  had  never  passed  our  inspection  at  all. 
•Doctor  Stoner,  chief  medical  officer  at  Ellis  Island,  happened  to  be  in  Naples 
at  the  time,  and  we  had  a  little  conference  at  the  consulate,  at  which  were 
present  the  vice  consul,  Dr.  Stoner,  and  representatives  of  the  steamship 
companies.  The  steamship  companies  were  very  much  worked  up  over  paying 
the  fine,  when,  as  they  said,  they  were  doing  everything  they  could  to  carry  out 
our  laws,  giving  me  every  support  possible.  They  said  it  was  unjust  that  the 
fine  should  have  been  inflicted.  I  said  that  I  could  not  be  responsible;  that  my 
visit  was  only  advisory;  that  I  could  not  police  the  harbor  of  Naples;  and  that 
the  best  thing  they  could  do  would  be  to  put  a  doctor  at  the  gangplank  and 
make  a  supplemental  visit,  and  hold  any  suspicious  cases  for  my  opinion  later: 
that  I  felt  sure  the  United  States  would  not  furnish  any  more  doctors.  They 
accepted  the  suggestion  and  put  the  system  into  operation.  Since  that  time  I 
have  had  no  complaint  whatever  from  New  York. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  117 

The  United  States  officers  at  Naples  take  no  part  in  the  examina- 
tion of  second-class  passengers,  except  that  occasionally  their  advice 
is  sought  concerning  questionable  cases.  The  second-class  passengers 
are  examined  by  a  physician  employed  expressly  for  this  purpose  by 
the  steamship  companies,  in  conjunction  with  and  under  the  super- 
vision of  the  Italian  emigration  commission. 

In  addition  to  the  medical  examination,  the  United  States  Public 
Health  and  Marine-Hospital  surgeon  in  charge  at  Naples  has  full 
control  of  the  inspection  and  disinfection  of  emigrant  baggage. 
This  is  done  in  a  well-equipped  plant  near  the  emigrant  station,  and 
at  the  time  of  the  committee's  visit  one  inspector  and  seven  assistant 
inspectors  were  employed  in  the  work.  These  men  were  under  the 
control  of  the  Marine-Hospital  surgeon,  acting  officially  as  a  quaran- 
tine officer,  and  the  expense  was  borne  by  the  steamship  companies. 

Emigrants  are  required  to  be  vaccinated  before  embarking  at 
Naples.  This  was  done  in  a  station  near  the  place  of  embarkation 
at  the  expense  of  the  steamship  companies,  but  under  the  supervision 
of  the  United  States  medical  officers. 

American  consular  officers  have  absolutely  no  part  in  the  examina- 
tion of  emigrants  at  Naples,  the  usual  consular  function  being  dele- 
gated to  the  Marine-Hospital  officer  in  charge.  The  consul,  however, 
signs  the  bill  of  health  in  conjunction  with  the  medical  officer. 

Messina.* 

The  medical  examination  of  emigrants  at  Messina  dates  from  1905, 
when  the  Italian  Government  decreed  that  it  should  be  an  "  emigra- 
tion port."  Previous  to  that  time  nearly  all  emigrants  from  this 
district  embarked  at  Naples  or  Palermo.  At  the  time  of  the  com- 
mittee's visit  the  situation  at  Messina  was  like  that  at  Palermo. 
Emigrants  embarking  on  ships  sailing  direct  to  United  States  ports 
were  examined  by  an  acting  assistant  surgeon  of  the  United  States 
Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service,  while  those  leaving  on 
ships  which  touched  at  Naples  were  inspected  by  the  Italian  authori- 
ties and  the  ship's  doctor.  The  examinations  are  practically  identical. 
At  times  when  a  considerable  number  of  emigrants  were  embarking 
the  examination  was  held  in  a  building  erected  for  the  purpose  and 
at  other  times  on  board  the  ship.  As  at  all  ports,  the  attention  of  the 
examining  surgeons  was  directed  toward  the  discovery  of  trachoma 
and  favus  and  other  diseases  or  defects  which  could  be  detected  by  a 
hurried  inspection.  Unlike  most  other  ports,  first  and  second  class 
passengers  were  examined  at  Messina. 

The  practice  of  avoiding  the  medical  examination  through  substi- 
tution formerly  prevailed  at  Messina,  as  at  Naples,  but  Hon.  Charles 
McCaughey,  formerly  American  consul  there,  stated  to  the  committee 
that  he  had  broken  up  the  system  by  causing  each  emigrant  passing 
the  examination  to  be  conducted  to  the  ship  by  a  police  officer^  The 
American  consul  or  vice-consul  always  attends  the  examination  of 
emigrants  at  Messina,  and  it  was  stated  to  the  committee  that  every 
courtesy  was  shown  them  and  their  recommendations  relative  to  re- 
jections always  accepted  without  question.  It  was  also  stated  that  in 

°The  services  of  the  United  States  medical  officer  at  Messina  were  discon- 
tinued on  February  1,  1909,  as  it  had  ceased  to  be  a  port  of  emigration  on 
account  of  the  destruction  of  the  city  by  the  earthquake  of  December  28,  1908, 


118  The  Immigration  Commission. 

several  instances,  owing  to  private  information,  criminals  were  pre- 
•  vented  from  embarking  for  the  United  States  through  the  interven- 
tion of  the  American  consul. 

The  disinfection  of  emigrants'  baggage  is  carried  on  under  the 
direction  of  the  American  consul. 

From  December  1,  1906.  to  December  31,  1907,  a  total  of  1,807 
emigrants  were  passed  and  194  rejected  at  Messina.  All  but  5  of  the 
rejections  were  for  trachoma. 

Palermo. 

The  sanitary  inspection  of  emigrants  to  the  United  States  was 
begun  at  Palermo  on  the  occasion  of  the  outbreak  of  cholera  in  1893, 
a  surgeon  of  the  American  Marine-Hospital  Service  being  at  that 
time  assigned  to  Naples,  with  jurisdiction  extending  over  the  Pa- 
lermo district.  Later,  and  up  to  1901,  the  medical  examination  was 
made  by  a  steamship  company  surgeon  or  by  a  local  doctor  employed 
by  the  American  consulate  at  the  expense  of  the  steamship  company. 
In  February,  1901,  the  United  States  Marine-Hospital  surgeon  in 
charge  at  Naples  began  sending  one  of  hi&  assistant  surgeons  to 
Palermo  each  time  there  was  a  departure  of  a  steamer  direct  to  the 
United  States.  The  voyage  between  Palermo  and  Naples,  however, 
being  a  very  fatiguing  and  often  a  stormy  one  of  twelve  hours  by 
small  packets,  such  visits  were  discontinued  in  1903,  and  a  local 
doctor  was  at  that  time  named  as  an  acting  assistant  surgeon  of  the 
Marine-Hospital  Service  and  assigned  to  duty  at  this  port,  and  at  the 
time  of  the  Commission's  inspection  this  arrangement  was  in  force. 

Emigrants  arriving  at  Palermo  are  lodged  in  boarding  houses 
until  embarking.  On  the  day  of  sailing  emigrants  are  examined  in 
a  building  on  the  water  front.  A  small  room  is  utilized  for  the 
examination,  and,  unlike  the  practice  at  other  ports,  each  is  exam- 
ined separately.  An  acting  assistant  surgeon  of  the  United  States 
Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service  conducts  the  examina- 
tion in  the  presence  of  an  American  consular  officer,  Italian  emigra- 
tion officials,  the  health  officer  of  the  port,  a  naval  surgeon  represent- 
ing the  Italian  Government,  and  the  ship's  doctor.  There  is  also 
present  a  resident  physician  representing  the  steamship  company  who 
attends  to  the  vaccination  of  emigrants  who  are  passed,  and  an  agent 
of  the  company  who  withdraws  the  tickets  of  rejected  persons.  The 
examination,  as  at  other  ports,  is  particularly  for  trachoma  and  favus. 
The  decisions  of  the  United  States  medical  officer  are  absolute,  but  in 
doubtful  cases  the  other  medical  men  present  are  frequently  con- 
sulted with.  After  passing  the  examining  physician  emigrants  ar< 
vaccinated  and  then  inspected  by  the  American  consular  officer,  whc 
officially  stamps  the  inspection  cards.  The  final  inspection  is  made 
by  an  inspector  of  emigration,  who  sees  that  emigrants'  passports 
and  papers  comply  with  the  Italian  law.  Inspection  cards  are  taken 
from  emigrants  as  they  board  the  steamer  by  a  representative  of  the 
American  consul.  This  is  done  in  order  that  they  may  be  compared 
with  the  passenger  list  of  the  steamer,  and  the  cards  are  returned  to 
the  captain  of  the  ship  with  that  list. 

The  disinfection  of  baggage  is  done  by  persons  employed  by  the 
American  consulate,  the  'expense  being  borne  by  the  steamship 
companies. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  119 

There  is  no  formal  examination  of  first  and  second  class  passengers 
at  Palermo,  and  it  was  frequently  stated  to  the  committee  that  at  this 
and  other  Italian  ports  persons  clearly  of  the  steerage  class  fre- 
quently embarked  second  class  because  they  could  not  pass  the  phys- 
ical examination  to  which  steerage  passengers  were  subjected.  In  this 
connection  Hon.  William  H.  Bishop,  American  consul  at  Palermo, 
made  the  following  statement  to  the  Commission : 

Under  instructions  from  Naples  there  is  no  inspection  by  the  consulate  of 
first  or  second  class  cabin  passengers.  These  are  supposed  to  be  looked  over  by 
the  company's  surgeon  and  are  taken  at  the  company's  risk.  I  understand 
that  such  passengers  were  at  one  time  regularly  inspected,  but  there  being  so 
many  Americans  among  them,  and  as  most  Americans  come  abroad  without  any 
papers  to  show  their  nationality,  there  was  no  way  to  distinguish  natives  from 
aliens,  protest  was  made  by  the  former  as  for  an  indignity  suffered  and  the 
examination  of  all  alike  was  dropped.  The  circumstance  adds  new  force  to 
the  argument  that  all  Americans  should  provide  themselves  with  a  passport 
for  their  proper  identification  before  leaving  their  own  country. 

In  my  opinion  it  should  be  possible  to  subject  alien  passengers  of  the  first 
and  second  class  to  the  same  examination  as  those  in  the  steerage,  for  the 
reason  that  some  of  the  latter  who  would  be  ineligible  on  the  grounds  of  health 
or  a  criminal  record  now  make  the  sacrifice  to  pay  the  higher  fare  for  the  very 
purpose  of  escaping  the  consular  investigation.  For  some  reason  or  other 
the  Italian  Government  does  not  require  its  subjects  to  take  out  passports  in 
these  classes,  and  their  penal  record  is  therefore  not  inquired  into,  as  it  is 
for  the  steerage.  As  a  matter  of  fact  nearly  all  such  cases  seem  to  pass 
our  immigration  authorities  at  Ellis  Island. 

Some  of  the  steamship  lines  carrying  emigrants  from  Palermo 
sail  direct  to  United  States  ports,  while  others  touch  at  Naples  on 
the  outward  voyage.  This  complicates  the  situation  at  the  former 
port,  for  the  reason  that  steerage  passengers  sailing  direct  from 
Palermo  are  examined  by  the  United  States  medical  officer,  while 
those  going  via  Naples  are  inspected  only  by  the  Italian  emigration 
commission  and  the  steamship  companies;  the  examination  by  marine- 
hospital  surgeons  taking  place  at  Naples.  A  further  complication 
arises  from  the  fact  that  by  permission  of  the  Italian  Government 
ships  of  the  White  Star  Line  touching  at  the  various  Italian  ports 
are  regarded  as  in  the  coastwise  traffic.  Because  of  this  arrange- 

\  ment  emigrants  sailing  from  Palermo  by  White  Star  boats  are  set 
ashore  at  Naples  and  examined  there  by  both  the  United  States  and 
Italian  officials.  With  regard  to  the  complex  situation  at  that  port 

!  Consul  Bishop  in  a  statement  to  the  Commission  said : 

Out  of  all  this  arises,  it  is  seen,  a  complex  condition  of  affairs  into  which 
simplicity  and,  if  possible,   uniformity,   should  be   introduced.     In  my  opinion 
the  entire  operation  should  be  done  either  there  or  here  and  not  divided. 
******* 

It  is  clearly  a  hardship  that  emigrants  beginning  their  journey  on  a  steamer 
continuing  to  the  United  States  from  here  and  only  calling  at  Naples  should 
have  to  proceed  to  Naples  before  taking  their  inspection,  at  the  risk  of  rejec- 
tion and  return  from  there,  and  it  would  also  be  if  an  inspection  were  to  take 
place  here  under  our  quarantine  laws  and  were  not  recognized  there,  making 
a  secondary  one  necessary  there.  In  the  year  1907  there  sailed  from  this 
port  to  the  United  States  direct  28,814  passengers,  and  by  way  of  Naples  in 
the  manner  described  about  20,000.  All  these  should  be  handled  here  uniformly. 
This  would  be  an  advantage  to  the  latter  class  of  emigrants  and  would  be 
welcomed  also  by  the  steamship  companies  conveying  them. 


70524°— VOL  4—11 9 


120  The  Immigration  Commission. 

During  the  period  covered  by  the  committee's  inquiry — December 
1,  1906,  to  December  31,  1907 — 24,868  emigrants  were  examined  by 
the  United  States  medical  officer  at  Palermo,  and  2,246  of  these  were 
rejected.  The  causes  of  rejection  were: 

Suspected  trachoma 1, 191 

Trachoma 883 

Other  causes  __  172 


Total 2,  246 

The  above  figures  do  not  include  emigrants  who,  as  previously 
stated,  embark  at  Palermo,  but  are  examined  at  Naples. 

Genoa. 

The  examination  of  emigrants  at  Genoa  at  the  time  of  the  com- 
mittee's visit  was  conducted  under  the  direction  of  the  Italian 
authorities.  At  times  since  its  establishment  in  1899  the  system  in 
force  at  Naples  and  other  Italian  ports  has  included  Genoa,  but  as 
a  rule  United  States  medical  officers  have  no  part  in  the  inspection. 

Emigrants  awaiting  embarkation  at  Genoa  are  lodged  in  board- 
ing houses  which,  as  at  all  Italian  ports,  are  under  the  supervision 
of  the  emigration  commission.  The  examination  occurs,  just  previous 
to  sailing,  in  a  large  waiting  room  at  the  pier  or,  if  the  number  of 
passengers  is  small,  on  board  the  ship.  The  actual  medical  examina- 
tion is  usually  made  by  the  ship's  doctor  in  the  presence  of  a  physi- 
cian attached  to  the  office  of  the  captain  of  the  port,  and  the  surgeon 
of  the  royal  navy,  who  sails  with  the  ship.  The  passports  of  the 
persons  passed  by  the  doctors  are  then  examined  by  Italian  officers. 
The  inspection  and  disinfection  of  baggage  is  made  under  the  direc- 
tion of  the  American  consul  in  accordance  with  United  States  quar- 
antine laws,  the  expense  being  borne  by  the  steamship  companies. 

From  the  foregoing  it  is  clear  that  the  steamship  companies  are 
in  the  main  responsible  for  the  medical  examination  of  emigrants 
at  European  ports  of  embarkation,  and  that  they  are  the  chief  bene- 
ficiaries of  the  system.  A  study  of  the  situation  also  shows  that  the 
real  controlling  factor  in  the  situation  at  every  port  is  the  United 
States  immigration  law,  for  without  it  there  would  be  no  examina- 
tion worthy  of  the  name. 

SUMMARY. 

Methods  of  conducting  the  inspection  differ.  At  some  ports  the 
examination  as  a  rule  extends  over  several  days,  and  specialists  are 
employed  to  detect  trachoma,  which  disease  is  the  chief  factor  in 
making  a  competent  examination  necessary.  At  others,  and  par- 
ticularly at  some  ports  of  call,  the  inspection  is  conducted  hurriedly 
and  under  seemingly  unfavorable  circumstances.  In  some  instances 
American  officials  have  absolutely  no  part  in  the  work  and  exercise 
no  authority;  in  others  American  consuls  participate  actively,  and 
in  the  notable  case  of  the  Italian  ports  American  medical  officers 
absolutely  control  the  situation.  This  being  the  case,  it  is  obvious 
that  any  attempt  to  determine  the  efficiency  of  the  systems  at  the 
various  ports  must  be  largely  a  study  of  the  methods  employed. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  121 

In  this  connection  it  is  necessary  only  to  note  the  real  and  final 
authority  in  determining  rejections  at  the  different  ports  under  con- 
sideration for  causes  contemplated  by  the  United  States  immigration 
law.  In  some  instances  this  is  difficult  on  account  of  apparently 
divided  authority,  but  the  following  summary,  it  is  believed,  fairly 
represents  the  situation  at  each  port: 

Antwerp :  Physician  employed  by  steamship  company. 

Bremen:  Physicians  employed  by  American  consul. 

Cherbourg:  Ship's  doctor. 

Christiania :  Physician  of  the  board  of  health. 

Copenhagen:  Municipal  physician. 

Fiume:  Physician  employed  by  steamship  company,  who  also  acts 
for  the  American  consul. 

Genoa :  Ship's  doctor. 

Glasgow:  Ship's  doctor. 

Hamburg:  Physicians  (including  eye  specialists)  employed  by 
steamship  company. 

Havre:  Physicians  (including  an  eye  specialist)  employed  by  the 
steamship  companies. 

Libau :  Physician  employed  by  steamship  company. 

Liverpool :  Physicians  employed  by  steamship  companies. 

Londonderry :  Ship's  doctor. 

Marseille:  Physicians  (including  an  eye  specialist)  employed  by 
steamship  company,  and  the  ship's  doctor. 

Messina:  Acting  assistant  surgeon  of  the  United  States  Public 
Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service. 

Naples:  Officers  of  the  United  States  Public  Health  and  Marine- 
Hospital  Service. 

Palermo:  Acting  assistant  surgeon  of  the  United  States  Public 
Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service. 

Patras:  Physicians  employed  by  steamship  companies. 

Piraeus:  Ship's  doctor. 

Queenstown:  Ship's  doctor. 

Rotterdam :  Physicians  (including  eye  specialists)  employed  by  the 
steamship  company;  a  physician  employed  by  the  American  consul- 
ate general,  and  the  ship's  doctor. 

Southampton:  Ship's  doctor. 

Trieste:  Physicians  employed  by  steamship  company,  and  the 
ship's  doctor/  Police  officers.  The  American  consul  exercises  un- 
usual authority. 

Number  of  emigrants  rejected. 

% 

Because  of  the  absence  of  records  the  Commission  was  unable  to 
ascertain  for  any  stated  period  the  total  number  of  rejections  made 
at  all  European  ports  included  in  the  inquiry.  In  the  case  of  some 
ports  information  was  available  for  only  a  part  of  the  steamship 
lines  embarking  emigrants  there,  and  in  other  cases  the  number  of 
persons  rejected  was  found,  but  the  cause  of  rejections  could  not  be 
ascertained.  Consequently  the  material  at  hand  is  incomplete,  but 
it  is  sufficient  to  illustrate  the  great  sifting  process  that  goes  on  at 
control  stations  and  ports  before  emigrants  are  finally  allowed  to 
embark  for  the  United  States. 


122 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


The  following  table  shows  such  information  as  was  available  rela- 
tive to  the  number  of  rejections  at  the  ports  and*  control  stations  indi- 
cated during  the  thirteen  months  ending  December  31,  190T,  which 
was  the  period  particularly  covered  by  the  Commission's  inquiry : 

TABLE  49. — Number  of  emigrants  rejected  at  ports  and  control  stations  specified, 
from  December  1,  1906,  to  December  31,  1907. 


Port  or  control  station. 

Number 
rejected. 

Port  or  control  station. 

Number 
rejected. 

Antwerp  a     

Londonderry  "       

Bremen: 

Marseille  o 

Control  stations  .... 

8,110 

Messina  

194 

Port  

3,178 

Naples  

10,224 

Cherbourg  a 

Palermo 

2,368 

Christiania  a     

Patras  «     

1,174 

Copenhagen  o 

Piraeus  <* 

Fiume  

4,789 

Queenstown  

124 

Genoa  &     

382 

Rotterdam: 

Glasgow 

40 

Control  stations 

538 

Hamburg: 

Port       

303 

Control  stations 

3,234 

Southampton  a 

Port 

2  694 

Trieste 

397 

Havre 

340 

Libau  c 

654 

Total 

39,681 

Liverpool  d  

938 

o  No  data. 

b  Includes  only  North  German-Lloyd  and  Navigazione  Generate  Italiana  lines.  Other  lines  carrying 
emigrants  from  Genoa  to  United  States  ports  are  the  Hamburg- American,  La  Veloce,  Lloyd  Italiano,  Lloyd 
Sabaudo,  Spanish,  and  the  White  Star. 

c  Includes  only  Russian  Volunteer  Fleet.  The  Russian  East  Asiatic  Line  aho  carries  emigrants  from 
Libau. 

d  Includes  only  American  and  Cunard  lines.  Other  lines  carrying  emigrants  from  Liverpool  to  United 
States  ports  are  the  Allan,  Dominion,  and  White  Star. 

«  Includes  only  A ustro- Americana  Line.  Other  lines  carrying  emigrants  from  Patras  to  United  States 
ports  are  the  Prince,  Fabre,  and  Hellenic-Transatlantic. 

It  will  be  noted  from  the  above  table  that  Naples  leads  every  other 
port  in  the  number  of  emigrants  rejected,  with  Fiume  second  and 
Bremen  third.     However,  when   rejections   at  control  stations   are 
also  taken  into  account  Bremen  stands  first  with  11.288  rejections 
as  compared  with  10,224  at  Naples,  and  Hamburg  third  with  5,928. 
With  the  exception  of  Naples,  data  are  not  available  to  show  the 
number  of  emigrants  embarking  at  the  various  ports  during  th( 
period  considered,  and  consequently  a  comparison  between  the  num- 
ber carried  and  the  number  rejected,  except  at  Naples,  is  impossibl* 
In  the  number  of  emigrants  embarking,  however,  Naples  is  first,  fol- 
lowed by  Bremen,  Liverpool,  and  Hamburg,  in  the  order  named,  tht 
number  carried  from  each  port  during  the  calendar  year  1907  bein^ 
approximately  as  follows: 

Naples 1 240, 1J 

Bremen 203,  7< 

Liverpool 177,  Gc 

Hamburg 142>  794 

In  the  case  of  Naples,  the  number  stated  was  taken  from  the  records 
of  the  United  States  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service  at 
that  port  and  is  correct.  The  figures  for  the  other  ports •> are  taken 
from  the  report  of  the  trans- Atlantic  passenger  movement  issued  by 
the  associated  steamship  lines  and  represent  the  number  of  steerage 
passengers  carried  on  vessels  sailing  from  such  ports  for  the  United 
States.  Not  all  of  these  are  alien  emigrants,  however,  and  the  num- 
bers stated  include  steerage  passengers  embarking  at  ports  of  call 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  123 

during  the  voyage,0  but  neither  of  these  classes  is  large  compared 
with  the  number  of  real  emigrants  embarking  at  the  home  port  of  the 
various  lines.  Moreover,  the  figures  for  Liverpool  do  not  include 
emigrants  destined  to  the  United  States  who  sail  from  that  port  to 
Canadian  ports,  but  the  number  in  this  class  is  not  sufficiently  large 
to  change  the  relative  standing  of  the  ports  as  above  stated.  Data 
are  not  available  relative  to  the  number  of  emigrants  embarking  at 
Fiume  and  Patras  during  the  entire  calendar  year  1907,  but  the 
arrivals  at  United  States  ports  from  the  ports  mentioned  during  the 
months  of  January,  February,  March,  July,  August,  and  September 
of  that  year  were  as  follows : 

Fiume 22,  085 

Patras 6,296 

Assuming,  what  is  doubtless  correct,  that  the  above  figures  repre- 
sent approximately  one-half  of  the  number  of  emigrants  carried  from 
such  ports  during  the  calendar  year  1907,  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
proportion  rejected  there  is  very  much  larger  than  at  Naples,  Bremen, 
or  Hamburg. 

As  previously  explained,  it  is  impossible  to  state  the  exact  number 
of  intended  emigrants  who  are  refused  passage  to  the  United  States 
from  European  ports  during  any  given  period.  From  the  preced- 
ing table  it  is  seen  that  of  the  ports  included  within  the  Commis- 
sion's inquiry  no  data  relative  to  rejections  were  available  for  Ant- 
werp, Cherbourg,  Christiania,  Copenhagen,  Londenderry,  Marseille, 
Piraeus,  and  Southampton,  while  for  Genoa,  Liverpool,  Libau,  and 
Patras  the  record  is  incomplete.  This  is  particularly  unfortunate 
in  the  case  of  Liverpool,  which  is  one  of  the  four  great  emigration 
ports  of  Europe.  Moreover,  the  inquiry  did  not  include  the  minor 
ports  of  Barcelona,  Bordeaux,  Boulogne,  Cadiz,  Calais,  Dover, 
Gibraltar,  Hull,  Leghorn,  Plymouth,  and  Stettin,  at  all  of  which 
some  emigrants  embarked  for  the  United  States  during  the  year  1907. 
No  data  whatever  could  be  secured  relative  to  the  number  of  appli- 
cants who  on  account  of  their  physical  condition  were  refused  trans- 
portation by  agents  of  the  various  lines  requiring  a  medical  examina- 
tion in  connection  with  the  sale  of  tickets.  It  is  believed,  however, 
that  the  number  rejected  in  this  way  is  relatively  small. 

From  the  foregoing  it  is  clear  that  while  the  number  of  rejections, 
39,681,  shown  in  the  preceding  table  in  all  probability  represents 
the  greater  part  of  all  rejections  at  ports  of  embarkation  and  else- 
where in  Europe,  the  number  would  be  considerably  increased  were 
complete  data  available.  Of  course  any  estimate  of  the  total  number 
rejected  would  of  necessity  be  largely  speculative,  but  it  seems  safe 
to  assume  that  during  the  period  of  'the  thirteen  months.  December 
1,  1906,  to  December  31,  1907,  covered  by  the  Commission's  inquiry, 
at  least  50.000  intended  emigrants  were  refused  transportation  from 
European  ports  to  the  United  States  because  of  the  probability  that 
they  would  be  debarred  at  United  States  ports  under  the  provisions 
of  the  immigration  laws. 

0  During  the  yeai'  1907  steamers  of  the  Hamburg-American  Line  sailing^  from 
Hamburg  embarked  passengers  at  Boulogne,  Cherbourg,  Plymouth,  and  South- 
ampton ;  steamers  of  the  North  German  Lloyd  sailing  from  Bremen,  at,  Cher- 
bourg and  Southampton ;  and  ships  of  the  Cunard  and  White  Star  lines,  sailing 

)m  Liverpool,  at  Queenstown. 


124 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


Causes  of  rejections. 

Of  the  39,681  intending  emigrants  rejected,  as  shown  by  the  pre- 
ceding table,  the  cause  of  rejection  was  available  in  34,228  cases. 
These  data  for  each  port  classified  according  to  the  principal  causes 
of  rejection  are  shown  in  the  following  table: 

TABLE  50. — Number  of  emigrants  rejected  at  European  ports  and  control  sta- 
tions specified,  from  December  1,  1906,  to  December  31,  1907,  by  cause. 


Port  or  control  sta- 
tions. 

Total. 

Number  rejected  for— 

Per  cent  rejected  for— 

Tra- 
choma. 

Other 
diseases 
of  the  eye. 

Favus. 

All  other 
causes. 

Tra- 
choma. 

Other 

diseases 
of  the  eye. 

Favus. 

All  other 

causes. 

Bremen: 
Control  stations.  . 
Port 

8.110 
3,  178 
40 

3,234 
2,694 
340 
654 
938 
194 
10,  224 
2,  3fc8 
1,174 
124 

535 
303 
118 

3,998 
1,5,1 
26 

1,768 
d2,343 
147 
0489 
814 
1S9 
5,  lit) 
O.'JS 
1,052 
84 

464 

234 
50 

o3,099 
b  1,  129 
0 

c  1,017 
(«) 
22 
1 
21 
0 
3,019 
1,244 
0 
22 

0 
0 

48 

426 
34 
0 

240 
324 
8 
102 
26 
0 
576 
0 
0 
0 

60 
66 
10 

587 
444 
14 

209 

27 
163 
62 
77 
5 
1,513 
186 
122 
18 

11 
3 

10 

49.3 

49.4 
65.0 

54.7 
87.0 
43.2 
74.8 
86.8 
97.4 
50.0 
39.6 
89.6 
67.7 

86.7 
77.2 
42.4 

38.2 
35.5 
.0 

31.4 
.0 
6.5 
.2 
2.2 
.0 
29.5 
52.5 
.0 
17.7 

.0 
.0 
40.7 

5.3 
1.1 
.0 

7.4 
12.0 
2.4 
15.6 
2.8 
.0 
5.6 
.0 
.0 
.0 

11.2 
21.8 
8.5 

7.2 
14.0 
35.0 

6.5 
1.0 
47.9 
9.5 
8.2 
2.6 
14.8 
7.9 
10.4 
14.5 

2.1 
1.0 

8.5 

Glasgow  

Hamburg: 
Control  stations.  . 
Port  
Havre 

Libau  / 

Liverpool  A  

Messina 

Naples 

Palermo  

Patras  «  
Queenstown  

Rotterdam: 
Control  stations  .  . 
Port 

Trieste;  

Total           ' 

34,228 

19,  283 

9,622 

1,872 

3,451 

56.3 

28.1 

5.5 

10.1 

a  Including  2,751  for  "granulosis." 

b  Including  28  for  "granulosis." 

c  All  "conjunctivitis." 

d  Trachoma  (conjunctivitis). 

«  See  Trachoma. 

/  Includes  only  Russian  Volunteer  Fleet.  The  Russian  East  Asiatic  Line  also  carries  emigrants  from 
Libau. 

g  Including  87  for  "trachoma  and  favus." 

A  Includes  only  American  and  Cunard  lines.  All  other  lines  carrying  emigrants  from  Liverpool  to  United 
States  ports  are  the  Allan,  Dominion,  and  the  "White  Star. 

» Includes  only  Austro-Americana  Line.  Other  lines  carrying  emigrants  from  Patras  to  United  States 
ports  are  the  Prince,  Fabre,  and  Hellenic-Transatlantic. 

;  Includes  only  Cunard  Line.    Detailed  data  for  Austro-Americana  Line  not  available. 

It  will  be  noted  that  of  34,228  rejections,  19,283,  or  56.3  per  cent, 
were  for  trachoma,  and  9,622,  or  28.1  per  cent  of  the  whole,  were  for 
other  diseases  of  the  eye  which  for  the  most  part  could  doubtless  be 
classified  as  trachoma.  Consequently  it  may  be  said  that  practically 
84.4  per  cent  of  all  the  rejections  considered  were  for  a  disease  which 
previous  to  1897  was  not  a  cause  for  the  debarment  of  immigrants 
at  United  States  ports  of  arrival.  The  port  of  Havre  shows  the 
smallest  per  cent,  49.7,  rejected  for  trachoma  and  other  diseases  of 
the  eye,  and  Messina  the  highest,  with  97.4  per  cent  rejected  for 
trachoma  alone.  The  small  proportion  of  rejections  at  Havre  on 
account  of  eye  diseases  is  due  to  the  fact  that  a  considerable  number 
were  rejected  at  that  port  for  pellagra  and  other  diseases  not  repre- 
sented in  large  proportions  at  other  ports.  At  every  other  port, 
except  Glasgow,  75  per  cent  or  more  of  the  rejections  were  on 
account  of  trachoma  and  other  diseases  of  the  eye. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  practically  all  of  the  rejections  under  dis- 
cussion were  for  some  physical  or  mental  disability.  This  is  per- 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  125 

haps  only  natural  in  view  of  the  fact  that  the  inspection  at  prac- 
tically every  port  is  conducted  purely  from  a  medical  standpoint.  In 
much  of  the  data  secured  by  the  Commission  the  causes  of  rejection 
were  not  given  in  great  detail,  the  classification  "  other  causes  "  in- 
cluding a  considerable  proportion  of  the  rejections  at  several  ports. 
So  far  as  shown  by  the  data,  however,  all  of  the  rejections  under  con- 
sideration were  for  plwsical  or  mental  causes  except  in  the  follow- 
ing instances :  Liverpool,  4  "  arrested ;  "  Trieste,  2  "  without  means," 
117  "  rejected  by  police;  "  Queenstown,  1  "  refused  examination." 

It  does  not  appear,  however,  that  the  police  inspection  at  Trieste0 
is  an  attempt  to  prevent  the  embarkation  of  persons  likely  to  be  ex- 
cluded from  the  United  States,  and  consequently  it  can  hardly  be 
considered  as  a  means  of  protecting  the  United  States  against  the 
coming  of  undesirable  classes. 

It  is  of  course  possible  that  among  emigrants  rejected  for  "  other 
causes  "  there  were  some  criminals,  prostitutes,  procurers,  paupers, 
contract  laborers,  or  other  classes  specifically  debarred  by  the  United 
States  immigration  law,  but  if  so  the  number  is  too  small  to  be 
worthy  of  consideration. 

At  the  German  control  stations  on  the  Russian  and  Austrian 
boundaries  the  amount  of  money  possessed  by  intended  emigrants  is 
taken  into  consideration  and  according  to  the  records  755  persons 
were  rejected  there  during  the  year  1907  for  "  want  of  means." 

On  the  whole,  however,  the  examination  abroad  as  conducted  at  the 
time  of  the  Commission's  visit  and  at  the  present  time  affords  prac- 
tically no  protection  from  any  of  the  classes  debarred  by  the  United 
States  law  except  the  physically  or  mentally  defective,  and  this  not- 
withstanding the  fact  that  at  several  ports  American  consular  officers 
actively  participate  in  the  inspection,  and  are  accorded  the  privilege 
of  rejecting  emigrants  who  are  undesirable  within  the  meaning  of 
the  United  States  immigration  law. 

INSPECTION   ABROAD   BY  AMERICAN   OFFICIALS. 

!The  system  of  emigrant  inspection  in  force  at  Naples,  Messina,  and 
Palermo  is  of  particular  interest  because  of  the  somewhat  prevalent 
belief  that  an  examination  by  United  States  medical  officers  at  ports 
of  embarkation  would  prevent  the  sailing  of  persons  who  could  not 
be  admitted  to  the  United  States  under  the  provisions  of  the  immigra- 
tion law.  In  his  annual  report  for  the  fiscal  year  1900,  Hon.  T.  V. 
Powderly,  Commissioner  General  of  Immigration,  reiterated  a  rec- 
ommendation that  had  been  made  in  the  two  preceding  reports  of 
the  bureau,  as  follows: 

That  physicians  representing  the  Government  be  stationed  at  the  foreign 
ports  of  embarkation  for  the  purpose  of  examining  into  the  physical  condition 
of  aliens  who  are  about  to  embark  for  the  United  States.  Experience  of  the 
ability  and  energy  of  the  surgeons  of  the  United  States  Marine-Hospital  Service 
leaves  no  room  for  doubt  that,  should  they  be  assigned  to  such  duty,  but  few 
cases  of  this  dangerous  disease  would  be  permitted  to  embark,  and  that,  besides 
accomplishing  the  most  important  object  of  preventing  the  introduction  of 
trachoma  (or  other  contagious  diseases  of  the  nonquarantinable  class),  the 
delay  and  trouble  and  uncertainty  incident  to  examination  at  the  ports  of  the 
United  States,  where  limited  accommodations  and  an  ever-increasing  and  con- 
tinuous flow  of  arrivals  necessitate  a  degree  of  expedition  not  always  consistent 
with  thoroughness,  would  be  avoided. 

°See  p.  Ill  et  seq. 


126 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


The  late  Frank  P.  Sargent,  for  many  years  Commissioner  General 
of  Immigration,  was  an  advocate  of  this  policy,  and  in  annual  re- 
ports of  the  bureau  repeatedly  urged  that  it  be  adopted.  In  1906 
Commissioner  General  Sargent,  in  referring  to  the  examination  of 
immigrants,  said :  ° 

The  ideal  plan  for  controlling  this  situation,  however,  is  the  one  that  has 
been  urged  by  the  bureau  for  years ;  i.  e.,  the  stationing  of  United  States  medical 
officers  abroad,  with  the  requirement  that  all  prospective  passengers  shall  be 
examined  and  passed  by  them  as  physically  and  mentally  fit  for  landing  in  this 
country.  This  would  prevent  the  emigration,  not  only  of  those  afflicted  with 
contagious  diseases,  but  also  of  those  afflicted  with  idiocy  and  insanity. 

Fortunately  the  plan  so  long  and  urgently  advocated  by  Messrs. 
Powderly  and  Sargent  has  been  in  operation  at  Italian  ports  long 
enough  to  demonstrate  its  usefulness,  and  to  make  possible  a  com- 
parison of  results  between  the  inspection  as  conducted  there  and  at 
other  European  ports. 

Since  the  only  purpose  of  the  medical  inspection  of  emigrants  at 
European  ports  of  embarkation,  as  here  considered,  is  to  avoid  rejec- 
tions and  penalties  at  United  States  ports,  the  only  fair  and  adequate 
test  of  the  efficiency  of  such  examinations  is  the  record  of  rejections 
by  the  United  States  immigration  service.  In  order  to  apply  this 
test  the  commission  secured  from  unpublished  records  of  the  Bureau 
of  Immigration  and  Naturalization  data  showing  the  number  of  alien 
immigrants  arriving  at  United  States  ports  from  the  various  ports  of 
Europe  and  the  number  of  such  arrivals  who  were  refused  admission 
to  the  United  States  for  purely  medical  reasons.  This  record  covers 
six  months  of  the  year  1907,  when  the  method  of  conducting  medical 
examinations  at  the  various  European  ports  was  as  previously  de- 
scribed. Thus  the  results  are  perfectly  comparable. 

The  following  table  shows  the  result  of  the  inquiry  referred  to : 

TABLE  51. — Number  carried  and  number  and  per  cent  of  persons  debarred  for 
medical  causes,  by  port  of  embarkation,  at  trans-Atlantic  ports,  during  Janu- 
ary, February,  March,  July,  August,  and  September,  1907. 


Port  of  embarkation. 

Number 
carried. 

Debarred. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Antwerp  

28,  267 

50 
485 
3 
3 
5 
37 
17 
36 
179 
122 
37 
144 
9 
7 
4 
311 
61 
36 
16 
16 
62 
23 
27 

0.18 
.61 
.15 

1 

!47 
.57 
.61 
.18 
.36 
.25 
.31 

1(5 

80,004 
2,016 
1.7G4 
2,  560 
22,  085- 
7,154 
9,295 
55.877 
27,  354 
8,979 
57  728 

Christiania                 

Genoa           

Glasgow                           

Havre             

Libau                          

Liverpool  

Londonderry  

2,240 
746 
1,172 
95,000 
13,118 
6,  296 
2,  602 
8,726 
17,  291 
9,193 
8  594 

Marseille               

Messina 

Naples  

Palermo      ,  

Patras        .     -                ••       .-        

Piraeus  

Queenstown  

Rotterdam     

Southampton  

Trieste  

Total                

468,061           1,690 

•  Annual  Report  of  the  Commissioner  General  of  Immigration,  1906,  p.  63. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  127 

As  previously  stated  this  table  shows  the  number  of  alien  steerage 
passengers  reaching  United  States  ports  from  the  various  ports  of 
Europe  specified  and  the  number  and  per  cent  of  such  passengers 
debarred  under  the  provisions  of  the  United  States  immigration  law. 

In  the  first  place  it  is  of  interest  to  note  the  fact  that  the  number 
debarred  is  remarkably  small  when  compared  with  the  total  number 
carried.  This  alone  clearly  illustrates  the  fact  that,  as  a  whole,  the 
medical  inspection  of  emigrants  prior  to  embarkation  at  European 
ports  is  thoroughly  effective.  Only  0.36  per  cent  of  the  persons  car- 
ried were  debarred  at  United  States  ports  for  medical  reasons,  which 
is  a  much  smaller  proportion  than  were  rejected  at  Italian  ports  and 
German  control  stations  for  the  same  causes. 

During  the  year  ending  June  30,  1907,  5.5  per  cent  of  all  emigrants 
examined  by  American  medical  officers  at  Italian  ports  were  rejected, 
while  2.2  per  cent  of  all  examined  at  German  control  stations  during 
a  like  period  were  turned  back  for  purely  medical  reasons. 

For  the  purpose  of  this  study,  however,  the  above  table  is  chiefly 
interesting  as  illustrating  the  relative  effectiveness  of  the  examination 
at  the  various  European  ports  under  consideration.  In  the  beginning 
it  may  be  well  to  state  that  at  some  ports  it  is  entirely  possible  for 
diseased  emigrants  to  avoid  the  medical  inspection  by  means  of  sub- 
stitution, as  previously  explained,  or  by  surreptitously  boarding  the 
vessel.  Moreover,  the  class  of  emigrants  carried  from  the  various^ 
ports  may,  and  doubtless  does,  affect  the  situation  somewhat.  For 
instance,  practically  all  emigrants  from  Christiania  are  Scandi- 
navians, and  trachoma  and  favus,  which  combined  are  the  principal 
cause  of  medical  rejections  at  United  States  ports,  do  not  prevail  in 
Scandinavian  countries.  Every  other  port,  however,  is  to  a  greater 
or  less  extent  affected  by  one  or  both  of  these  diseases.  Copenhagen  is 
perhaps  only  slightly  affected  through  emigration  from  Finland, 
where  trachoma  is  prevalent,  and  Glasgow,  because  relatively  few 
continental  emigrants  sail  from  that  port.  Trachoma  is  not  un^ 
known  in  Ireland,  but  it  does  not  exist  to  such  an  extent  as  in  south- 
ern and  eastern  Europe,  and  consequently  Queenstown  and  London- 
derry can  not  perhaps  be  fairly  classified  with  other  ports  with 
regard  to  the  particular  kinds  of  loathsome  contagious  diseases  which 
cause  the  rejection  of  so  many  aliens  at  United  States  ports. 

Liverpool.  Southampton,  and  the  continental  ports,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  Christiania  and  Copenhagen,  all  draw  the  greater  part  of 
their  emigrant  traffic  from  southern  and  eastern  Europe,  and  while 
of  course  the  degree  to  which  the  diseases  under  consideration  prevail 
differs  in  various  sections,  nevertheless  such  diseases  are  sufficiently 
widespread  to  require  a  careful  medical  inspection  of  emigrants 
coming  from  those  sections.  Because  of  this  fact  the  results  of  the 
inspections  at  these  ports  are  fairly  comparable,  which  makes  pos- 
sible a  reasonable  test  of  the  relative  effectiveness  of  the  different 
inspections. 

It  will  be  noted  from  the  preceding  table  that  the  percentage  of 
rejections  was  smallest  among  emigrants  embarking  at  Cherbourg, 
only  three  rejections  out  of  2^016  emigrants  carried  being  recorded, 


128  The  Immigration  Commission. 

This  result  is  particularly  noteworthy  because  Cherbourg  draws 
emigrant  traffic  from  the  Levantine  countries,  where  trachoma  and 
favus  are  widespread,  as  well  as  from  other  southern  and  eastern 
European  countries.  Moreover,  it  is  only  a  port  of  call  and  no 
elaborate  system  of  medical  inspection  prevails  there,  the  ship's 
doctor  being  the  determining  factor  in  the  matter  of  rejections. 

The  largest  percentage  of  rejections  occurs  among  emigrants 
embarking  at  Marseille,  which  is  not  surprising  because  of  the  fact 
that  steerage  passengers  sailing  from  that  port  are  largely  drawn 
from  Syria  and  countries  of  southeastern  Europe,  where  trachoma  is 
particularly  prevalent. 

A  rather  curious  situation  is  found  in  comparing  rejections  among 
emigrants  from  the  four  ports  of  Antwerp,  Bremen,  Hamburg,  and 
Kotterdam.  The  steerage  business  of  these  four  lines  is  very  largely 
recruited  in  eastern  Europe,  and  the  class  of  emigrants  embarking  is 
much  the  same  at  each  port.  It  is  true  also  that  the  great  majority 
of  all  emigrants  embarking  at  the  German  ports,  and  a  large  part  of 
those  sailing  from  Antwerp  and  Kotterdam,  are  subjected  to  an 
inspection  at  the  German  control  stations.  Notwithstanding  these 
facts,  however,  there  is  a  wide  difference  in  the  proportion  of  persons 
embarking  at  the  four  ports  Avho  are  debarred  at  United  States  ports 
for  medical  causes.  These  proportions  are  as  follows:  Bremen,  1  in 
165 ;  Rotterdam,  1  in  279 ;  Hamburg,  1  in  312 ;  Antwerp,  1  in  565. 

It  is  necessary  to  note  in  this  connection  that  the  three  ports  having 
the  largest  proportion  rejected  each  have  excellent  emigrant  sta- 
tions, superior  facilities  for  handling  emigrants,  and  elaborate  and 
apparently  thorough  systems  of  inspection.  At  Bremen,  which  port 
makes  by  far  the  worst  showing  in  the  matter  of  debarments  at 
United  States  ports,  it  will  be  remembered  that  the  determining 
factor  in  the  matter  of  rejections  is  a  physician  in  the  employ  of  the 
American  consulate,  while  at  Antwerp,  which  shows  relatively  a 
very  small  proportion  of  emigrants  rejected  at  United  States  ports, 
American  consular  or  other  officials  have  absolutely  no  part  in  the 
inspection. 

Most  interesting  of  all,  however,  is  a  comparison  between  Antwerp 
and  Naples,  for  it  will  be  recalled  that  the  emigrant-inspection  sys- 
tems in  force  at  these  ports  represent  extremes,  so  far  as  American 
control  is  concerned,  the  inspection  at  Naples  being  entirely  in  the 
hands  of  United  States  Pubjic  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  surgeons. 
Measured  by  debarments  at  United  States  ports,  however,  the  inspec- 
tion at  Antwerp  is  considerably  more  effective,  for  while  the  pro- 
portion refused  admission  to  the  United  States  is  only  1  in  565 
among  emigrants  embarking  at  that  port,  the  proportion  among 
emigrants  sailing  from  Naples  is  1  in  305.  In  the  case  of  other 
Italian  ports  where  American  medical  officers  were  in  charge  the 
proportion  of  emigrants  debarred  at  the  United  States  ports  is  as 
follows:  Palermo,  1  in  215;  Messina,  1  in  293;  while  among  emi- 
grants embarking  at  Genoa,  where,  during  the  period  under  con- 
sideration, the  medical  inspection  was  made  by  ships'  doctors,  the 
proportion  of  rejections  was  only  1  in  421.  It  may  be  said,  however, 
that  the  particular  diseases  for  which  emigrants  are  debarred  at 
United  States  ports  are  not  so  prevalent  among  classes  embarking  at 
Genoa  as  at  the  more  southern  ports  of  Italy. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  129 

A  comparison  between  the  Adriatic  ports  of  Trieste  and  Fiume  is 
interesting.  At  the  latter  port  the  medical  inspection  is  made  by  a 
steamship  company  doctor  and  a  physician  employed  by  the  Amer- 
ican consul,  but  the  Commission  was  informed  that  the  examina- 
tion by  the  former  was  so  rigid  that  it  had  not  been  necessary  for 
the  consulate  physician  to  reject  any  emigrants  for  some  time  previ- 
ously. The  American  consul  attends  the  examinations  but  does  not 
exercise  unusual  authority.  At  Trieste  the  medical  inspection  is 
made  by  resident  physicians  of  the  steamship  company  and  the  ship's 
doctor,  while  the  American  consul  at  the  time  under  consideration 
exercised  a  greater  degree  of  authority  than  was  exercised  by  such 
consular  officers  at  any  other  European  port.  The  consul  informed 
the  Commission  that  he  insisted  on  rejections  not  only  for  trachoma 
and  favus,  but  for  less  conspicuous  physical  defects  as  well.  Ex- 
perience at  United  States  ports  with  emigrants  from  Fiume  and 
Trieste  indicate  that,  notwithstanding  the  great  degree  of  authority 
exercised  by  the  consul  at  the  latter  port,  the  inspection  at  Fiume 
is  much  more  effective.  In  fact  the  proportion  debarred  at  United 
States  ports  among  emigrants  from  Fiume  is  only  1  to  597,  or  the 
same  as  in  the  case  of  Christiania,  while  the  proportion  debarred 
among  emigrants  sailing  from  Trieste  is  1  to  318.  The  proportion 
debarred  among  emigrants  embarking  at  the  Greek  ports  of  Patras 
and  Piraeus  is  large,  being  1  to  175  in  the  case  of  the  former  and 
1  to  163  in  the  case  of  the  latter. 

OPINIONS    OF    AMERICAN    OFFICIALS. 

Opinions  differ  as  to  the  value  of  an  inspection  of  emigrants  by 
American  medical  officers  at  ports  of  embarkation,  but  while  the  com- 
mittee found  some  American  officials  acquainted  with  the  situation 
who  praised  the  system  in  force  at  Naples  and  other  Italian  ports, 
none  gave  it  unqualified  approval. 

Some  of  the  opinions  expressed  by  such  officials  are  given  herewith. 

Passed  Asst.  Surg.  Allan  J.  McLaughlin,  of  the  United  States  Pub- 
lic Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service,  who  was  for  several  years 
in  charge  at  Naples,  at  a  hearing  before  the  committee  made  the  fol- 
lowing statement : 

Doctor  MCLAUGHLIN.  This  station  is  unique.  It  is  the  only  place  in  Europe 
where  this  visit  is  made.  If  it  was  started  as  an  experiment,  it  has  lasted  long 
enough  to  justify  one  in  drawing  conclusions.  If  it  is  good  here,  it  ought  to 
exist  in  every  other  port  in  Europe.  That  looks  to  me  like  a  plain  proposition 
It  has  existed  seven  years.  Why  should  it  exist  in  Naples  and  nowhere  else? 
Seven  years  is  a  good  long  while  for  an  experiment.  If  it  is  a  good  thing,  it 
ought  to  exist  in  other  ports  as  well. 

Senator  DILLINGHAM.  What  do  you  think  about  it? 

Doctor  MCLAUGHLIN.  It  is  a  good  thing  for  a  good  many  people.  It  largely 
depends  on  the  humanitarian  sentiment  and  public  opinion  in  the  United  States. 
It  is  of  great  assistance  to  the  steamship  companies. 

Senator  DILLTNGHAM.  In  complying  with  the  law? 

Doctor  MCLAUGHLIN.  In  complying  with  the  law.  It  helps  them  to  carry  out 
the  law.  It  encourages  them  to  carry  out  our  law.  It  is  a  fine  courtesy  to  the 
Italian  Government  in  trying  to  protect  their  emigrants.  It  is  of  great  value 
to  the  emigrant  himself.  It  is  a  fine  piece  of  philanthropy. 

Senator  DILLINGHAM.  It  prevents  the  rejection  at  our  ports  of  an  emigrant, 
and  the  expenditure  of  his  time  and  money  in  the  journey? 

Doctor  MCLAUGHLIN.  Yes,  sir.  It  is  a  fine  piece  of  philanthropy  from  a 
humanitarian  standpoint.  *  *  * 


130  The  Immigration  Commission. 

It  will  be  noted  that,  in  Doctor  McLaughlin's  opinion,  the  system 
was  of  value  to  the  Italian  Government,  the  steamship  companies, 
and  the  emigrant,  but  he  was  silent  as  to  its  value  to  the  United 
States. 

In  reply  to  an  inquiry  relative  to  the  effectiveness  of  the  examina- 
tion at  Naples,  Mr.  Homer  M.  Byington,  for  many  years  American 
vice-consul  at  that  city,  said : 

The  effect  of  it  has  been  to  eliminate  the  enormous  rejections  for  physical 
defects  which  formerly  occurred  at  New  York.  Now  there  are  hardly  ever  more 
than  10  emigrants  returned  by  one  ship,  whereas  in  former  years  it  ran  any- 
where from  10  to  50.  The  Government  and  the  steamship  companies  have 
heartily  cooperated  with  the  medical  inspector,  with  the  exception  of  the  matter 
of  first  and  second  class,  in  regard  to  which  the  steamship  companies  at  first 
endeavored  to  avoid  the  inspection  of  passengers,  and  so  successfully  that  orders 
were  received  from  the  Surgeon-General  of  the  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hos- 
pital Service  that  first  and  second  class  passengers  be  not  examined.  Since 
then  nearly  all  the  friction  has  occurred  over  contagious  diseases,  particularly 
of  the  eyes,  in  the  case  of  first  and  second  class  passengers;  so  that  I  am  of  the 
opinion  that  the  steamship  companies  themselves  would  now  be  very  glad  to 
have  those  classes  examined.  In  fact,  some  of  them  have  requested  it.  Until 
first  and  second  class  aliens  are  examined  the  same  as  the  third  class,  there  is 
always  a  chance  for  friction  to  arise.  So  far  as  third  class  are  concerned  every- 
thing has  been  done  that  can  be  done. 

Asst.  Surg.  R.  A.  C.  Wollenberg,  of  the  United  States  Public 
Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service,  who  succeeded  Doctor  Mc- 
Laughlin  as  medical  officer  in  charge  at  Naples,  in  a  statement  to  the 
Commission,  said : 

A  foreign  inspection  alone  can  never  protect  the  United  States  against  aliens 
with  trachoma,  favus,  etc.  Without  the  examination  at  Ellis  Island  and  other 
ports  the  examination  here  would  have  little  value  against  the  unscrupulous 
persons  who  make  a  business  of  evading  our  immigration  laws.  The  evils  of 
substitution  and  other  means  of  evading  the  inspection  here  concern  the  poor 
emigrant  and  the  authorities  whose  duty  it  is  to  protect  him,  the  steamship  com- 
panies, and,  least  of  all.  the  United  States.  An  emigrant  so  deceived,  upon  being 
returned  from  Ellis  Island,  often  makes  complaint  to  authorities  there,  stating 
the  amount  of  money  he  paid  for  evading  inspection.  The  steamship  com- 
panies pay  fines  for  him  in  these  cases  and  consequently  are  very  much  con- 
cerned in  preventing  these  evils.  The  United  States  is,  of  course,  very  anxious 
to  prevent  such  evasion  of  its  foreign  inspection,  but  is  sufficiently  protected  by 
the  rigid  inspection  made  at  our  American  ports. 

Hon.  Caspar  S.,  Crowninshield,  American  consul  at  Naples,  said : 

I  believe  the  service  to  be  of  great  value,  both  to  the  emigrant  and  the  United 
States.  This  inspection  would  be  still  more  useful,  I  believe,  if  the  American 
physicians  were  granted  more  power.  At  present  they  act  principally  in  an 
advisory  capacity  to  the  steamship  companies.  I  think  that  the  examination  of 
emigrants  should  be  made  by  one  or  more  individuals  each  one  being  an 
American  medical  officer,  and  also  by  an  inspector  with  full  authority  to  pre- 
vent departures  when  he  sees  proper.  It  seems  to  me  that  every  important 
port  of  emigration  should  be  provided  with  such  a  service.  Another  method 
would  be  to  employ  American  inspectors  in  foreign  ports  in  addition  to  medical 
experts,  but,  in  any  case,  the  latter  should  have  the  power  of  rejection  in  cases 
of  disease  the  rejection  of  which  is  mandatory  in  America.  Under  the  present 
system  officers  of  the  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service  are  handi- 
capped by  responsibility  without  authority. 

Dr.  Arthur  S.  Cheney,  American  consul  at  Messina,  who  later 
perished  when  that  city  was  destroyed  by  an  earthquake,  did  not  par- 
ticularly discuss  the  system  of  examination  peculiar  to  Italian  ports, 
but  said  of  the  inspection  of  emigrants  in  general : 

In  the  medical  examination  so  much  attention  is  directed  to  determining  the 
presence  or  absence  of  trachoma  that  other  equally  sound  causes  for  rejection 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  131 

may  possibly  be  overlooked.  If  any  improvement  in  this  line  could  be  made 
it  would  be  to  have  each  emigrant  introduced,  one  at  a  time,  into  the  examining 
room,  in  order  that  further  attention  might  also  be  given,  in  those  sometimes 
suspicious  cases,  to  the  possible  presence  of  loathsome  ^diseases,  such  as  venereal 
and  skin  diseases.  Undoubtedly  such  a  procedure  would  take  more  time  and 
might  be  open  to  objections  on  other  grounds,  but,  on  the  other  hand,  it  is  just 
as  true  that  all  other  medical  causes  of  rejection  are  now  too  much  neglected 
to  search  for  the  more  common  cases  of  trachoma. 

Hon.  William  H.  Bishop,  American  consul  at  Palermo,  at  which 
port,  as  elsewhere  stated,0  the  United  States  Marine  Hospital  surgeon 
examines  only  a  part  of  the  emigrants  embarking,  the  remainder  be- 
ing examined  at  Naples,  said: 

I  recommend  that  an  American  medical  inspector  be  stationed  here  to  have 
entire  control  of  emigration  at  this  port,  leaving  the  consulate  free  to  attend  to 
the  development  of  its  large  commercial  and  allied  interests,  *  *  *  If  it. 
not  be  thought  desirable  to  appoint  a  medical  inspector,  I  recommend  a  trial  of 
the  plan  of  abolishing  all  control  of  emigrants  on  this  side  of  the  ocean  and 
throwing  the  entire  responsibility  for  them  on  the  steamship  companies,  by 
much  increasing  their  present  scale  of  penalties;  largely  strengthening  at  the 
same  time  the  force  at  Ellis  Island,  now  perhaps  sometimes  borne  down  by 
sheer  weight  of  numbers,  so  that  it  could  deal  at  full  leisure  with  all  the  new 
arrivals  in  one  day.  It  is  generally  believed  that  it  is  on  the  American  side  of 
the  water  that  the  really  effective  control  and  relief  for  abuses  are  to  be  found. 

Hon.  Clarence  Slocum  Rice,  American  consul  at  Fiume,  said : 

I  think  all  consular  officers  would  feel  more  sure  of  the  benefit  they  try  to 
effect  by  conscientious  supervision  if  they  had  the  services  of  an  American 
surgeon. 

Hon.  Horace  Lee  Washington,  American  consul-general  at  Mar- 
seille, said: 

In  my  opinion,  the  double  examination  of  intending  emigrants,  that  is  to  say, 
examination  prior  to  the  departure  of  the  ship  from  the  foreign  port  and  re- 
examination  by  the  American  officers  at  the  port  of  arrival,  is  indispensable  to 
the  satisfactory  enforcement  of  the  law.  Personal  appreciation  of  the  eligibil- 
ity of  individuals  is  likely  to  vary  so  that  it  is  absolutely  necessary  to  have 
the  first  official  inspection  checked  by  a  second  at  the  port  of  arrival.  Honest 
doubt  may  exist  at  the  port  of  departure  in  regard  to  the  admissibility  of  par- 
ticular subjects,  with  the  result  that  such  persons  are  permitted  to  ship  for 
the  United  States,  disease  developing  during  transit,  and  unless  a  second  in- 
spection is  provided  at  the  port  of  arrival,  such  persons  would  undoubtedly  be 
admitted  to  the  country.  It  is  within  my  knowledge  that  emigrants  are  fre- 
quently regarded  unfavorably  by  certain  specialists  and  recommended  to  navi- 
gation companies  by  others. 

Hon.  Frank  D.  Hill,  American  consul-general  at  Barcelona,  said: 

I  may  state  that  since  my  connection  with  this  consulate  general  I  have 
accompanied  the  sanitary  inspector  on  a  number  of  his  visits  and  have  been 
able  to  convince  myself  of  the  ready  cooperation  of  the  ships'  surgeons  and 
employees.  Furthermore,  it  appears  only  natural  that  any  measures  tending* 
to  alleviate  the  work  of  ship's  surgeon  and  lessen  the  risks  of  embarking  pas- 
sengers liable  to  deportation  must  be  welcomed  by  the  shipping  companies. 
It  will  be  remarked  that  the  natural  play  of  the  (United  States)  immigration 
laws  and  regulations  of  July  1,  1907,  is  to  develop  a  severity  on  the  part  of 
shipping  companies  and  their  surgeons  which,  as  regards  certain  phases  of 
their  work,  is  liable  to  exceed  that  of  United  States  immigration  officers.  The 
tendency  is  to  reject  all  passengers  about  whose  admissibility  even  the  slightest 
doubt  may  be  entertained.  For  example,  instances  have  come  under  my  ob- 
servation of  the  rejection  by  ships'  surgeons  of  passengers  (the  individuals 
in  question  were  bound  for  Cuba,  but  for  the  purposes  of  the  point  their  des- 
tination fts  indifferent)  who  were  suffering  from  rather  doubtful  cases  of 

<*See  p.  119. 


132  The  Immigration  Commission. 

trachoma  and  would  possibly  have  been  passed  after  careful  examination  by 
United  States  or  Cuban  immigration  officers.  It  is  obviously  impossible  for 
a  ship's  surgeon  who  is  obliged  to  pass  on  a  large  number  of  passengers  in  a 
very  short  space  of  time  to  make  a  thorough  examination  of  doubtful  cases, 
the  result  being  that  the  existence  of  the  slightest  indication  may  be  sufficient 
to  cause  rejection.  As  the  majority  of  passengers  thus  rejected  are  poor  and 
ignorant,  the  possibility  of  appeal  to  a  more  complete  examination  is  prac- 
tically null. 

Hon.  Herbert  H.  D.  Peirce,  formerly  Third  Assistant  Secretary 
of  State,  and  later  American  minister  to  Norway,  made  a  statement 
to  the  Commission,  based  upon  his  experience  in  making  inspections 
of  consulates.  Mr.  Peirce  said : 

My  own  opinion  is  that  sanitary  inspection  of  emigrants  to  the  United 
States  should,  if  possible,  be  made  before  they  embark  for  our  shores,  and  that 
such  inspection  should  be  made  by  properly  qualified  medical  officers  of  the 
United  States,  who  should  submit  their  reports  to  the  respective  consuls  to 
whose  staffs  they  should  be  attached,  and  this  inspection  should  be  so  thor- 
ough and  complete  as  to  make  it  clear  that  at  the  time  of  embarkation  the 
emigrant  is  not  suffering  from  any  disease  which  he  may  bring  into  the  United 
States  and  communicate  to  others  there. 

Under  our  laws  a  ship  sailing  from  a  foreign  port  to  a  port  of  the  United 
States  is  obliged  to  be  furnished  a  bill  of  health  signed  by  the  consul  or  other 
competent  officer  of  the  United  States.  I  am,  for  my  part,  unable  to  see  how 
the  consular  or  other  officer  can  give  a  proper  and  valid  bill  of  health  of  a 
vessel  unless  he  knows  of  his  own  knowledge,  or  is  in  some  manner  properly 
assured,  as  to  the  sanitary  condition  of  the  emigrants  she  carried.  This  is 
particularly  the  case  as  regards  ships  carrying  large  numbers  of  third-class 
passengers  huddled  together  in  limited  space,  and  in  case  of  bad  weather  sub- 
jected to  conditions  favorable  for  development  .of  incipient  disease. 

I  am  aware  of  the  fact  that  the  present  system,  which  amounts  to  leaving 
it  to  the  ship  officers  to  decide  whether  the  immigrant  will  probably  be  ac- 
cepted at  the  port  of  destination,  and  there  finally  deciding  his  admission  or 
return  upon  an  examination  by  the  inspectors  at  this  port,  is  regarded  by 
certain  officials  as  the  better  way  of  dealing  with  the  question.  But,  while 
I  recognize  the  fact  that  these  officials  have  the  advantage  of  dealing  with 
the  question  practically,  I  can  not  but  think  that  it  is  better  to  prevent 
the  shipment  of  an  infected  immigrant  who  has  not  as  yet  become  a  public 
charge  upon  the  company  for  his  passage  rather  than  to  leave  the  question 
of  his  admission  until  the  company  has  been  at  the  cost  of  bringing  him  to 
our  shores,  and  must,  if  he  is  rejected,  be  at  the  further  charge  of  taking  him 
back.  The  carrying  of  emigrant  passengers  is  a  business  undertaking,  and  I 
am  led  to  believe  a  profitable  one.  If  I  am  correctly  informed,  while  the  rate 
of  passage,  third  class,  is  about  $30,  the  cost  to  the  steamship  company  is 
about  $10  per  head.  This  is  a  rate  of  profit  which  would  seem  to  warrant 
taking  some  risks,  and  it  is  probable  that  the  ships'  doctors  are  more  animated 
by  the  interests  of  their  companies  than  by  those  of  a  foreign  government. 
While  doubtless  it  is  true,  as  claimed,  that  diseases  like  smallpox,  cholera,  • 
and  other  virulent  epidemics  will  develop  during  the  passage,  who  can  say 
what  seeds  a  tubercular  subject  whose  symptoms  are  perhaps  not  very  pro- 
nounced may  not  sow  among  his  fellow  passengers  during  a  stormy  winter 
passage  across  the  Atlantic? 

But  there  is  another  class  of  most  dangerous  immigrants  whose  entry  into 
the  United  States  is,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  unprovided  against.  I  refer  to 
the  sufferers  from  the  venereal  diseases.  It  has  always  seemed  to  me  during 
my  observations  of  immigrant  inspection  that  in  keeping  the  close  watch  we  do, 
or  did  when  I  was  conversant  with  the  subject,  against  trachoma,  and  paying 
no  attention  to  possible  venereal  infection,  we  were  straining  at  a  gnat  and 
swallowing  a  camel. 

I  can  not  believe  that  it  is  a  really  safe  plan  to  permit  vessels  carrying 
emigrants  and  clearing  for  ports  of  the  United  States  to  be  furnished  with 
a  clean  bill  of  health  by  the  consul  of  the  clearing  port  unless  he  has  good 
assurance  of  the  health  as  regards  communicable  diseases  of  the  passengers. 
Such  assurance  can  only  be  given  him  by  a  duly  qualified  and  competent 
medical  officer  of  his  own  government  after  a  full  inspection  of  the  passengers. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe.  133 

And  I  would  remark  that  the  method  of  standing  at  a  turnstile  while  the 
emigrants  pass  through  can  give  but  little  information  to  either  physician 
or  layman. 

Our  law  authorizes  "  the  President,  in  his  discretion,  to  detail  any  medical 
officer  of  the  Government  to  serve  in  the  office  of  the  consul  at  any  foreign 
port  for  the  purpose  of  furnishing  information  and  making  inspection  and 
giving  the  bills  of  health  hereinbefore  mentioned."  Doubtless  these  functions, 
if  observed  to  the  letter,  are  such  as  a  medical  officer  of  our  Government  serv- 
ing in  the  office  of  a  consul  may  be  properly  detailed  so  far  as  regards  our 
relations  with  foreign  powers.  But  the  phrase  which  permits  the  medical 
officer  to  grant  the  bills  of  health  has  created,  at  times  and  at  certain  ports, 
no  little  friction.  It  gives  to  the  medical  officer  a  superior  authority  over  the 
consul  which  has  been  resented,  not  only  by  the  consular  officers,  but  where 
the  medical  officer  has  undertaken  to  enter  into  relations  with  the  officials 
of  the  government  to  which  the  consul  is  accredited,  by  that  government. 
Governments  do  not,  under  consular  treaties,  generally  agree  to  an  interchange 
of  medical  inspectors,  and  on  all  accounts  it  is  clear  to  me,  from  my  experience 
in  the  matter,  that  it  is  better,  both  for  the  avoidance  of  friction  and  to  the 
end  of  holding  one  officer  responsible  in  matters  of  clearance  of  vessels,  that 
the  consul  only  should  grant  and  sign  the  bill  of  health,  guided  by  the  advice 
of  the  medical  officer  who  should  make  his  report  in  each  case  to  the  compe- 
tent department  of  our  Government. 

If  objection  is  made  that  an  adequate  system  of  inspection  at  every  port  of 
call  would  involve  great  expense  in  maintaining  many  medical  staffs,  it  may 
be  answered  that,  while  our  country  welcomes  wholesome,  healthy,  and  de- 
sir?)  ble  immigrants,  it  is  not  seeking  them,  and  the  maintenance  of  a  reasonably 
sufficient  number  of  immigrant  clearing  consulates  is  all  that  can  be  asked. 
The  companies  should  ship  their  third-class  passengers  from  those  ports,  and 
their  tallies  on  arrival  should  agree  with  the  consular  manifest. 

Hon.  Henry  W.  Diederich,  American  consul-general  at  Antwerp, 
who  through  years  of  service  as  consul  at  Bremen  had  much  experi- 
ence in  connection  with  the  examination  of  emigrants,  made  the 
following  statement  to  the  Commission : 

I  personally  looked  over  and  supervised  the  inspection  of  about  1,000,000 
emigrants  and  their  baggage  in  the  six  years  of  my  incumbency  of  the  Bremen 
consulate,  and  it  is  from  my  experience  in  this  field  that  I  venture  to  offer  the 
following  suggestions : 

I  consider  the  idea  of  having  all  the  inspection  of  emigrants  done  at  the  ports 
of  embarkation  by,  or  at  least  under  the  supervision  of,  a  surgeon  of  the  Ameri- 
can Marine-Hospital  Service  as  impracticable,  for  various  reasons.  To  begin 
with,  the  consent  of  the  foreign  governments  would  have  to  be  gotten  first,  but 
even  granted  that  this  could  be  accomplished,  it  seems  utterly  impossible  for  an 
American  medical  officer  to  perform  his  functions  without  clashing  with  local 
authorities  and  also  with  foreign, colleagues  who  must  assist  him.  Some  years 
ago  an  excellent  young  man  was  sent  by  the  Marine-Hospital  Service  to 
Bremen,  but  at  the  end  of  the  year  he  was  rather  glad  to  return  home,  because 
he  found  that  the  inspection  was  most  thoroughly  done,  and  done  by  German 
physicians  far  more  competent  than  himself.  Besides,  he  had  kept  me  quite 
busy  keeping  peace  between  him  and  the  government  and  steamship  officials, 
In  discussing  this  question  it  should  always  be  remembered  that  medical 
students  in  the  leading  countries  of  this  continent  get  a  far  more  thorough 
professional  training  than  they  do  in  our  own,  generally  speaking,  and  that  the 
governments  themselves  are  more  strict  in  issuing  licenses  to  practice  medicine. 
So  no  American  consul  will  ever  have  any  difficulty  in  finding  competent  medical 
assistance,  and  I  therefore  am  firmly  convinced  that  if  we  would  avoid  much 
unpleasant  experience,  not  to  say  downright  humiliations,  all  inspections  should 
be  made  consular  inspections;  that  is  to  say,  every  consul  should  be  authorized 
to  appoint  a  first-class  foreign  physician  to  take  charge  of  the  entire  work  and 
to  be  responsible  to  the  consulate  only,  and  all  the  expenses  for  such  inspection 
should  be  charged  to  the  steamship  companies.  This  is  practically  the  way  it  is 
done  at  Bremen. 

Quite  a  number  of  reports  on  consular  inspection  were  sent  to  the  department 
by  me  during  my  incumbency  of  the  consulate  at  Bremen,  and  in  each  and 
every  one  of  them  I  pointed  out  the  necessity  of  a  uniform  practice  everywhere. 
The  present  lack  of  system  in  this  most  important  work  is  very  deplorable,  for 


134  The  Immigration  Commission. 

obvious  reasons.  Most  inspections,  in  my  opinion,  are  defective  in  one  respect. 
The  people  are  not  vaccinated  on  shore,  but  this  is  done  out  at  sea  by  the  ship's 
Burgeon.  A  number  of  surgeons  have  admitted  to  me  from  their  own  personal 
knowledge  that  such  vaccinations  performed  after  the  ship  has  left  the  port  are 
not  only  a  great  hardship  to  the  emigrants,  many  of  whom  are  suffering  all  the 
horrors  of  mal  de  mer,  but  also  the  results  are  very  unsatisfactory,  because  the 
work  often  can  not  be  properly  done.  Our  quarantine  laws  require  that  every- 
thing must  be  done  to  secure  "  the  best  sanitary  condition  of  vessels,  cargoes, 
passengers,  and  crew  before  their  departure  for  any  port  of  the  United  States," 
and  as  these  aliens  oftentimes  come  from  countries  where  smallpox  is  frequently 
epidemic,  it  is  a  necessary  precaution  to  vaccinate  all  steerage  passengers,  but 
it  should  be  done  before  embarkation. 

But  there  is  one  other  reason,  and  that  a  most  important  one,  why  these 
aliens  should  be  vaccinated  carefully  on  shore  before  they  are  admittted  to  the 
steamer.  To  be  vaccinated  they  must  disrobe  sufficiently  to  expose  the  entire 
arm  to  the  shoulders,  which,  in  many  instances,  renders  the  physician  able  at  a 
glance  to  form  an  opinion  as  to  the  physical  condition  of  the  emigrant.  Besides, 
the  physician  in  grasping  the  arm  of  the  person  to  be  vaccinated  at  once  feels 
Whether  the  temperature  is  normal  or  not,  and  can  order  in  all  doubtful  cases 
that  the  temperature  be  taken  immediately.  In  this  way  quite  a  number  of 
cases  of  pulmonary  and  other  diseases  were  discovered  at  Bremen.  To  go 
beyond  this  and  to  examine  emigrants  for  venereal  diseases  would  seem  to  me 
to  be  well-nigh  impossible  without  increasing  the  medical  staff  enormously, 
and  whether  it  might  pay  to  do  that  I  am  not  in  a  position  to  express  an 
opinion. 

There  always  was.  and  still  is  to-day,  a  doubt  in  my  mind  whether  or  not  the 
entire  inspection  of  emigrants  should  not  be  left  with  the  foreign  trans- 
portation companies  whose  self-interest  compels  them  to'  examine  most  rigor- 
ously all  third-class  passengers  before  bringing  them  to  our  shores.  It  must 
also  be  borne  in  mind  that  most  all  the  aliens  starting  from  Russia,  Austria- 
Hungary,  and  the  Balkan  States  already  undergo,  and  in  some  cases  repeatedly, 
a  sifting  process  before  they  reach  the  port  of  embarkation.  As  already 
stated,  I  myself  made  it  my  business  to  be  present  at  most  of  the  inspections 
at  Bremen  Curing  all  the  years  I  was  there  as  American  consul.  I  did  this 
hard  and  disagreeable  work  because  I  found  it  was  the  only  way  for  me  to 
make  sure  that  things  were  done  right,  and  yet  with  all  the  painstaking  care 
my  recollection  is  that  we  never  rejected  more  than  2,200  people  in  a  year,  out 
of  a  total  of  more  than  100,000.  This  always  led  me  to  believe  that  many  of 
our  people  at  home,  chiefly  through  misrepresentations  in  the  press,  had  exag- 
gerated ideas  about  the  number  of  diseased  persons  brought  to  our  country 
through  immigration.  I  repeat,  that  of  all  the  American  consular  officers  I 
myself  have  seen  more  emigrants  at  closest  range  and  have  voluntarily  under- 
gone more  personal  hardship  than  any  of  my  colleagues,  and  it  is  my  opinion 
that  with  all  the  consular  reports  sent  in  on  the  subject  of  immigration,  with 
all  the  discussion  in  the  press  and  in  the  Halls  of  Congress,  and  with  all  the 
official  reports  by  committees  and  emissaries  sent  abroad  at  government  expense 
to  look  into  the  conditions  of  emigration,  there  is  still  much  of  error  on  this 
question,  and  little  of  the  truth  known.  I  think  if  it  would  be  possible  to  have 
the  Bremen  consular  inspection,  with  some  modifications  which  I  might  sug- 
gest, we  would  have  every  reason  to  feel  safe  from  physically  undesirable  immi- 
grants entering  the  country.  The  results  at  Ellis  Island  and  other  immigra- 
tion stations  fully  confirm  what  I  say.  With  all  the  admirable  system  of  in- 
spection the  number  of  aliens  rejected  at  the  ports  of  arrival  is  fortunately 
exceedingly  small,  which  fact  speaks  loudly  in  favor  of  the  inspections  at  the 
ports  of  embarkation.  I  repent  that  while  I  think  we  should  control  inspec- 
tion at  both  ends,  at  the  same  time  I  admit  that  the  steamship  companies  under 
our  present  strict  rules  and  regulations,  with  heavy  fines  and  penalties  imposed 
on  them  for  every  undesirable  alien  they  attempt  to  land  on  our  shores,  might 
be  safely  intrusted  with  this  work  at  the  ports  of  embarkation,  as  is  being  done 
here  at  Antwerp  by  the  Red  Star  Line,  particularly  in  view  of  the  fact  that 
most  foreign  governments  are  strongly  opposed  to  have  even  our  consular 
officers  take  charge  of  emigrant  inspection  at  their  ports. 


PART  II.-THE  EMIGRATION  SITUATION  IN  ITALY. 


79524°— VOL  4—11 10 


135 


PART  II— THE  EMIGRATION  SITUATION  IN  ITALY, 


CHAPTER  I. 
IMMIGRATION  TO  THE  UNITED  STATES  FROM  ITALY. 

From  July  1,  1819,  to  June  30,  1910,  3,086,356  immigrants  giving 
Italy  as  the  country  of  their  last  permanent  residence  were  admitted 
to  the  United  States,  the  number  of  immigrants  from  that  country 
during  the  period  mentioned  being  surpassed  only  by  the  number 
from  Great  Britain,  7,766,330,  of  whom  4,212,169  came  from  Ireland; 
Germany,  5,351,746;  and  Austria-Hungary,  3,172,461.  The  move- 
ment of  population  from  England,  Ireland,  and  Germany  to  the 
United  States,  however,  is  one  of  long  standing  compared  with  that 
from  Italy,  for  of  the  total  number  from  the  latter  country,  97.4  per 
cent  have  come  since  1880,  87.4  per  cent  since  1890,  and  66.2  per  cent 
since  1900. 

IMMIGRATION  BY  YEARS,   1820  TO  1910. 

The  growth  of  the  movement  from  Italy  was  slow.  In  the  fiscal 
year  1820  only  30  persons  were  recorded  as  coming  from  that  coun- 
try, and,  except  for  the  fiscal  year  1833,  when  1,699  persons  were 
admitted,  the  total  number  in  any  fiscal  year  did  not  reach  1,000 
until  1854,  while  less  than  2,000  were  recorded  for  each  year  prior 
to  1870.  The  development  of  the  movement  is  shown  in  the  following 
table,  which  gives  the  total  immigration  from  Italy  in  each  fiscal 
year  from  1820  to  1910 : 

TABLE  1. — Immigration  to  the  United  States  from  Italy,  including  Sicily  and 
Sardinia,  for  the  years  ending  June  30,  1820,  to  1910. 

[Compiled  from  Statistical  Review  of  Immigration,.  1819-1910.    Reports  of  the  Immigration  Commission, 

vol.  3.] 


Year. 

Number. 

Year. 

Number. 

Year. 

Number. 

Year. 

Number. 

1820 

30 

1844 

141 

1868o 

891 

1892.  .. 

61,631 

1821 

63 

1845 

137 

1869 

1,489 

1893 

72,  145 

1822 

35 

1846 

151 

1870 

2  891 

1894 

42,977 

1823.. 

33 

1847 

164 

1871  .  . 

2,816 

1895  

35,  427 

1824 

45 

1848 

241 

1872 

4,190 

1896  

68,060 

1825 

75 

1849 

209 

1873 

8,757 

1897 

59,431 

1826... 

57 

1850  b 

431 

1874  

766 

1898  

58,613 

1827  

35 

1851 

447 

1875   

3,631 

1899  

77,419 

1828   . 

34 

1852 

351 

1876 

3,015 

1900  

-  100,  135 

1829 

23 

1853 

555 

1877 

3,195 

1901    

135,996 

1830 

g 

1854 

1  263 

1878 

4,344 

1902 

178,375 

1831  .  . 

28 

1855 

1,052 

1879 

5,791 

1903  

230,622 

18326 

3 

1856 

1  365 

1880 

12,354 

1904  

193,296 

1833 

1  699 

1857 

1  007 

1881 

15,401 

1905;  

221,479 

1834... 

105 

1858 

1,240 

1882  

32,  159 

1906  

273,  120 

1835.. 

60 

1859 

932 

1883   

31,792 

1907  

285,731 

1836.  . 

115 

1860 

1  019 

1884 

16,510 

1908  

128,503 

1837 

36 

1861 

811 

1885 

13,642 

1909  

183,218 

1838 

86 

1862 

566 

1886 

21,315 

1910  

215,537 

1839... 

84 

1863 

547 

1887  

47,622 

1840.  . 

37 

1864 

600 

1888 

51,558 

Total... 

3,086,356 

1841. 

179 

1865 

924 

1889 

25,307 

1842  

100 

1866 

1,382 

1890  

52,003 

1843  

117 

1867 

1,624 

1891  

76,055 

«  Six  months  ending  Juae  30. 


fr  Fifteen  months  ending  Dec.  31. 


137 


138 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


This  table  clearly  indicates  the  remarkable  growth  of  the  move- 
ment from  Italy  since  1880,  when  for  the  first  lime  the  number  of 
immigrants  from  that  country  exceeded  10,000,  to  1907,  when  285,731 
were  admitted.  'It  is  interesting  to  note  also  that  the  number  ad- 
mitted in  1907,  as  well  as  in  1906,  exceeded  the  total  immigration  from 
Italy  to  the  United  States  from  1820  to  1887. 

IMMIGRATION  BY  SEX  AND  DECADES,   1871  TO   1910. 

Immigration  from  Italy  from  1871  to  1910,  inclusive,  by  decades 
and  sex,  is  shown  in  the  following  table: 

TABLE  2. — Immigration  to  the  United  States  from  Italy,  ~by  sex  and  decades, 

1871  to  1910. 

[Compiled  from  Statistical  Review  of  Immigration  1819-1910.     Reports  of  the  Immigration  Commis- 
sion, vol.  3.] 


Period. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Total. 

Male. 

Female. 

Male. 

Female. 

1871  1880 

55,  759 

307  309 

41,779 
243,  923 
o  317,  023 
1,612,996 

13,  980 
63,  386 
a  106,  902 
432,  881 

74.9 
79.4 

74.8 
78.8 

25.1 
20.6 
25.2 
21.2 

1881  1890 

1891-1900 

(351,893 
2,045,877 

1901-1910  

Total 

3,060,838 

2,  215,  721 

617,  149 

78.2 

21.8 

a  Figures  by  sex  not  given  for  1893,  1894, 1895,  and  1899. 

This  table  shows  even  more  clearly  the  remarkable  development  of 
immigration  from  Italy  in  recent  years,  and  also  the  important  fact 
that  78.2  per  cent  of  the  immigrants  for  whom  sex  was  reported  dur- 
ing the  period  considered  were  men.  The  facts  indicate  that  the 
movement  has  been  essentially  one  of  individuals  rather  than  fam- 
ilies, and  in  consequence  it  follows  that  the  number  of  permanent 
settlers  has  been  relatively  much  smaller  than  among  the  English, 
Irish,  and  other  immigrants  who  came  largely  in  family  groups. 

ITALIAN  AND  OTHER  EUROPEAN  IMMIGRATION. 

The  following  table  shows  a  comparison  between  Italian  immigra- 
tion and  European  immigration  as  a  whole  during  the  period  under 
consideration : 

TABLE  3. — Immigration  to  the  United  States  from  Italy  compared  with  toti 
European  immigration  (including  Turkey  in  Asia),  by  decades,  1820  to  1910. 

[Compiled  from  table  on  pages  6-11.] 


Period. 

Total 
European 
immigra- 
tion. 

Italian  im 
Number. 

migration. 

Per  cent  of 
total  Euro- 
pean im- 
migration. 

I 

2.5 
6.5 
18.2 
24.9 

1820-1830a  ,     

106,  508 
495,688 
1,597,501 
2,  452,  660 
2,  065,  272 
2,  272,  329 
4,  739,  266 
3,  585,  777 
8,213,409 

439 
2,  253 
1,870 
9,231 
11,  725 
55,759 
307,309 
651,893 
2,045,877 

1831-1840       .                                                                                     

1841  1850 

1851-1860  

1861-1870 

1871  1880 

1881-1890  

1891-1900  .                                        

1901  1910 

Total  ]  

25,528,410 

3,086,356 

12.1 

o  Eleven  years. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe :   Italy. 


139 


It  will  be  noted  that  in  each  period  previous  to  1870  Italy  fur- 
nished less  than  1  per  cent  of  the  total  number  of  European  immi- 
grants admitted  to  the  United  States.  The  growth  in  the  movement 
during  the  decade,  1871-1880,  increased  the  proportion  to  2.5  per 
cent  of  the  whole,  and  in  succeeding  decades  the  relative  importance 
of  Italy  as  a  source  of  European  immigration  increased  to  such  an 
extent  that  in  the  ten  fiscal  years  ending  June  30,  1910,  practically 
one-fourth  (24.9  per  cent)  of  the  total  European  immigration  to  the 
United  States  originated  in  that  country. 

ITALIANS  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES,  1850  TO  1900. 

Italian  immigrants  who  came  to  the  United  States  prior  to  1870 
followed  the  tendency  of  practically  all  immigrants  of  that  period 
and  settled  in  all  parts  of  the  country.  Up  to  that  time,  however, 
the  numbers  were  small,  and  since  the  movement  from  Italy  began 
to  assume  large  proportions  they  have  shown  a  growing  tendency 
to  settle  in  the  North  Atlantic  States.  This  tendency  is  clearly  in- 
dicated by  the  following  tables,  the  first  of  which  shows  the  distri- 
bution among  the  various  States  of  persons  born  in  Italy,  in  census 
years  since  1850,  and  the  second  the  per  cent  of  Italian-born  persons 
in  the  larger  geographical  divisions : 

TABLE  4. — Distribution  of  persons  of  Italian  birth  in  the   United  States,   by 
States  and  Territories,  in  the  census  years  1850  to  1900,  inclusive. 


Geographic  divisions. 

1850. 

I860. 

1870. 

1880. 

1890. 

1900. 

Continental  United  States     

3,679 

11,677 

17,  157 

44,230 

182  580 

484  027 

North  Atlantic  division 

1  301 

3  267 

5  336 

22  914 

118  621 

352  065 

Maine 

20 

49 

48 

90 

253 

1  334 

New  Hampshire  

18 

9 

32 

312 

947 

Vermont 

7 

13 

17 

30 

445 

2  154 

Massachusetts  

197 

440 

454 

2,116 

8,066 

28,  785 

Rhode  Island  

25 

33 

58 

313 

2,468 

8  972 

Connecticut 

16 

70 

117 

879 

5,285 

19  105 

New  York  

833 

1,910 

3,592 

15,  113 

64,  141 

182,248 

New  Jersev     

31 

109 

257 

1,547 

12,989 

41,865 

Pennsylvania 

172 

625 

784 

2,794 

24,662 

66  655 

South  Atlantic  division  

357 

802 

781 

1,378 

4,894 

10,509 

Delaware 

4 

5 

43 

459 

1  122 

Maryland  

82 

229 

210 

477 

1,416 

2,449 

District  of  Columbia  

74 

97 

182 

244 

467 

930 

Virginia 

65 

263 

162 

281 

1,219 

781 

West  Virginia 

34 

48 

632 

2  921 

North  Carolina    .... 

.  4 

27 

19 

42 

28 

201 

South  Carolina 

59 

59 

63 

84 

106 

180 

Georgia 

33 

48 

50 

82 

159 

218 

Florida  

40 

75 

56 

77 

408 

1,707 

North  Central  division 

389 

2,180 

2,767 

5,454 

21,837 

55,085 

Ohio 

189 

616 

564 

1  064 

3,857 

11,321 

Indiana  .. 

6 

421 

95 

198 

468 

1,327 

Illinois 

43 

224 

761 

1,764 

8,035 

23,523 

Michigan 

14 

87 

110 

555 

3,088 

6,178 

Wisconsin 

10 

113 

104 

253 

1,123 

2,172 

Minnesota  

1 

47 

40 

124 

828 

2,222 

Iowa  .  . 

1 

30 

54 

122 

399 

1,198 

Missouri 

125 

603 

936 

1,074 

2,416 

4.345 

North  Dakota 

1 

/           700 

South  Dakota  

Y  

1 

4 

71 

290 

360 

Nebraska.  .     . 

20 

44 

62 

717 

752 

Kansas.... 

18 

55 

167 

616 

987 

Dakota  Territory  until  1900. 


140 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  4. — Distribution  of  persons  of  Italian  birth  in  the  United  States,  by  States 
and  Territories,  in  the  census  years  1850  to  1900,  inclusive— Continued. 


Geographic  divisions. 

1850. 

1860. 

1870. 

1880. 

1890. 

1900. 

South  Central  division 

1,396 

2,307 

3,178 

4,385 

12,314 

26,  158 

Kentucky  

144 

235 

325 

370 

707 

679 

Tennessee  

61 

379 

483 

443 

788 

1,222 

Alabama 

90 

214 

118 

114 

322 

862 

Mississippi  

121 

114 

147 

260 

425 

845 

Louisiana 

924 

1,279 

1,889 

2,527 

7,767 

17,431 

Arkansas 

15 

17 

30 

132 

187 

576 

Indian  Territory 

573 

Oklahoma 

11 

28 

Texas 

41 

69 

'      186 

539 

2,107 

3,942 

Western  division  

-236 

3,121 

5,095 

10,099 

24,914 

40,210 

Montana 

34 

64 

734 

2,199 

Idaho  

11 

35 

509 

779 

Wyoming 

9 

15 

259 

781 

Colorado  

6 

16 

335 

3,882 

6,818 

New  Mexico.  .  . 

i 

11 

25 

73 

355 

661 

Arizona 

12 

104 

207 

699 

Utah  

1 

59 

74 

138 

347 

1,062 

Nevada 

13 

199 

1,560 

1,129 

1,296 

Washington 

11 

24 

71 

1,408 

2,124 

Oregon  

5 

34 

31 

167 

589 

1,014 

California  .... 

229 

2,987 

4,660 

7,537 

15,495 

22,  777 

TABLE  5. — Per  cent  of  persons  of  Italian  birth  in  each  geographical  division  of 
the  United  States,  in  the  census  years  1S50  to  1900,  inclusive. 


Geographic  division. 

1850. 

I860. 

1870. 

1880. 

1890. 

1900. 

North  Atlantic  division 

35  4 

28  0 

31  1 

51  8 

65  0 

72  7 

South  Atlantic  division 

9  7 

6  9 

4  6 

3  1 

2  7 

2  2 

North  Central  division  

10  6 

18.7 

16.1 

12  3 

12.0 

11.4 

South  Central  division 

37  9 

19  8 

18  5 

9  9 

6  7 

5  4 

Western  division  

6.4 

26.7 

29.7 

22.8 

13.  6 

8.3 

It  will  be  observed  that  in  1850  there  were  more  persons  of  Italian 
birth  in  the  South  Central  States  than  in  any  other  geographic  divi- 
sion, Louisiana  having  a  larger  number  than  any  other  State.  In 
1860  the  largest  proportion  was  found  in  the  North  Atlantic  States, 
New  York  leading  every  other  State.  In  1870,  however,  California 
led  in  the  number  of  Italian-born  persons  and  the  western  division 
of  States  had  29.7  per  cent  of  the  total  Italian  population  of  the 
country,  as  compared  with  31.1  per  cent  in  the  North  Atlantic  divi- 
sion. By  1880  New  York  again  led  in  the  number  present,  and  51.8 
per  cent  of  all  Italians  were  in  the  North  Atlantic  States.  Between 
1880  and  1900  the  proportion  increased  until  in  the  latter  year  72.7 
per  cent  of  persons  of  Italian  birth  were  found  in  the  North  Atlantic 
and  11.4  per  cent  in  the  North  Central  divisions.  In  1900,  of  a  total 
of  484,027  Italian-born  persons  in  the  United  States,  182,248  were 
found  in  the  State  of  New  York,  the  other  States  having  a  large 
number  being  as  follows:  Pennsylvania,  66.655;  New  Jersey.  41.865; 
Massachusetts,  28,785;  Illinois,  23,523;  California,  22,777;  Connec- 
ticut. 19,105 ;  Louisiana,  17,431 ;  and  Ohio,  11,321.  This  clearly  illus- 
trates the  fact  that  the  Italians  who  came  between  1880  and  1900  for 
the  most  part  settled  in  States  where  industrial  activity  was  the 
greatest  and  where  the  largest  cities  were  located.  An  exception  to 


Emigration  Conditions   in  Europe:  Italy. 


141 


this  rule,  however,  is  found  in  the  long-established  and  steadily  in- 
creased movement  to  California  and  Louisiana.  Only  two  States, 
Virginia  and  Kentucky,  show  a  decrease  in  the  number  of  Italians  be- 
tween 1890  and  1900. 

HOMOGENEITY  OF  ITALIAN  IMMIGRATION. 

As  elsewhere  explained,  the  population  of  Italy  is  almost  per- 
fectly homogeneous,0  and  therefore  practically  all  immigrants  com- 
ing from  that  country  are  Italians.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  since  1899, 
when  immigration  statistics  were  first  recorded  by  race  or  people, 
not  more  than  one-tenth  of  1  per  cent  of  all  the  immigrants  from 
Italy  were  of  races  other  than  Italian.  The  Bureau  of  Immigration, 
following  the  general  practice  of  ethnologists,  divides  the  people  of 
Italy  into  two  races — North  Italians  and  South  Italians,  the  former 
being  natives  of  the  compartimenti  of  Piedmont,  Lombardy,  Venetia, 
and  Emilia,  and  the  latter  natives  of  the  remainder  of  continental 
Italy  and  the  islands  of  Sicily  and  Sardinia.  The  character  of  Italian 
immigration  in  this  regard  since  1899  is  shown  in  the  f  ollowing^table : 

TABLE  6. — Immigration  to  the  United  States  from  Italy,  fiscal  years  1899  to 
1910,  inclusive,  l)y  races  or  peoples. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner  General  of  Immigration.] 


Fiscal  years— 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

North 
Italian. 

South 
Italian. 

All 
others. 

Total. 

North 
Italian. 

South 
Italian. 

All 

others. 

1899 

11,821 
15,  799 
20,324. 
25,  485 
34,571 
34,  056 
35,802 
40,  940 
47,  814 
21  ,  494 
22,  220 

65,587 
84.  329 
115,  659 
152,883 
195,993 
159,  127 
185,  445 
231,921 
237,  080 
108,824 
160,800 
188,616 

11 
7 
13 
7 
58 
113 
232 
259 
237 
185 
198 
222 

77,419 
100,  135 
135,996 
178,375 
230,  622 
193,  296 
221,479 
273,  120 
285,  731 
138,  503 
183,  218 
215,537 

15.3 
15.8 
14.9 
14.3 
15.0 
17.6 
16.2 
15.0 
16.7 
16.7 
12.1 
12.4 

84.7 
84.2 
85.0 
85.7 
85.0 
82.3 
83.7 
84.9 
83.2 
83.1 
87.8 
87.5 

(• 

(a 

(° 
(a 

wai 

.1 
.1 
.1 
.1 
.1 
.1 

1900 

1901         

1902 

1903  

1904 

1905 

1900  

1907 

190S 

1909  

1910 

26,  699 

Total      

337,025 

1,884,864 

1,542 

2,223,431 

15.2 

84.8 

.1 

fl  Less  than  0.05  per  cent. 

The  estimated  population  of  Italy  on  January  1,  1907,  was 
33.640,705,  of  whom  13,799,473,  or  41.1  per  cent  of  the  total,  were  in 
the  compartimenti  of  Piedmont,  Lombardy,  Venetia,  and  Emilia. 
Assuming  that  practically  all  North  Italian  immigration  originates 
in  these  sections  of  Italy,  it  will  be  seen  that  with  41.1  per  cent  of 
the  population  the  compartimenti  named  furnish  only  about  15  per 
cent  of  the  Italian  movement  to  the  United  States. 

It  is  noteworthy  that  almost  all  of  the  Italians  who  come  to  the 
United  States  are  direct  from  Italy.  The  following  figures  show 
the  total  number  of  North  and  South  Italians  who  came  to  this  coun- 


6  See  p.  177. 


142 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


try  during  the  11  fiscal  years  ending  June  30,  1909,  and  the  number 
and  proportion  that  were  from  Italy : 

TABLE  7. — Total  immigration  to  the  United  States  of  races  or  peoples  specified 
and  per  cent  of  such  immigration  which  originated  in  Italy,  fiscal  years  1899 
to  1910,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration.] 


Total 

From  ] 

ta!y. 

number. 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Italian,  North 

341,888 

310,  326 

90.8 

Italian.  South  ;  

1,  719,  260 

1,696,248 

98.7 

ITALIAN    EMIGRATION    TO    OTHER    COUNTRIES. 

Although  the  northern  compartimenti  do  not  contribute  largely  to 
the  movement  to  the  United  States  when  compared  with  the  south, 
nevertheless  there  is  a  large  emigration  from  them.  For  the  most 
part,  however,  this  proceeds  to  France,  Germany,  Switzerland,  and 
other  European  countries  rather  than  over  seas,  although  there  is  a 
considerable  movement  of  North  Italians  to  South  American  coun- 
tries. The  following  table  compiled  from  Italian  data  shows  the 
emigration  movement  from  Italy  in  1907,  by  compartimenti  and 
destination : 

TABLE  8. — Emigration  from  Italy  in  1907,  by  compartimenti  and  destination. 
[Compiled  from  Bollettino  dell'  Emigrazione,  anno  1908,  No.  23,  Rome,  1908.] 


Compartimenti. 

Emigration  to  — 

Per  cent  to  — 

Trans- 
oceanic 
countries. 

Europe 
and 
Mediter- 
ranean 
countries. 

Total. 

Trans- 
oceanic 
countries. 

Europe 
and 
Mediter-  . 
ranean 
countries, 

58.5 

%: 

86.2 
75.6 

.    11 

18.8 

'?:! 

14.8 
2.7 
2.2 

5.9 
71.1 

Northern  Italy: 
Piedmont 

26,232 
6,914 
15,  506 
14,703 

10,022 
13,  778 
13,664 
4,096 
15,485 

44,024 
70,  228 
25,313 
14,685 
46,  184 

91.902 
3;  335 

37,012 
1,760 
45,  449 
91,510 

31,076 
23,670 
10,925 
11,535 

3,588 

6,475 
5,915 
4,399 
403 
1,045 

5,718 

8,294 

63,  244 
8,474 
60,955 
106,213 

41,098 
37,  448 
24,  589 
15,  631 
19,  073 

50,  499 
76,143 
29,712 
15,088 
47,  229 

97,620 
11,659 

41.5 
79.2 
25.4 
13.8 

24.4 
36.8 
55.6 
26.2 
81.2 

87.2 
92.2 
.    85.2 
97.3 
97.8 

94.1 

28.  9 

Li^uria                

Loinbardy 

Venetia 

Central  Italy: 
Emilia                      

Tuscany 

Marches     

Perugia  (Umbria)  

Roma  (Latium) 

Southern  Italy: 
Abruzzi  and  Molise  

Campania 

Basilicata  

Calabria                               

Islands: 
Sicily  

Sardinia           

Total 

415,901 

288,  774 

704,  675 

59.0 

41.0 

Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


143 


This  table,  classified   according  to  geographical  divisions,  is  as 
follows : 

TABLE  9. — Emigration  from  Italy  in  1907,  ~by  geographical  divisions  and 

destination. 

[Compiled  from  Bollettino  dell'  Emigrazione,  anno  1908,  No.  23,  Rome,  1908.] 


Geographic  division. 

Emigration  to  — 

Per  cent  to  — 

Trans- 
oceanic 
countries. 

Europe 
and 
Mediter- 
ranean 
countries. 

Total. 

Trans- 
oceanic 
countries. 

Europe 
and 
Mediter- 
ranean 
countries. 

Northern  Ital  v  , 

63,  155 
57,045 
200,  434 
95,  267 

175,  731 
80,794 
18,237 
14,012 

238,  886 
137,839 
218,  671 
109,279 

26.4 
41.4 
91.7 
87.2 

73.6 
58.6 
8.3 
12.8 

Central  Italy  

Southern  Italy 

Islands 

Total... 

415,901 

288,  774 

704,  675 

59.0 

41.0 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  above  tables  that  41  per  cent  of  the  total 
emigration  movement  from  Italy  in  the  year  considered  was  destined 
to  neighboring  countries,  this  tendency  being  much  more  marked  in 
the  northern  and  central  compartimenti.  Liguria,  geographically  a 
northern,  and  Roma,  a  central,  compartimento,  however,  are  conspicu- 
ous exceptions  to  this  rule,  for  79.2  per  cent  of  the  total  emigration 
from  the  former  and  81.2  from  the  latter  was  transoceanic.  More  than 
90  per  cent  of  the  emigrants  from  Calabria,  Basilicata,  Sicily,  and 
Campania  went  over  seas,  while  the  other  extreme  is  found  in  Venetia, 
86.2  per  cent  of  the  emigration  from  that  compartimento  going  to 
nenr-by  countries. 

The  number  of  persons  emigrating  from  each  compartimento  of 
Italy  in  1907  and  the  relation  such  emigration  bore  to  the  total  popu- 
lation of  each  are  shown  in  the  following  table : 

TABLE  10. — Emigration  from  Italy  in  1907  compared  with  population,  ~by  com* 

partimenti. 

[Compiled  from  Bollettino  dell'  Emigrazione,  anno  1908,  No.  23,  Rome,  1908.] 


Compartimenti. 

Estimated 
popula- 
tion, 
Jan.  1, 
1907. 

Emigration  to- 

Number  of  emigrants  to 
each  1,000  population. 

Trans- 
oceanic 
countries. 

Europe 
and 
Mediter- 
ranean 
countries. 

Total. 

Trans- 
oceanic 
countries. 

Europe 
and 
Mediter- 
ranean 
countries. 

Total. 

Northern  Italy: 
Piedmont 

3,423,854 
1,157,784 
4,  497,  327 
3,368,117 

2,  510,  175 
2,  656,  382 
1,  070,  055 
688,  078 
1,278,309 

1,455,086 
3,  199,  158 
2,041,399 
470,  385 
1,411,348 

3,571,771 

841,417 

26,  232 
6,714 
15,506 
14,  703 

10,  022 
13,  778 
13,  664 
4,096 
15,465 

44,  024 
70,  228 
25,  313 
44,  685 
46,  184 

91,902 
3,365 

37,012 
1,760 
45,  449  • 
91,510 

31,076 
23,670 
10,  925 
11,535 
3,588 

6,475 
5,915 
4,399 
403 
1,045 

5,718 
8,294 

63,  244 
8,474 
60,955 
106,  213 

41,098 
37,  448 
24,589 
15,631 
19,073 

50,499 
76,  143 
29,712 
15,088 
47,229 

97,620 
11,659 

7.7 
5.8 
3.4 
4.4 

4.0 
5.2 
12.8 
6.0 
12.1 

30.3 
22.0 
12.4 
31.2 
32.7 

25.7 
4.0 

10.8 
1.5 
10.1 
27.2 

12.4 
8.9 
10.2 
16.8 
2.8 

4.4 
1.8 
2.2 
.9 
.7 

1.6 
9.9 

18.5 
7.3 
13.6 
31.5 

16.4 
14.1 
23.0 
22.7 
14.9 

34.7 
23.8 
14.6 
32.1 
33.5 

27.3 
13.9 

Liguria  

Lombavdv  

Venetia 

Central  Italy: 
Emilio 

Marches 

Perugia  (Umbriaj  
Roma  (Latium)  

Abruzzi  and  Molise  
Campania  

Basilicata 

Calabria 

Islands: 
Sicily  

Sardinia  

Total  

—  

33,640,705 

415,  901 

288,774 

704,675 

12.4 

8.6 

20.9 

144 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


This  table,  classified   according  to  geographical  divisions,  is   as 
follows : 

TABLE  11. — Emigration  from  Italy  in  1907  compared  with  population,  by 
geographical  divisions. 

[Compiled  from  Bollettino  dell'  Emigrazione,  anno  1908,  No.  23,  Rome,  1908.] 


Emigration  to- 

Number  of  emigrants  to 
each  1,000  population. 

Estimated 

popula- 

Geographic division. 

tion, 
Jan.  1, 

Trans- 

Europe 

and 

Trans- 

Europe 
and 

1907. 

oceanic 

Mediter- 

Total. 

oceanic 

Mediter- 

Total. 

countries. 

ranean 

countries. 

ranean 

countries. 

countries. 

Northern  Italy 

12  447  082 

63  155 

175  731 

238,  886 

5  1 

14  1 

19  2 

Central  Italy  

8,203,059 

57,  045 

80,  794 

137,  839 

.6 

.9 

1.6 

Southern  Italy  .... 

8,  577,  376 

200,  434 

18,  237 

218,  671 

23.4 

2.1 

25.5 

Islands 

4  413  188 

95  267 

14  012 

109  279 

21  6 

3  2 

24  8 

Total  

33,640,705 

415,  901 

288,  774 

704,  675 

12.4 

8.6 

20.9 

The  above  tables  show  clearly  that  emigration  is  not  peculiar  to 
the  southern  sections  of  Italy  as  might  be  inferred  from  that  part 
of  the  movement  which  is  directed  to  the  United  States.  As  pre- 
viously explained,  the  movement  from  the  south  is  largely  trans- 
oceanic and  more  permanent,  while  a  large  proportion  of  those  leav- 
ing the  northern  and  central  compartimenti  go  temporarily  to  adja- 
cent European  countries.  Nevertheless  the  cause  of  the  movement 
is  practically  the  same  in  both  cases. 

The  figures  show  that  the  proportion  of  the  population  emigrating 
from  Venetia,  a  northern  compartimento,  exceeds  that  of  Sicily,  and 
is  larger  than  from  any  other  compartimento  except  Abruzzi,  Cala- 
bria, and  Basilicnta.  while  emigration  from  Apulia,  a  southern  com- 
partimento, is  relatively  smaller  than  from  Piedmont.  This  shows 
also  that  emigration  is  not  peculiar  to  South  Italians  in  a  racial  sense, 
as  United  States  statistics  might  seem  to  indicate,  and  an  even 
stronger  illustration  of  this  is  found  in  the  fact  that  Liguria,  which 
is  inhabited  by  the  South  Italian  race,  shows  a  smaller  rate  of  emi- 
gration than  any  other  compartimento. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


145 


DESTINATION   OF   TRANSATLANTIC   EMIGRATION. 

The  destination  of  trans- Atlantic  Italian  emigration  in  recent  years 
is  shown  in  the  following  table : 

TABLE  12. — Number  and  per  cent  of  trans-Atlantic  emigrants  from  Italy  destined 
to  each  specified  country,  1900  to  1908,  inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  Great  Britain  Statistical  Abstract,  1897  to  1907-8,  p.  25.] 


Country  of  destination. 

Number. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

1907. 

1908. 

United  States  and  Canada... 

Mexico,     Colombia,     Vene- 
zuela,   Central    America, 
and  West  Indies 

|89,400 

121,139 
3,497 

1,418 
82.  159 
739 

64,090 
5,134 

193,  772 
2,951 

1,211 
40,  434 
679 

37,979 
5,560 

197,  855 
2,528 

1,331 

27,  707 
539 

45,  160 
5,293 

168,789 
4,748 

1,828 
19,  724 
1,383 

53,  102 

316,797 
5,930 

2,044 
30,  079 
1,034 

88,840 

358,569 
10,032 

2,346 
27,  808 
1,055 

109,538 

298,  124 
10,  436 

2.626 
21.298 
1,676 

80..  143 

131,501 
5,988 

1,029 
15,558 
754 

82,575 

2,523 

Brazil 

27,  438 
409 

42,720 
3,137 

Chile,  Peru,  and  Bolivia  
Argentine    Republic,    Uru- 
guay, and  Paraguay  
Parts  of  America  not   dis- 
tinguished 

Total  America. 

165,627 

278,  176 

282,586 

280,413 

249,574 

444,  724 

509,348 

414,303 

237,405 

Country  of  destination. 

Per  cent. 

1900. 

1901. 

1902. 

1903. 

1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

1907. 

1908. 

United  States  and  Canada..  . 

Mexico,     Colombia,     Vene- 
zuela,   Central    America, 
and  West  Indies  

|    54.0 

43.5 
1.3 

.5 
29.5 
.3 

23.0 
1.8 

68.6 
1.0 

.4 
14.3 
.2 

13.4 
2.0 

70.6 
.9 

.5 
9.9 
.2 

16.1 
1.9 

67.6 
1.9 

.7 
7.9 
.6 

21.3 

71.2 
1.3 

.5 
6.8 
.2 

20.0 

70.4 
2.0 

.5 
5.5 

.2 

21.5 

72.0 
2.5 

.6 
5.1 
.4 

19.3 

55.4 
2.5 

.4 
6.6 
.3 

34.8 

1.5 
16.6 
.2 

25.8 
1.9 

Brazil                            

Chile,  Peru,  and  Bolivia  
Argentine    Republic,    Uru- 
guay, and  Paraguay  
Parts  of  America  not  dis- 

Total  America  

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

CHAPTER  II. 
ITALY'S  ATTITUDE  TOWARD  EMIGRATION. 

In  a  statement  to  the  Immigration  Commission  at  Rome,  Cav. 
Egisto  Rossi,  Royal  Italian  commissioner  of  emigration,  defined 
Italy's  attitude  toward  emigration  as  follows: 

Our  Constitution  does  not  permit  us  to  deprive  the  people  of  the  right  to 
emigrate,  but  we  want  the  movement  to  be  natural. 

In  further  explanation  Commissioner  Rossi  submitted  to  the  Com- 
mission a  statement  issued  by  him  in  1904  when  on  an  official  tour  of 
inspection  in  the  United  States.  This  statement,  which  appeared  in 
full  in  the  New  York  Times  of  March  12,  1904,  is  in  part  as  follows: 

Since  my  arrival  in  your  country  I  have  been  surprised  at  the  belief  enter- 
tained by  many  that  the  Italian  Government  not  only  looks  with  favor  upon 
our  emigration  to  your  country,  but  actually  encourages  it.  I  wish  to  respect- 
fully deny  this.  While  it  is  true  that  the  constant  increase  in  the  population  of 
Italy  renders  emigration  a  necessity,  it  nevertheless  is  a  fact  that  in  certain 
Provinr-ps  the  great  outflow  is  becoming  a  positive  harm  to  us.  because,  despite 
the  increase  in  wages,  there  is  a  scarcity  in  the  local  supply  of  laborers. 

Those  who  were  formerly  responsible  for  encouraging  emigration  were  not  in 
any  way  connected  with  the  Government,  but  were  the  agents  of  certain  steam- 
ship lines,  whose  only  interest  was  the  sale  of  steamship  tickets  on  the  largest 
possible  scale.  Indeed,  my  Government,  seeing  that  such  agents  were  trying  to 
foster  an  artificial  emigration  over,  and  above  the  natural  outflow,  and  with 
the  desire  of  preventing  the  abuses  to  which  emigrants  were  exposed,  brought 
before  Parliament  the  law  of  January  31,  1901,  which,  while  it  recognizes  the 
isrJ>t  oi;  expatriation  and  emiirratiou,  so  hedges  it  around  with  special  safe- 
uards  that  it  may  well  be  called  a  restrictive  law.  *  *  *  In  three  years' 
istence  the  department  has  not  encouraged  emigration  toward  any  definite 
lace.  *  *  *  If  all  emigrants  were  to  follow  its  advk-e  they  would  all  stay 
at  home.  There  could  be  no  higher  definition  of  the  policy  of  the  department 
than  this.  *  *  *  You  are  aware  how  promptly  and  gladly  my  Government 
granted  to  the  United  States  permission  to  have  medical  committees  at  our  ports, 
granting  them  the  right  to  examine  the  emigrants  and  prevent  those  from  sail- 
ing who  are  physically  unfit.  *  *  *  In  conclusion,  let  me  say  that  the 'de- 
partment which  I  have  the  honor  to  represent  not  only  does  not  encourage  emi- 
gration, but  does  everything  in  its  power  to  fight  those  who  would  force  its 
increase.  The  most  recent  example 'is  this:  Our  law  allowed  steamship  com- 
panies to  have  an  agent  in  every  commune  in  the  Kingdom,  but  by  an  amend- 
ment of  January  4,  1904,  the  number  of  such  agents  is  reduced  to  one  for  each 
company,  and  only  one  for  every  group  of  20  to  30  municipalities. 

THE   ITALIAN   EMIGRATION  LAW. 

The  Italian  emigration  law  of  1901,  referred  to  in  the  above  state- 
ent,  with  some  amendments,  is  still  in  force.    The  main  provisions 
nd  the  purpose  of  the  Italian  law  were  explained  by  Commissioner 
ssi,  in  a  statement  to  the  Commission,  substantially  as  follows : 

The  Italian  law  aims  to  protect  emigrants  during  the  different  stages  through 
which  they  pass  from  the  time  of  leaving  their  native  village  or  town  until 
they  reach  their  destination  in  a  foreign  country  and  after  landing  there. 

147 


148  The  Immigration  Commission. 

The  law  and  regulations  provide  that  in  all  centers  of  emigration  there  must 
be  an  unpaid  committee  consisting  of  various  officials  and  others,  which  com- 
mittee is  bound  to  give  the  emigrant  all  information  about  the  country  to 
which  he  intends  to  go,  and  the  conditions  on  which  he  can  be  admitted.  It 
helps  the  emigrant  in  getting  a  passport,  gives  him  information  concerning 
steamers,  the  cost  of  tickets,  etc.  On  the  journey  to  an  Italian  port  the  emi- 
grant is  very  often  guided  and  directed  by  the  same  committee.  If  the  number 
of  emigrants  is  considerable,  the  steamship  company  will  supply  an  agent  to 
take  charge  of  them  from  the  home  town  to  the  port. 

The  law  directs  that  emigrants  on  arriving  at  Naples,  Genoa,  Messina,  or 
Palermo  shall  go  to  some  hotel  authorized  by  the  bureau  of  emigration.  This 
authorization  is  only  given  to  the  best  houses,  and  they  are  continually  under 
the  inspection  of  a  doctor  appointed  by  the  prefetto  at  each  port.  Lodging  and 
food  from  the  day  before  sailing  are  paid  for  by  the  steamship  companies. 
With  u«,  however,  this  is  considered  as  a  temporary  provision,  because  when 
funds  are  available  the  Government  will  provide  homes  or  hotels  for  emigrants 
at  the  ports  of  Naples,  Genoa,  and  Palermo.  These  are  to  be  large  hotels,  with 
everything  necessary  for  the  emigrant. 

The  protection  of  emigrants  on  board  ship  is  intrusted  to  the  commissario 
regio,  a  surgeon  of  the  navy  medical  corps,  who  must  accompany  each  ship 
carrying  Italian  emigrants  from  Italian  ports,  and  whose  salary  and  expenses 
must  be  paid  by  the  steamship  companies.  This  officer  acts  as  an  emigrant 
inspector  during  the  voyage,  and  it  is  his  duty  to  see  that  the  quantity  and 
quality  of  food  provided  is  in  accordance  with  law.  He  also  has  to  take  note 
of  the  hygienic  conditions  of  the  ship  during  the  voyage  and  receive  all  com- 
plaints made  by  emigrants.  In  the  matter  of  complaints  he  attempts  to  adjust 
difficulties  with  the  captain  of  the  ship;  otherwise  he  transmits  the  complaint 
to  the  Italian  consul  at  the  port  of  landing  or  to  the  proper  official  in  Italy 
upon  his  return.  If  the  complaint  is  well  founded  and  involves  a  violation  of 
our  law,  the  steamship  company  is  liable  to  a  fine.  a 

The  third  and  last  phase  through  which  the  emigrant  passes  is  just  when  he 
lands,  and  it  is  a  time  when  he  needs  the  special  protection  which  is  provided 
by  article  12  of  our  law  in  the  following  terms : 

"  In  all  foreign  states  to  which  Italian  emigration  turns  with  preference  the 
foreign  office  shall,  after  coming  to  an  understanding  with  the  local  govern- 
ments, institute  bureaus  for  the  protection  and  information  of  and  supply  of 
labor  to  emigrants.  The  foreign  office  shall,  in  accordance  with  by-law,  appoint 
traveling  inspectors  in  transoceanic  countries.  Officers  of  the  consular  service 
can  be  appointed  to  these  berths.  Such  inspectors  shall  keep  the  chief  commis- 
sioner posted  with  the  conditions  of  Italian  emigrants  in  such  countries,  whose 
desires  or  necessities  they  shall  transmit  to  the  commissioner." 

These  are  the  phases  through  which  the  emigrant  passes  as  contemplated  by 
our  law :  First,  in  the  town  where  he  resides  and  from  which  he  intends  to 
go  abroad ;  then  in  the  large  ports,  where  the  inspectors  go  aboard  the  steamer 
to  ascertain  that  it  is  in  the  condition  required  by  law,  because  otherwise  the 
emigrants  can  not  leave  on  the  steamer.  Very  often  telegrams  are  sent  to  the 
commissariato  stating  that  the  provisions  of  a  particular  steamer  are  not  suffi- 
cient or  that  the  hospital  lacks  certain  supplies.  Then  we  have  to  telegraph 
that  the  steamer  can  not  start  until  the  conditions  of  the  law  have  been  complied 
with. 

The  new  law  requires  that  each  adult  emigrant  must  pay  a  tax  of  8  lire 
($1.60). 

The  law  prescribes  only  four  ports  of  emigration :  Naples,  Genoa,  Palermo, 
and  Messina.6  From  other  ports  there  is  no  emigration.  If  people  want  to 
emigrate  to  America,  they  must  go  through  these  ports. 

There  is  a  special  article  in  the  Italian  emigration  law  which  prohibits  send- 
ing an  emigrant  to  a  country  unless  the  emigrant  can  comply  with  the  condi- 
tions of  the  laws  of  the  country  to  which  he  seeks  to  go.  Therefore  when  an 
emigrant  is  rejected  at  a  foreign  port  the  responsibility  falls  upon  the  steam- 
ship company  and  the  emigrant  is  entitled  to  be  reimbursed  and  to  receive  an 

<*  For  further  discussion  of  the  Italian  system  of  regulating  the  carriage  of 
steerage  passengers  at  sea,  see  Steerage  Legislation,  1819-1908.  Reports  of  the 
Immigration  Commission,  vol.  39  (S.  Doc.  No.  758,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.). 

6  Following  the  earthquake  of  December,  1908,  Messina  was  abandoned  as  an 
emigration  port 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  149 

Indemnity  for  the  journey  he  has  made.  So  there  are  lots  of  lawsuits  against 
the  steamship  companies,  and  very  often  a  company  is  condemned  to  pay  a 
large  indemnity  to  an  emigrant  rejected  by  the  United  States.  It  is  a  matter 
of  law,  and  the  steamship  company  is  presumed  to  know  the  law.  We  fine  the 
steamship  company  if  through  negligence  or  for  some  other  reason  they  allow 
people  to  start  who  are  not  in  condition  to  be  admitted  at  ports  of  destination. 
In  each  Province  we  have  an  arbitration  commission,  which  has  the  right  to 
examine  those  cases.  Every  emigrant  rejected  by  the  United  States  has  a 
right  to  submit  his  complaint  to  this  commission,  which  examines  the  case  and^ 
gives  its  decision,  and  in  a  proper  case  fines  the  steamship  company.  The  law 
speaks  very  clearly  on  that  point.  It  says : 

"Art.  24.  The  carrier  is  responsible  for  damages  toward  the  emigrant  who 
may  have  been  refused  lauding  at  a  port  of  destination  because  of  provision  of 
foreign  laws  on  immigration,  when  the  emigrant  can  prove  that  the  carrier  was 
aware  before  his  sailing  of  the  circumstances  which  determine  such  refusal." 

The  emigrant  who  is  returned  may  make  a  claim  before  the  arbitration  com- 
mission without  expense  to  him,  and  in  many  cases,  besides  the  passage  money, 
the  carrier  has  to  pay  all  the  loss  of  wages  for  the  thirty  or  forty  days  that 
the  man  has  been  on  his  journey. 

Our  constitution  does  not  permit  us  to  deprive  the  people  of  the  right  to 
emigrate,  but  we  want  the  movement  to  be  natural.  Article  17  of  our  law  pre* 
vents  such  artificial  movements.  It  states  very  clearly  that — 

"  Carriers  and  their  representatives  are  forbidden  from  persuading  people  to 
emigrate.  In  accordance  with  article  416  of  the  Penal  Code,  whoever  shall,  by 
poster,  circular,  or  guide  concerning  emigration,  publish  wittingly  false  news  on 
emigration  or  diffuse  in  the  Kingdom  news  or  information  of  such  a  nature 
printed  abroad,  shall  be  punished  with  imprisonment  up  to  six  months  and 
with  a  fine  of  1,000  lire.  The  circulars  and  advertisements,  of  whatever  nature 
they' may  be,  made  by  the  carrier,  shall  indicate  the  gross  and  net  registered 
tonnage  and  the  speed  of  the  steamer,  the  date  of  sailing,  the  ports  called  at; 
en  route,  and  the  duration  of  the  entire  voyage." 

It.  is  well  known  that  the  Italian  Government  not  only  seeks  to 
regulate  emigration  in  the  interest  of  the  emigrant  before  embarka- 
tion and  during  the  voyage  at  sea,  but  also  that  it  undertakes  to 
prevent  Italians  from  going  to  countries  or  sections  of  countries 
where  it  is  believed  they  will  not  prosper  or  receive  adequate  protec- 
tion. For  several  years  the  Italian  authorities  have  discouraged 
emigration  to  Brazil  because  of  a  report  by  an  inspector  to  the  effect 
that  Italian  laborers  were  badly  treated  in  that  country,  and  during 
the  recent  financial  depression  in  the  United  States  the  people  were 
officially  advised  not  to  emigrate  while  the  depression  continued. 

WARNING  AGAINST  LABOR  CONTRACTS. 

In  1908  the  Italian  authorities  issued  a  circular  with  a  view  to 
checking  emigration  under  labor  contracts  to  certain  ports  of  the 
United  States.  A  translation  of  this  circular  is  presented  herewith 
for  the  purpose  of  illustrating  Italy's  attitude  in  this  regard. 

[Italian  official   order — Emigration  to   Southern   States — Translation.] 
CIRCULAR  IN  BE  EMIGRATION  TO  THE  UNITED   STATES. 

Circular  No.  17.]  DEPARTMENT  OF  FOREIGN  AFFAIRS, 

COMMISSIONER  OF  EMIGRATION, 

Rome,  March  15,  J908. 

The  royal  consular  authorities  for  the  States  of  Mississippi,  Louisiana,  Ar« 
kansas,  Florida,  Alabama,  and  Texas  (United  States  of  America)  have  reported 
upon  the  deplorable  conditions  under  which  many  of  our  compatriots  exist  who 
have  emigrated  thither  in  conformity  with  contract-labor  agreements,  entered 
into  within  the  Kingdom  between  them  and  not  a  few  unscrupulous  farmers  and 
planters. 


I 


150  The  Immigration  Commission. 


The  unlawful  practices  of  criminal  agents  that  this  office  swight  to  stamp 
out  by  circular  No.  147,  dated  February  12,  1906,  and  by  other  means  are 
still  carried  on  in  Italy  through  subterfuges,  which,  in  the  interest  of  the  most 
ignorant  of  our  compatriots  and  of  those  most  needing  protection,  must  be 
combated  by  every  means  which  the  law  places  at  the  disposal  of  the  author- 
ities. 

Chief  among  the  illegal  practices  employed  by  persons  interested  in  this 
clandestine  emigration  is  that  of  propagating  false  information,  made  to  appear 
as  coming  to  the  Kingdom  from  emigrants  already  settled  in  the  southern  re- 
gions of  the  North  American  Confederation.  By  this  false  information,  de- 
scribing in  glowing  terms  the  healthfulness  of  the  country  and  the  high  wages 
paid,  the  belief  is  spread  that  emigrants  are  summoning  from  Italy  their  rela- 
tions and  friends  and  are  sending  them  prepaid  tickets  for  the  voyage. 

In  reality  the  fact  is  that  the  emigrant  who  gives  ear  to  such  glowing  ac- 
counts is  often  put  to  work  in  unhealthy  places,  from  which,  even  should  he 
wish  to  do  so,  he  can  not  depart,  because  he  must,  by  his  work,  refund  the 
cost  of  the  prepaid  ticket,  and  because  the  laws  of  the  said  States  give  to  the 
creditor-employer  the  right  to  have  the  debtor-employee  arrested  and  to  detain 
him  until,  by  his  work,  he  has  canceled  the  entire  amount  of  his  debt.  Quite 
recently  not  a  few  cases  of  flight  on  the  part  of  compatriots  unable  to  stand 
the  conditions  of  existence  imposed  upon  them  have  been  followed  by  arrest 
(peonage)  and  ill  treatment.  In  these  cases  the  local  laws  have  been  unable 
to  right  the  wrongs  of  our  emigrants,  bound  as  they  are  by  contracts  forced 
upon  them  by  criminal  agents. 

I  therefore  most  earnestly  call  the  attention  of  you,  sirs,  to  the  foregoing 
facts,  and,  with  the  aim  of  putting  a  check  to  this  inhuman  traffic,  pray  you 
to  see  to  it  that  no  passports  for  the  southern  regions  of  the  United  States,  and 
esi>ecially  Mississippi,  be  given  to  compatriots  who  do  not  direct  themselves 
thither  upon  their  own  initiative,  paying  the  cost  of  the  voyage  with  their  own 
money.  To  those  who  intend  to  emigrate  to  the  above  mentioned  States  with  a 
prepaid  ticket,  a  passport  should  be  refused  unless  (and  this  must  be  proved 
to  the  authority  who  grants  an  application  for  a  passport  to  be  the  undoubted 
fact)  the  ticket  for  the  voyage  has  been  sent  to  Italy  by  a  near  relative  ef  the 
prospective  emigrant  already  residing  there,  who  under  the  law  is  obliged 
to  provide  for  the  maintenance  of  the  said  prospective  emigrant,  or  unless  a 
nulla  osta  from  the  royal  Italian  consulate  at  New  Orleans  is  produced. 

However,  it  will  be  well  that  you,  sirs,  see  to  it  that  every  application  for  a 
passport  made  by  an  emigrant  whose  destination  is  the  Southern  States  of  the 
North  American  Confederation  be  followed  by  an  investigation  having  for  its 
object  the  ultimate  running  to  earth  of  the  criminal  agent  and  his  accomplice 
operating  in  your  district. 

This  office  depends  upon  the  active  and  efficient  cooperation  of  you,  sirs,  in 
order  successfully  to  prevent  our  compatriots  from  becoming  victims  of  the 
felony  provided  against  by  article  416  of  the  Penal  Code. 

A  word  of  assurance  would  be  welcome. 

The  General  Commissioner. 

(Signed)  REYNAUDI. 

To  the  prefects,  subprefects,  chiefs  of  police,  and  district  commissioners  of 
the  Realm. 


CHAPTER  III. 
CAUSES  OF  EMIGRATION  FROM  ITALY. 

The  territory  comprising  Italy  has  been  a  part  of  the  civilized 
world  since  the  dawn  of  history,  but  politically  the  Italy  of  to-day 
is  among  the  newer  nations  of  the  world.  Prior  to  1859  what  are 
now  the  compartimenti  of  Piedmont,  Liguria,  and  Sardinia  formed 
a  part  of  the  Kingdom  of  Sardinia;  Venetia  and  Lombardy  were 
provinces  of  Austria ;  Tuscany  was  a  grand  duchy ;  Marches,  Perugia 
(Umbria),  Eoma  (Latium),  and  the  Provinces  of  Bologna,  Ferrara, 
Fordi,  and  Ravenna,  in  Emilia,  were  a  part  of  the  Papal  State, 
while  the  Kingdom  of  Naples  (including  Abruzzi,  Campania,  Apulia 
Basilicata,  and  Calabria),  with  Sicily,  formed  the  Kingdom  of  the 
Two  Sicilies.  By  the  peace  of  Zurich  in  1859,  Victor  Emmanuel, 
King  of  Sardinia,  obtained  Lombardy,  and  in  the  following  year  it 
was  annexed  to  his  Kingdom.  Tuscany,  Marches,  and  Perugia  were 
annexed  to  Sardinia  in  the  same  year,  and  in  1861  United  Italy, 
which  included  all  of  the  present  territory  of  the  Kingdom  except 
Venetia  and  Roma  (Latium)  became  a  fact.  In  1866  Venetia  was 
ceded  to  Italy  by  Austria,  and  in  1870  the  remaining  part  of  the 
Papal  States,  now  Roma,  was  annexed  to  the  new  Kingdom,  and  in 
the  following  years  the  city  of  Rome  became  its  capital. 


DENSITY  OF  POPULATION. 


Italy  is  more  densely  populated  than  any  other  European  country 
except  Belgium,  the  Netherlands,  and  England,  the  number  of  in- 
habitants per  square  mile  in  1909  being  310,  according  to  an  official 
estimate  of  the  population  in  that  year.  It  is  said  that  the  popula- 
tion has  increased  steadily  notwithstanding  the  large  emigration  of 
recent  years,  the  total  at  the  beginning  01  1909  being  estimated  at 
34,269,764,  as  compared  with  32,475.253  shown  by  the  census  of  1901. 
The  birth  rate  is  high,  the  excess  of  births  over  deaths  during  the 
five  years  1904-1908  being  1,845,775,  or  an  average  of  369,155  for  each 
year.  As  stated  elsewhere,  there  is  no  general  relation  between  over- 
population and  emigration  in  the  case  of  most  European  countries, 
but  this  is  particularly  noteworthy  so  far  as  Italy  is  concerned,  be- 
luse  the  resources  of  the  country  are  not  sufficient,  or  at  least  at  the 
resent  time  are  not  sufficiently  developed,  to  afford  means  for  the 
dequate  support  of  the  large  and  growing  population,  and  emigra- 
ion  is  simply  a  natural  consequence. 

WEALTH  AND  ITS  DISTRIBUTION. 

Compared  with  most  other  European  countries,  Italy  is  poor  in 
most  of  the  essentials  which  make  for  the  material  prosperity  of  a 
nation.  In  this  regard  Prof.  Francesco  S.  Nitti,  a  well-known  econo- 

79524  °  —VOL  4—11 11  15] 


152  The  Immigration  Commission. 

mist  and  member  of  the  Italian  Parliament,  and  to  whom  the  Com- 
mission is  indebted  for  much  information  respecting  the  emigration 
situation  in  his  country,  says :  ° 

Italy,  that  conquered  the  world  in  the  Roman  epoch,  that  was  the  museum 
of  all  arts  in  the  middle  ages,  whose  modern  civilization  is  admirable  for  its 
efforts  toward  self-renovation,  has  been  and  still  remains,  a  poor  country. 
Above  all,  it  suffers  from  impecuniosity,  from  want  of  money,  deficiency  of 
capital.  *  *  * 

Not  only  ignorant  people,  but 'also  many  who  are  considered  learned,  and 
many  of  them  in  good  faith,  think  Italy  a  very  rich  country.  For  most  Ital- 
ians our  country  is  the  favorite  of  nature;  it  wants  nothing.  God  made  Italy 
rich  and  beautiful.  "  Ricca,  ma  ricca  assai,"  says  a  romantic  poem  very 
often  repeated.  And  so  he  who  says  that  Italy  is  a  naturally  poor  country  is 
at  once  classified  among  the  lovers  of  paradoxes.  The  most  elementary  truths 
are  considered  as  paradoxes  intended  to  impose  upon  public  opinion;  there  is 
nothing  more  offensive  for  people  accustomed  to  scientific  research  than  to 
see  the  conclusions  which  are  the  fruit  of  work  and  experience  considered  as 
eccentricities  and  exaggerations. 

What  is  Italy?  It  is,  first  of  all,  a  small  country.  Its  territory  only  meas- 
ures 286  thousand  square  kilometers,  which  is  much  less  than  half  the  terri- 
tory of  Austria-Hungary,  and  little  more  than  half  the  territory  of  France. 
In  20  years  Italy  will  have,  perhaps,  notwithstanding  its  emigration,  a  larger 
population  than  either  of  these  countries.  Such  a  small  surface  gives  life  to  a 
great  number  of  men,  the  greatest,  perhaps,  which  Europe  has  supported  from 
the  most  remote  antiquity  to  our  days.  Among  large  nations  (small  ones  we 
need  not  consider)  only  Great  Britain  has  more  inhabitants  than  Italy  in  pro- 
portion to  its  territory.  But  Great  Britain  still  has  immense  riches  in  its 
underground,  the  Black  Indies  of  coal  and  of  iron ;  its  immense  empire  of  the 
seas,  colonies  at  least  100  times  larger  than  Italy,  which  would  allow  a  much 
more  numerous  population  to  live  and  prosper.  The  territory  of  Italy  is  very 
small,  but  it  is  rendered  still  smaller  by  the  fact  that  Italy  is  the  most  moun- 
tainous of  the  great  countries  of  Europe.  And,  moreover,  the  fertile  plain  in 
many  places  of  the  peninsula  and  of  the  islands  is  in  its  turn  rendered  unpro- 
ductive by  the  malaria.  Two  millions  of  Italians,  at  least,  are  ill  of  the 
malaria  every  year,  and  agriculture  is  consequently  often  rendered  impossible 
in  those  places  where  it  would  produce  most.  The  scarce  territory  becomes 
still  more  limited ;  the  underground  is  very  poor. 

The  malaria,  however,  is  not  invincible;  if  Italy  has  no  mineral  wealth  it 
possesses  great  hydraulic  resources.  This  is  true.  But  it  is  also  true  that 
under  the  present  methods  of  production  Italy  is  still  a  poor  country.  More 
than  all,  it  is  an  impecunious  country,  with  scarce,  capital  and  slow  accumula- 
tion. Individual  victories  are  difficult;  the  struggle  is  often  hard  and  bitter, 
and  the  victors  gain  a  reward  unequal  to  their  efforts. 

Prof.  Nitti,  in  the  same  work,  shows  that  the  geographical  distribu- 
tion of  wealth  in  Italy  is  unequal,  the  southern  compartimenti  being 
much  poorer  than  those  of  the  north.  He  states  that  northern  Italy 
has  36  per  cent  of  the  population,  47  per  cent  of  the  total  wealth, 
and  about  60  per  cent  of  the  national  savings,  while  southern  Italy, 
exclusive  of  Sicily  and  Sardinia,  has  26  per  cent  of  the  population, 
20.6  per  cent  of  the  wealth,  and  only  10.3  per  cent  of  the  savings. 

This,  doubtless,  fairly  represents  the  difference  between  the 
economic  situation  of  the  people  in  northern  and  southern  Italy.  In 
some  sections  of  the  north  there  is  considerable  industrial  activity 
along  various  lines  and  agricultural  conditions  are  good,  but  in  the 
south  there  has  been 'Comparatively  little  industrial  progress  and  the 
agricultural  resources  in  many  sections  are  poor,  or  poorly  devel- 
oped. Consequently  economic  conditions  in  the  southern  provinces 


«"The  Wealth  of  Italy,"  Francesco  S.  Nitti.    Translated  from  the  Italian 
by  E.  C.  Longobardi.     Rome,  1907. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  153 

are  generally  much  worse  than  in  the  north.  It  would  seem,  how- 
ever, that  in  all  parts  of  the  country  emigration  is  an  economic  ne- 
cessity ;  for,  as  shown  by  the  table  on  page  142,  there  is  a  large  annual 
movement  of  population,  even  from  the  more  prosperous  northern 
compartimenti,  and  the  fact  that  the  northern  emigration  is  largely 
seasonal  and  proceeds  to  France,  Germany,  and  Switzerland,  rather 
than  overseas,  does  not  change  the  situation. 

It  is  clear,  moreover,  that  practically  all  emigration  from  Italy 
is  primarily  due  to  purely  economic  causes.  As  in  the  case  of  many 
European  countries,  some  emigrate  to  avoid  the  performance  of  mili- 
tary duty  and  others  leave  to  escape  punishment  for  crime,  but  there 
seems  to  be  little  or  no  emigration  for  political  reasons. 

THE  AGRICULTURAL  SITUATION. 

In  the  census  of  1901,  9,611,003  persons,  or  37.8  per  cent  of  the  total 
population  of  Italy  9  years  of  age  and  over,  were  reported  as  being 
engaged  in  agriculture,  forestry,  or  cattle  raising.  Of  these,  6,411,- 
001,  or  66.7  per  cent,  were  males.  It  is  from  this  class  that  much  of 
the  emigration  from  Italy  is  drawn.  The  northern  Provinces  of 
Italy,  generally  speaking,  are  more  fertile  than  those  of  the  south,  and 
more  progressive  agricultural  methods  are  employed,  but  on  the  whole 
the  agricultural  development  of  the  country  is  admittedly  poor,  the 
returns  for  capital  invested  usually  small,  and  the  wages  paid  farm 
laborers  always  low. 

In  the  southern  provinces,  and  in  other  sections  as  well,  improved 
methods  of  agriculture  by  which  the  best  could  be  made  of  the  land 
have  as  yet  scarcely  been  introduced.  As  a  general  thing,  crude  im- 
plements are  used  and  primitive  means  of  cultivation  prevail.  To 
this  fact,  perhaps,  even  as  much  as  to  the  character  of  the  soil,  may  be 
attributed  the  small  returns  for  labor  which  are  quite  generally  re- 
ported even  in  productive  seasons.  Under  the  most  favorable  condi- 
tions, the  Commission  was  informed,  little  more  than  a  bare  living 
can  be  made  by  the  tenant  farmer  or  small  landholder,  and  his  lot  is 
hard  indeed  when  a  pest  destroys  the  olives,  as  occasionally  happens, 
or  in  the  mountain  districts  floods  and  landslides  ruin  the  vineyards 
or  the  year's  crops.  The  distance  from  markets  is  said  to  be  a  serious 
obstacle  to  success  in  many  parts  of  Italy,  an  instance  being  men- 
tioned, by  way  of  illustration,  where  a  man  was  obliged  to  make  a 
four  hours'  journey  to  sell  a  load  of  wood  valued  at  about  20  cents. 


•OUTHEEN   ITALY. 


The  Commission  was  repeatedly  informed  that,  as  a  rule,  agrarian 
irsuits  in  southern .  Italy  and  Sicily  are  not  largely  remunerative 
ven  among  the  large  landholders,  and  that  in  the  case  of  small  own- 
ers or  tenants  the  returns  are  meager  indeed.  In  one  province  of 
Sicily  the  Commission  was  told  that  a  sufficient  number  of  vines  to 
require  the  attention  of  a  man,  woman,  and  three  or  four  children 
would  ordinarily  yield  an  income  of  about  $300  a  year,  and  unless 
the  land  was  owned  by  the  person  who  occupied  it  one-half  of  the 
income  went  to  the  owner.  In  such  cases,  however,  it  was  stated  that 


154  The  Immigration  Commission. 

the  work  required  only  about  one-half  of  the  family's  time  and  the 
remainder  of  the  year  they  could  work  for  wages  elsewhere.  In  this 
province,  as  in  most  sections  of  Italy  visited  by  the  Commission, 
every  available  bit  of  ground  was  utilized,  and  although  the  work 
was  usually  done  in  a  crude  way  the  land  was  carefully  cultivated. 
It  was  stated  that  there  was  not  a  single  plow  throughout  the  whole 
of  one  province  visited,  the  ground  being  broken  by  hand  implements 
and  cultivated  in  the  same  way.  The  grain  was  reaped  with  a  sickle 
and  there  was  no  modern  farming  machinery  of  any  character. 

A  member  of  the  Commission,  accompanied  by  an  official  of  the 
Italian  emigration  bureau,  traveled  200  miles  through  Calabria  on  a 
tour  of  inspection  and  found  some  advanced  farming  methods  in 
practice.  The  physical  characteristics  of  this  province  are  wild  and 
rugged,  and  aside  from  a  small  number  of  silk  mills  and  a  few  other 
industrial  establishments  of  minor  importance  agriculture  is  almost 
the  sole  occupation  of  the  people.  Here,  as  in  other  parts  of  Italy,  a 
kind  of  intensive  cultivation  is  found.  Vineyards  and  fields  of  grain 
cover  the  mountains  from  base  to  summit,  while  every  foot  of  the 
fertile  valleys  is  tilled.  The  people  are  evidently  industrious,  and 
especially  the  women,  who  carry  burdens  up  to  200  pounds  on  their 
heads  without  seemingly  great  effort.  They  were  seen  carrying  in 
this  fashion  logs,  bags  of  grain,  fish,  water,  all  the  various  kinds  of 
crops,  besides  great  bundles  of  fagots  for  firewood. 

Emigration  from  this  section  had  been  very  large,  starting  origi- 
nally because  of  the  absolute  necessity  of  getting  bread.  Few  of  the 
emigrants  had  returned  permanently  except  those  who  had  con- 
tracted disease  and  came  back  to  their  old  home  to  die.  As  else- 
where in  southern  Italy,  the  people  practically  all  live  in  villages  and 
many  go  several  miles  to  and  from  their  work  daily,  sometimes  in 
carts  carrying  15  to  20  workers,  including  men  and  women  and  chil- 
dren of  both  sexes. 

In  the  section  of  Calabria  which  was  visited,  agriculture  is  carried 
on  by  old-fashioned  methods,  but  more  plows  were  seen  than  in  Sicily 
and  some  reapers  and  thrashing  machines  are  in  use  there.  On  con- 
siderable areas  of  the  ground,  however,  machinery  could  not  be 
utilized  to  advantage  and  there  is  much  hand  tilling.  The  houses 
along  the  way  were  not  thoroughly  inspected,  but  it  may  be  said  that 
in  general  they  are  not  clean. 

There,  as  elsewhere  in  Italy,  it  was  reported  that  wages  had  in- 
creased since  emigration  reduced  the  available  labor  supply;  the 
minimum  wage  of  a  day  laborer  being  about  two  and  one-half  lire 
(50  cents)  a  day,  where  formerly  it  was  from  60  to  80  centesemi 
(12  to  16  cents).  It  was  also  stated  that  there  had  been  a  large  in- 
crease in  the  price  of  farm  products.  The  roads  traversed  in  Calabria 
were  for  the  most  part  excellent.  They  are  largely  old  roads  but 
where  new  ones  are  constructed  they  are  up  to  the  old  standard. 
Everywhere  in  Calabria  it  was  found  that  the  people  had  a  high  re- 
gard for  America  and  Americans.  In  every  village  visited  some  one 
was  found  who  could  speak  English,  and  some  male  member  of 
every  family  interviewed  had  emigrated  to  America.  The  money 
sent  back  from  America  by  emigrants  had  been  of  great  benefit  to  the 
country  and  had  helped  to  take  the  people  out  of  the  grasp  of  usurers 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  155 

who  formerly  charged  exorbitant  rates,  sometimes  as  high  as  5  per 
cent  a  month,  for  money.  Some  returned  emigrants  had  bought 
small  parcels  of  land  and  thus  encouraged  the  tendency  to  break  up 
large  holdings.  The  money  of  emigrants  had  also  gone  into  im- 
provements until  the  section  visited  is  unquestionably  in  a  better 
condition  to  support  a  larger  population  than  eked  out  an  existence 
there  at  the  time  the  great  emigration  movement  began.  Everywhere 
the  expression  was  heard  that  emigration  was  originally  to  get  bread 
but  that  now  the  people  went  to  make  and  save  money. 

NORTHERN   ITALY. 

Following  the  investigations  in  the  agricultural  regions  of  southern 
Italy  and  Sicily  members  of  the  Commission  proceeded  to  the  more 
highly  developed  sections  in  the  northern  compartimenti.  Although 
conditions  are  generally  better  there  than  in  the  south,  the  returns  for 
labor  in  agricultural  pursuits  are  small  and  the  large  annual  emigra- 
tion to  France,  Germany,  and  Switzerland  during  the  summer  seasons 
suggests  that  the  normal  labor  supply  largely  exceeds  the  demand. 

In  Tuscany  the  Commission  was  informed  that  agricultural  condi- 
tions are  good.  There  are  many  small  as  well  as  large  landowners 
in  this  compartimento,  as  well  as  many  tenant  farmers.  There  are  a 
large  number  of  farms  of  only  2  or  3  acres,  but  the  land  is  so  care- 
fully cultivated  that  even  this  amount  will  afford  support  for  a 
peasant  family.  Many  of  the  peasants  have  to  walk  8  or  10  miles 
a  day  to  and  from  their  farms  and  the  hours  of  work  are  long.  It 
was  stated  that  wages  for  farm  hands  average  about  50  cents  a  day. 
In  speaking  of  conditions  in  this  part  of  Italy,  the  American  consul 
at  Florence,  Hon.  Jerome  A.  Quay,  said : 

The  better  class  of  people  do  not  leave  here,  because  they  are  prosperous. 
They  are  a  peaceful  people,  although  hot-headed,  and  are  well  satisfied.  There 
is  no  rioting  or  discord.  I  have  never  seen  a  drunken  man  in  Italy — that  is,  a 
native. 

In  Lombardy  the  Commission  found  that  a  large  part  of  the  land 
is  owned  by  wealthy  proprietors,  who  let  it  out  in  large  and  small 
parcels.  Some  of  the  tenants  in  turn  sublet  to  small  farmers.  The 
farm  buildings  generally  belong  either  to  the  owner  of  the  land  or  to 
groups  of  lessees  who  have  been  in  the  business  so  long  that  they  have 
established  a  practically  permanent  control  of  the  land  they  occupy. 
The  small  farmer  leasing  the  land  from  one  of  the  two  classes  above 
him  pays  rent  for  the  buildings,  the  average  rent  of  farmhouses 
being  about  $6  per  year  per  room.  There  is  no  fixed  rule  governing 
the  terms  of  contracts  for  lands,  but  most  of  the  farmers  pay  at  least 
a  portion  of  their  rent  in  produce,  and  it  is  said  that  comparatively 
few  pay  entirely  in  cash.  The  Commission  was  informed  that  the 
value  of  the  land,  generally  speaking,  was  from  $250  to  $300  per  acre, 
with  a  tendency  to  increase.  Few  of  the  small  farmers  handle  much 
money  during  the  year.  They  are  compelled  to  lead  an  exceedingly 
frugal  life,  accumulating  just  enough  produce  in  the  summer  to  carry 
them  and  their  families  through  the  winter. 

The  Commission  was  informed  that  there  is  a  growing  class  of 
farmers  who  lease  large  tracts  of  lands  and  sublet  or  employ  help  to 


156  The  Immigration  Commission. 

carry  them  on.  Some  of  these  men  are  progressive  and  are  intro- 
ducing modern  farming  machinery,  which  up  to  this  time  is  compara- 
tively little  used  or  appreciated.  The  large  renters  have  in  some 
cases  inaugurated  the  practice  of  acting  as  selling  agents  for  the  small 
tenant  farmers  who  rent  from  them.  In  such  cases  the  produce  is 
either  purchased  outright  or  sold  on  commission  by  the  lessor.  The 
Commission  wras  informed  that  the  farm  wages  in  Lombardy  average 
from  30  to  40  cents  a  day  for  men  and  15  to  25  cents  for  women  and 
children. 

Lombardy  leads  all  other  compartimenti  of  Italy  in  both  the  num- 
ber and  proportions  of  the  population  employed  in  industrial  estab- 
lishments, Tuscany  being  the  nearest  competitor  in  this  regard.  The 
manufacturing  centers  have  drawn  many  from  the  country  districts, 
but  notwithstanding  the  industrial  demand  60,955  persons  emigrated 
from  the  compartimenti  in  1907,  45.449  of  whom  went  to  other  parts 
of  Europe.  This  movement,  as  before  explained,  is  largely  confined 
to  northern  Italy,  and  although  it  is  for  the  most  part  temporary 
emigration  as  compared  with  the  transoceanic  movement  from  the 
southern  compartimenti,  it  nevertheless  strengthens  the  suggestion 
previously  made,  that  considering  its  present  status,  industrially,  agri- 
culturally, and  commercially,  all  sections  of  Italy  are  overpopulated. 


AGRICULTURAL    WAGES. 


Occasional  mention  has  been  made  of  the  wages  paid  agricultural 
laborers  in  various  sections  of  Italy  visited  by  the  Commission,  but 
these  data  are  too  fragmentary  to  be  representative  of  the  country 
as  a  whole  or  even  of  the  compartimento  or  province  to  which  the 
figures  relate.  The  range  of  wages,  according  to  the  Commission's 
informants,  varied  widely.  It  was  stated  that  in  some  districts  of 
Sicily  and  Calabria  farm  hands  received  from  14  to  20  cents  a  day,  and 
that  even  at  such  rates  employment  was  not  continuous.  The  other 
extreme  was  mentioned  by  a  Government  official  at  Rome,  who  said 
that  one  of  the  largest  landholders  in  the  vicinity  of  that  city  had 
been  compelled  to  pay  7  lire  ($1.40.)  per  day  for  labor  in  the  wheat 
fields,  but  this  was  admitted  to  be  an  exceptional  case. 

The  Commission's  information  as  a  whole,  however,  was  to  the 
effect  that  from  2  to  2-J-  lire  (40  to  50  cents)  per  day  was  the  usual 
total  wage  for  men  employed  in  agricultural  labor,  and  this  was  said 
to  be  considerably  above  the  general  wage  rate  of  previous  years,  the 
increase  in  practically  every  instance  being  charged  to  a  reduction 
of  the  labor  supply  through  emigration. 


ALLOWANCES. 


In  addition  to  the  money  wage  paid  to  agricultural  laborers  in 
Italy  some  allowance  of  food  and  drink,  or  produce,  is  usually  made. 
The  amount  and  value  of  such  allowances  vary  greatly,  but  the  fact 
that  the  practice  is  so  generally  followed  throughout  Italy  makes 
it  a  most  important  factor  in  any  discussion  of  Italian  farm  wages. 
The  custom  prevails  in  all  parts  of  the  Kingdom,  although  it  is  not 
so  nearly  universal  in  the  northern  as  in  the  central  and  southern 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  157 

compartimenti.  Out  of  102  localities  investigated  by  the  Italian 
Bureau  of  Labor,  food  or  wine  was  furnished  in  89,  -and  of  the  13 
localities  where  such  allowances,  were  not  made  all  but  1  were  in 
the  extreme  northern  compartimenti.  It  appears,  however,  that  in 
the  comparatively  few  localities  where  the  practice  is  not  followed 
money  wages  are  sufficiently  high  to  make  up  the  difference.  Allow- 
ances given  vary  from  a  little  bread  or  wine  to  full  board  and  lodg- 
ing, and  they  are  almost  always  larger  in  summer  than  in  winter.  It 
is  probably  a  fair  estimate  that  the  average  allowance  of  food  and 
drink  given  to  farm  laborers  throughout  Italy  amount  in  value  to 
about  10  cents  a  day  in  winter  and  15  a  day  in  summer,  except  in 
the  harvest  season,  when  a  greater  allowance  is  made  than  during 
other  summer  months,  because  during  the  harvest  employers  may 
furnish  three  or  four  meals  a  day  to  the  reapers  and  then  the  value 
of  food  and  drink  allowed  rises  to  25  or  even  40  cents  a  day. 

It  is  stated  that,  as  a  general  thing,  allowances  of  the  kind  referred 
to  make  the  average  actual  wages  of  farm  laborers  about  30  per  cent 
higher  than  the  average  money  wages.  An  exception  may  be  noted 
in  the  compartimento  of  the  Marches,  which  shows  a  lower  money 
wage  than  any  other  part  of  the  Kingdom,  but  it  is  said  that 
allowances  of  food,  etc.,  are  greater  there  than  in  other  comparti- 
mento. This  is  probably  accounted  for  by  reason  of  the  backward- 
ness of  the  Marches  and  the  fact  that  less  money  is  handled  than 
elsewhere,  although  actual  wages  are  said  to  be  about  as  high  there 
as  in  other  parts  of  Italy.  With  the  exception  noted,  allowances  are 
of  about  the  same  value  in  all  the  compartimenti.  The  data  at  hand 
do  not  warrant  the  drawing  of  any  distinction  in  this  regard  between 
the  northern,  central,  and  southern  sections  of  the  country,  in  spite 
of  the  fact  that  the  practice  of  making  wage  payments  entirely  in 
money  seems  to  be  confined  to  the  north,  for  even  there  it  is  so  infre- 
quently done  that  it  does  not  greatly  disturb  the  computation.  The 
figures  given  above  apply  only  to  men.  Women  and  children, 
although  their  wages  are  much  lower,  receive  much  less  in  allowances 
of  food  and  drink. 

Besides  the  allowances  of  food,  drink,  or  produce,  workmen  en- 

«  gaged  regularly  on  large  plantations  are  generally  furnished  with 
some  sort  of  habitation,  but  these  homes,  especially  in  the  south,  as  a 
rule  afford  little  more  than  mere  shelter. 

OFFICIAL   WAGE   STATISTICS. 

Although,  as  previously  stated,  the  data  collected  by  the  Com- 
mission relative  to  wages  are  fragmentary  and  therefore  unsatis- 
factory, the  general  estimate  based  upon  them  does  not  differ  greatly 
from  farm-wage  statistics  gathered  by  ihe  Italian  bureau  of  labor 
in  1905,  according  to  the  bureau's  report  upon  the  subject.  In  this 
inquiry  the  report  states  no  attempt  was  made  to  investigate  the 
rages  of  contract  or  quasi-contract  laborers  as  js  done  in  the  official 
;atistics  of  France  and  England,  but  only  the  wages  of  those  casual 
iborers  who  are  so  numerous  in  Italy  and  who  in  great  part  consti- 
ite  the  true  proletariat  among  field  laborers. 

The  result  of  the  bureau's  investigation  appears  in  part  in  the  fol- 
>wing  table,  showing  the  wages  of  male  farm  laborers  .in  every  Com- 


158 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


partimento  of  Italy  during  each  month,  and  also  the  mean  wage  for 
the  entire  year: 

TABLE  13. — Daily  wages  of  male  farm  laborers  in  Italy  (not  including  value  of 
allowances  a)  in  1905,  by  months  and  compartimcnti. 

[Compiled  from  "Dati  Statistic!  sul  Mercato  del  lavoro  in  Agricoltura  nel  1905,"  Roma,  1906.] 


Comparttmenti. 

1 

4 

1 

| 

P< 
3 

| 

1 

J>> 

"3 
i-^ 

bi 

3 

<1 

! 

1 

| 

2 

p 

pi 

3 

& 

3 

Northern  Italy: 
Piedmont.  . 

10.25 
.25 
.22 
.29 

.22 
.22 
.34 
.15 

.22 
.23 

.29 
.25 
•    .25 
.31 
.29 

.32 
.31 

\26 

$0.27 
.25 
.29 
.26 

.23 
.27 
.34 

.18 

.24 
.28 

.32 
.28 
.25 
.29 
.31 

.29 
.29 

.27 

$0.33 
.25 
.31 
.29 

.30 
.29 
.33 
.20 

.27 
.39 

.37 
.31 
.25 
.36 
.36 

.29 
.35 

.31 

$0.39 
.25 
.33 
.32 

.32 
.31 
.34 
.19 

.39 
.31 

.39 
.35 
.30 
.36 
.29 

.31 
.35 

$0.56 
.25 
.41 
.35 

.41 
.40 
.32 
.25 

.35 
.50 

.39 
.39 
.34 
.35 
.37 

.29 
.35 

$0.70 
.25 
.42 
.46 

.42 
.55 
.34 
.42 

.44 
.46 

.46 
42 
.36 
.63 
.39 

.37 
.39 

$0.70 
.34 
.40 
.41 

.54 
.61 
.34 
.43 

.51 
.68 

.42 
.33 
.34 
.41 
.41 

.35 
.43 

$0.52 
.48 
.37 
.31 

.43 
.48 
.34 
.26 

.33 

.48 

.40 
.38 
.30 
.42 
.37 

.27 

.29 

.38 

$0.46 
.48 
.24 
.29 

.35 
.39 
.24 
.24 

.23 
.34 

.32 
.33 
.33 
.33 
.39 

.28 
.31 

$0.42 
.48 
.27 
.28 

.28 
.37 
.34 
.22 

.23 
.30 

.31 

.39 
.38 
.30 
.34 

.27 
.31 

.32 

$0.40 
.48 
.25 
.26 

.28 
.29 
.34 
.21 

.23 
.31 

.32 
.32 
.35 
.32 
.35 

.28 
.34 

.31 

$0.27 
.48 
.23 
.25 

.25 
.27 
.19 
.20 

.23 
.29 

.36 
.27 
.30 
.31 
.35 

.30 
.31 

.29 

$0.25 
.25 
.22 
.25 

.22 
.22 
.19 
.15 

.22 
.23 

.29 
.25 
.25 
.29 
.29 

.27 
.29 

.26 

$0.70 
.48 
.42 
.46 

.54 
.61 
.34 
.43 

.51 

.68 

.46 
.42 
.38 
.63 
.41 

.37 
.43 

.45 

$0.44 
.38 
.31 
.34 

.35 
.39 
.32 

.26 

.33 

.39 

.37 
.33 
.32 
.36 
.35 

30 
.34 

.34 

Liguria  
Lombard  y  
Venetia  
Central  Italy: 
Emilia  
Romagna  

Tuscany  
Marches  
Perugia    (Um- 
bria)  
Roma  (Latium) 
Southern  Italy: 
A  b  r  u  z  z  i  and 
Molise  
Campania  
Apulia 

Basilicata  
Calabria  
Islands: 
Sicily  

Sardinia 

Kingdom, 
mean  

.34 

.37 

.44 

.45 

.33 

a  To  these  figures  should  be  added,  in  general,  about  30  per  cent  for  allowances  of  food,  drink,  produce,  etc. 

It  will  be  seen  from  this  table  that  wages  ranged  from  15  cents  a 
day  in  the  Marches  in  January  to  TO  cents  a  day  in  Piedmont  in 
June.  There  is  also  a  wide  difference  in  the  mean  wage  reported  for 
the  two  compartimenti,  it  being  26  cents  a  day  in  the  Marches  and  44 
cents  in  Piedmont.  It  should  be  remembered,  however,  that  in  the 
former  compartimento  cash  wages  are  relatively  low,  and  allowances 
of  food,  wine,  or  produce  relatively  high.  The  table  also  shows  that 
as  a  whole  there  is  not  a  very  wide  difference  in  farm  wages  through- 
out Italy,  which  fact  is  in  accord  with  the  Commission's  observations. 

CASH    INCOMES    OF   FARM    LABORERS. 

To  find  the  highest  possible  monthly  income  in  cash  of  the  average 
farm  laborer  in  the  year  1905,  the  Italian  bureau  of  labor  computed 
the  number  of  possible  working  days  in  each  compartimento  for  each 
month,  i.  e.,  the  number  of  days,  not  holidays,  when  the  weather  per- 
mitted farm  work.  By  multiplying  this  by  the  average  daily  wage 
for  the  given  month  in  the  given  compartimento,  the  average  income 
for  that  month  was  obtained,  assuming  that  the  laborer  worked  every 
possible  working  day.  No  statistics  of  unemployment  were  obtained. 
The  sum  of  these  products  for  each  of  the  twelve  months  then  gives 
the  average  yearly  income  for  each  compartimento  on  the  given 
assumption. 


I 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


159 


The  result  of  this  computation  is  shown  in  the  following  table : 

TABLE  14. — Annual  and  monthly  incomes  in  cash  of  male  agricultural  workers 
in  Italy  in  1905,  by  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  "Dati  Statistic!  sul  Mercato  del  lavoro  in  Agricoltura  nel  1905,"  Roma,  1906.] 


Compartimenti. 

Annual 
income. 

Minimum  monthly. 

Maximum  monthly. 

Mean 
monthly 
income. 

Month. 

Income. 

Month. 

Income. 

Piedmont 

$103.20 
78.10 
67.59 
74.  35 
71.51 
82.08 
70.98 
50.37 
63.11 
91.90 
80.53 
77.89 
75.81 
81.53 
84.78 
75.51 
89.03 

January.  .  . 
May  

$4.01 
3.01 
2.66 
2.87 
2.55 
2.44 
2.70 
1.39 

July 

$16.68 
13.05 
8..31 
8.92 
13.51 
13.37 
8.44 
9.55 
12.27 
16.89 
9.13 
8.20 
7.77 
12.54 
11.46 
8.43 
11.29 

$8.60 
6.51 
5.63 
6.20 
5.96 
6.84 
5.91 
4.20 
5.26 
7.66 
6.71 
6.49 
6.32 
6.80 
7.06 
6.29 
7.42 

Liguria  

September 
July  
...do  
do  

Lombardy  .  . 

January... 
November 
February  . 
January... 
December. 
January.  .  . 

Venetia 

Emilia  

Romagna  .... 

...do  
do 

Tuscany 

Marches  

do     . 

Perugia  (Umbria) 

November 
February  . 
January 

1.62 
4.20 
2.32 

do 

Roma  (Latium) 

do 

Abruzzi  and  Molise  

do 

Campania 

February  . 
January 

3.92 
3  26 

do 

Apulia 

do 

Basilicata  

February  . 
January... 
December. 
February  . 

1.74 
4.05 
4.34 
4.92 

June 

Calabria 

August  
June 

Sicily 

Sardinia  

July 

HOURS    OF   LABOR. 

The  following  table,  compiled  from  the  statistics  of  the  Italian 
bureau  of  labor,  shows  the  average  number  of  hours  per  day  worked 
by  farm  laborers  in  each  Italian  compartment.  The  figures  are 
obtained  by  deducting  rests  from  the  average  length  of  the  working 
day,  both  of  which  are  given  in  detail  in  the  Italian  figures.  The 
longest  hours  of  actual  labor  are  found  in  Piedmont,  in  June,  13 
hours  50  minutes;  the  shortest,  in  Apulia,  in  February,  5  hours  45 
minutes. 

TABLE  15. — Hours  of  labor  on  farms  in  Italy   (deducting  rests)   in  1905,  ~by 
months  and  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  "Dati  Statistic!  sul  Mercato  del  lavoro  in  Agricoltura  nel  1905,"  Roma  1906.] 


Compartimenti. 

Jan- 
uary. 

Feb- 
ruary. 

March. 

April. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Au- 
gust. 

Sep- 
tem- 
ber. 

Octo- 
ber. 

No- 
vem- 
ber. 

De- 
cem- 
ber. 

Mean 
for 
year. 

,     Piedmont  

H.  TO. 

8    40 
6    15 
10 
7    15 
7    10 
6 
7    50 
8 
8    30 
8    30 
7    35 
8    25 
6    50 
9 
8    05 
8    55 
8    30 

H.  TO. 

9    45 
7 
10 
8    30 
8 
8    10 
9    20 
8    40 
9 
9 
8    55 
8    10 
5    45 
9 
8    35 
9 
9 

H.     TO. 
10    40 
9 
10 
10 
9    10 
8    25 
9    50 
10    20 
10 
,10    30 
9    30 
9    35 
8    30 
9    30 
9    55 
10    15 
9    30 

H.  TO. 

11    30 
9    50 
10 
11    15 
9    40 
8    55 
10    35 
10    50 
11 
9    45 
10    30 
10 
8    30 
9    30 
10    55 
10    15 
9    30 

//.  m. 
12 
11 
15 
11    15 
11    30 
9    30 
11    30 
11    25 
11 
10    15 
11    55 
10    40 
9    25 
11    30 
10    40 
10    40 
9    30 

H.  TO. 

13    50 
11    15 
10 
11    45 
12 
10    40 
11    40 
12    10 
11 
13    10 
11    45 
12 
9    35 
11    30 
11     10 
11    05 
9    30 

H.  TO. 
13    40 
11    30 
10 
11    30 
11    50 
11    45 
11    20 
11    40 
12 
13    10 
11    45 
11    10 
9    30 
12    30 
11     10 
11    10 
9    30 

H.  TO. 

12 
11 

10    30 
10 
10    45 
10    15 
11    15 
10    15 
10    30 
10    30 
10    45 
10    45 
9    45 
10 
10 
11    30 
10 

H.  m. 
10    30 
8    55 
10    30 
9    45 
10    15 
9    30 
9    45 
9    30 
10 
10    30 
10    30 
10 
9    55 
10 
9    30 
10    15 
10 

H.  TO. 

10 

8    55 
10 
9    45 
9    45 
8    45 
9    15 
8    45 
8    15 
9    30 
8    30 
9    30 
9 
9    30 
9    45 
9    30 
9    30 

H.  TO. 
8    45 
8 
10 
8    30 
8    30 
8    15 
8    15 
8    15 
8    15 
9 
7    35 
9 
8 
9    30 
8    45 
9    45 
8 

H.  TO. 

9 
7    30 
10 
8    15 
8 
7    30 
7    45 
7    30 
8    30 
8    30 
7    30 
8    15 
7    15 
9 
8    15 
8    45 
8    . 

H.  TO. 
10    52 
9    14 
10    05 
9    44 
9    43 
9 
8    57 
9    03 
9    57 
9    20 
9    54 
9    42 
8    36 
10    07 
9    49 
10    03 
9    13 

Venetia 

!    Liguria 

•    Lombardy  ........ 

Emilia 

Romagna 

Marches  

Umbria 

Tuscany 

Latium  

Abruzzi. 

Campania 

Apulia  

Basilicata  .    . 

Calabria 

Sicily 

Sardinia. 

Average     for 
Kingdom 
(circ.)  

8 

8    30 

9    40 

10    10 

10    50 

11    25 

11    30 

10    30 

10 

9    20 

8    35 

8    10 

9    39 

160 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


WOMEN    AND    CHILD   LABOR. 


Female  and  child  labor  has  become  constantly  more  common  in 
Italian  agriculture  as  emigration  has  drawn  away  the  able-bodied 
men,  and  by  some  the  increasing  tendency  to  employ  women  as 
workers  in  the  hardest  labor  of  the  fields  is  regarded  as  an  important 
evil  effect  of  emigration.  In  North  Italy  women  and  children  are 
very  commonly  employed  in  factories,  but  seldom  as  hired  laborers 
in  agriculture,  although  they  frequently  assist  the  head  of  the  family 
in  cultivating  the  family's  own  ground. 

From  the  following  table  of  wages  of  women  and  children  on 
farms  it  will  appear  that,  while  men's  wages  have  increased  largely 
in  the  southern  compartimenti  of  large  emigration,  Basilicata,  Cala- 
bria, and  Sicily,  the  wages  of  women  have  remained  very  low.  In 
this  regard  the  south  is  still  far  behind  the  north.  The  wages  of 
children  seem  to  be  quite  as  high  in  the  south  as  in  the  north,  in  so  far 
as  they  are  employed  at  all,  but  most  northern  provinces  do  not  re- 
port child  labor  on  farms. 

TABLE  16. — Average  daily  wages  of  women  and  children  farm  hands  in  Italy  in 

1905,  by  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  "Dati  Statistic!  sul  Mercato  del  lavoro  in  Agricoltura  nel  1905,"  Roma,  1906.] 


Compartimenti.* 

Wages  of  women. 

Wages  of  children. 

Mean. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Mean. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Piedmont         .  ..        

10.24 
.21 
.22 
.23 
.14 
.19 
.23 
.17 
.15 
.14 
.15 
.12 
.15 
.15 

$0.21 
.15 
.14 
.12 
.10 
.12 
.13 
.12 
.14 
.10 
.14 
.10 
.14 
.10 

fO.27 
.25 
.29 
.30 
.24 
.45 
.37 
.37 
.19 
.20 
.17 
.14 
.17 
.17 

Venetia 

Emilia           

$0.15 

$0.10 

$0.24 

Romagna                        

.10 
.13 
.13 
.12 
.13 
.14 
.15 
.17 
.15 
.15 

.08 
.10 
.10 
.12 
.10 
.12 
.12 
.14 
.12 
.12 

.13 
.21 
.17 
.12 
.15 
.16 
.21 
.19 
.17 
.19 

Peni  "ia  (Umbrla) 

Roma  (Latium)              

Abruzzi  and  Molise 

Apulia           

Basilicata                      * 

Calabria  

Sicilv  

Sardinia        .                  

a  In  Tuscany  and  Liguria  neither  women  nor  children  are  reported  as  employed;  in  Piedmont,  Lom- 
bardy,  Venetia,  and  Romagna  no  children;  and  in  Lombardy  returns  for  women  were  only  made  for  th« 
first  half  year. 

Liguria  and  Tuscany  do  not  appear  in  the  above  table  and  it  is 
stated  that  neither  women  nor  children  are  employed  as  field  laborers 
for  wages  in  those  compartimenti.  According  to  the  Italian  bureau 
of  labor  these  are  the  only  sections  of  Italy  in  which  such  conditions 
prevail.  In  Piedmont,  Lombardy,  Venetia,  and  Romagna  women 
but  not  children  are  employed.  In  Abruzzi,  Emilia,  and  Roma 
children  are  said  to  be  employed  only  at  certain  seasons  of  the  year, 
while  in  the  remaining  compartimenti  their  -employment  is  almost 
continuous  and  they  are  found  in  most  of  the  occupations  in  which 
men  are  engaged. 

AGRICULTURAL    UNIONS. 

The  system  of  agriculture  prevailing  in  Italy,  with  many  large 
estates  and  many  laborers  hired  by  single  men  or  groups  of  men,  has 
made  possible  the  organization  of  farm  laborers  on  an  extended  scale. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  t  Europe:  Italy. 


161 


The  process  of  organization  has  been  progressing  rapidly  for  a  num- 
ber of  years,  and  has  already  become  an  important  factor  in  the 
agrarian  situation  in  Italy,  as  will  appear  from  the  number  of  unions 
recorded,  and  the  large  number  of  agriculturists  who  have  partici- 
pated in  strikes  in  recent  years.  These  data  are  shown  in  the  fol- 
lowing table : 

TABLE  17. — Agricultural  labor  unions  in  Italy,  compared  with  the  number  of 
strikes  among  agricultural  laborers,  by  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  Italia  Annuario  Statistico,  1905-1907.] 


Compartimenti. 

Population, 
1901. 

Unions,  1907. 

Strikes,  1901  to  1904, 
inclusive. 

Number. 

Member- 
ship. 

Number. 

Partici- 
pants. 

Northern  Italy: 
Piedmont 

3.317,401 
1  077  473 

84 
9 

168 
28 

626 
35 

21 
29 
52 

7 
27 
59 
3 
15 

137 
3 

18,  616 
944 
24,119 
6,205 

115,194 
3,537 
4,624 
5,883 
7,260 

995 

5,897 
37,  203 
242 
4,103 

43,  787 
904 

81 

22,415 

Lornbardy  ...        

4,  282,  728 

507 
113 

264 

22 

104,754 
44,742 

200,995 
8,297 

Venetia                                                ...  . 

3,  134,  467 

2,445,035 
2,549,142 
1,060,755 
667,  210 
1,  196,  909 

1,441,551 
3,  160,  448 
1,959,668 
490,  705 
1,370,208 

3,529,799 
791,754 

Central  Italy: 
Emilia  

Tuscany                             .  .. 

Marches 

Perugia  (Umbria)  

29 
23 

22,011 
12,953 

Rome  (Latium)                 .... 

Southern  Italy: 
Abruzzi  and  Molise 

Campania 

2 
32 
1 
1 

29 
1 

500 
46,538 
800 
50 

23,035 
50 

Apulia 

Basilicata  

Calabria  

Islands: 
Sicily  

Sardinia. 

32,475,253 

1,303 

279,513 

1,105 

487,  140 

Of  the  1,105  strikes  among  agricultural  laborers  from  1901  to  1904, 
as  shown  by  the  above  table,  a  large  majority  were  reported  as  suc- 
cessful or  partly  successful. 


HOUSING   CONDITIONS. 


The  peasants'  huts  are  mostly  low,  one-roomed  hovels,  often  with 
no  opening  except  the  door.  The  floor  is  of  earth  or  sometimes  of 
stone.  The  furniture  is  usually  one  or  two  beds,  and  a  bench  or 
wooden  chest,  or  perhaps  a  chair,  and  fires  are  built  on  a  stone  hearth. 
Such  animals  as  the  family  possesses — pigs,  chickens,  and  perhaps  a 
donkey— share  the  family  quarters,  but  there  is  said  to  be  a  growing 
tendency  to  have  separate  dugouts  or  lean-tos  for  the  donkey  and 
pigs.  But  even  in  1907,  in  the  village  of  Scilla,  Calabria,  where 
emigration  had  been  extremely  heavy  and  the  post-office  contained 
$120,000  of  emigrants'  savings,  the  Royal  Italian  Agricultural  Com- 
mission found  animals  kept  in  a  majority  of  the  houses.  The  Royal 
Commission  reports  one  farmer  who  was  more  fortunate  than  many 
in  having  a  two-roomed  house,  but  in  these  two  rooms  lived  the 
farmer,  his  wife,  an  unmarried  son  and  daughter,  a  married  son,  his 
wife,  and  a  child,  a  pig,  and  some  chickens.  Often  8  or  10  people  of 
various  ages  and  both  sexes  sleep  in  one  or  two  beds,  in  the  midst  ot 


162  The  Immigration  Commission. 

pigs  and  chickens.  Under  the  beds  are  stored  the  produce,  usually 
potatoes  and  corn,  which  must  support  the  family  through  the  winter, 
when  there  is  little  or  no  work. 

DISTANCE    FROM    WORK. 

As  elsewhere  stated,  the  peculiar  location  of  most  villages  in  Italy, 
and,  indeed,  in  Europe  generally,  is  responsible  for  one  hardship  to 
the  peasants.  In  medieval  times  it  was  unsafe  for  the  people  to  live 
in  houses  widely  separated  from  each  other;  they  were  compelled  by 
necessity  to  live  in  fortified  towns  and  villages — if  possible,  on  steep 
hillsides — where  they  were  safe  from  sudden  attack.  Though  these 
conditions  have  passed  away,  the  towns  still  remain  in  their  old  loca- 
tions, usually  on  high  hills,  and  always  at  a  considerable  distance 
from  the  fields,  where  most  of  the  inhabitants  work.  Separate  home- 
steads on  the  American  plan,  located  on  the  farms  worked  by  the 
householders,  are  very  rare.  The  laborers  often  have  to  walk  4 
or  5  miles  to  their  work  in  the  morning,  and  sometimes  they  have  to 
spend  as  much  as  four  hours  a  day  in  walking  to  and  from  the  fields 
where  they  are  employed. 

Transportation  between  towns  in  some  sections  is  very  difficult, 
owing  to  lack  of  good  roads,  although  the  main  thoroughfares  of 
Italy  are  as  a  rule  excellent.  In  the  south,  however,  there  is  only 
one  government  provincial  road  for  each  province,  and  the  other 
roads  used  by  the  peasants  are  often  grooves  that  have  been  washed 
out  by  mountain  torrents  in  the  rainy  season.  Wagons,  or  even  carts, 
are  impossible  on  some  of  these  paths,  and  in  many  cases  if  the 
peasant  wants  to  carry  a  load  to  town  he  piles  it  on  the  back  of  his 
donkey  or  the  head  of  his  wife. 

Lack  of  water  is  another  difficulty  in  many  of  these  hill  towns. 
There  are  no  pipes  for  carrying  it,  and  very  few  wells  in  the  country ; 
the  town  fountain  is  the  only  source  of  supply,  and  the  people  must 
carry  it  thence  on  their  heads  or  on  their  donkeys'  backs.  Often  it 
has  to  be  carried  1  or  2  miles. 


METHODS  OF  CULTIVATION. 


The  peasants  are  further  handicapped  by  antiquated  agricultural 
methods.  This  is  especially  true  in  the  south,  where  wheat  is  prac- 
tically the  only  grain  crop,  while  the  practice  of  planting  it  alone  year 
after  year,  without  the  use  of  fertilizers,  sterilizes  a  soil  which  in 
most  parts  of  Basilicata  and  Calabria  is  barren  enough  at  best.  The 
principal  tool  is  the  zappa,  a  kind  of  hoe,  and  sometimes  there  is  a 
spade  also.  Many  peasants  have  no  plow  at  all,  and  still  more  have 
only  a  small  and  ancient  one,  which  scarcely  does  more  than  scratch 
the  surface.  Consequently  it  is  not  uncommon  for  them  to  dig  the 
whole  field  and  prepare  it  for  planting  by  hand.  Artificial  fertilizers 
are  scarcely  used  in  the  south. 

In  the  northern  and  north-central  provinces  much  more  enlightened 
methods  are  beginning  to  be  introduced.  The  principle  of  rotation 
of  crops  is  becoming  known ;  chemical  fertilizers  are  more  and  more 
used ;  improved  agricultural  machinery  is  being  adopted ;  and  the  soil, 
naturally  more  fertile  than  that  of  some  southern  sections,  is  being 
made  to  yield  abundantly. 


.. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  163 

COST   OF   LIVING. 

While  it  is  well  known  that  the  wages  paid  farm  hands  in  Italy  are 
yery  much  lower  than  are  paid  to  the  same  class  of  labor  in  the  United 
States,  there  is  a  somewhat  prevalent  belief  that  the  wide  difference  is 
in  effect  materially  reduced  because  of  the  low  cost  of  living  in  Italy. 
As  a  matter  of  fact  there  is  but  little  difference  in  the  cost  of  food  in 
the  United  States  and  Italy,  but  there  is  a  wide  difference  in  the 
standard  of  living  in  the  two  countries,  and  because  of  this,  and  this 
alone,  the  Italian  laborer  is  able  to  exist  on  the  small  wages  earned. 
Meats,  for  instance,  are  as  high  or  higher  in  Italy,  but  this  has  little 
effect  on  the  Italian  peasants  for  they  rarely  eat  meat  because  they 
can  not  afford  it.  Sugar  is  higher  in  Italy  and  among  the  poorer 
classes  is  a  luxury,  and  even  salt,  being  a  government  monopoly,  is 
so  expensive  that  it  must  be  used  sparingly.  On  the  other  hand, 
vegetables  and  fruit  are  cheaper,  and  wine,  which  forms  an  impor- 
tant part  of  an  Italian  laborer's  food  supply,  can  be  had  at  ex- 
tremely low  prices.  Probably  a  detailed  comparison  of  all  food- 
stuffs, article  by  article,  would  show  some  advantage  in  cheapness 
on  the  side  of  Italy,  but  the  advantage  would  not  be  large. 

The  usual  diet  of  the  Italian  peasantry  consists  of  potatoes,  beans, 
spaghetti,  soup,  wine,  and  generally  polenta  (Indian  meal  mush),  and 
bread.  The  bread  is  usually  made  of  maize,  and  it  is  commonly  said 
that  only  returned  emigrants  can  afford  white  bread.  Even  in 
plentiful  times  meat  is  eaten  not  oftener  than  once  a  week.  Families 
have  to  live  most  frugally  even  during  the  summer  in  order  to  save 
enough  of  the  harvest  to  carry  them  through  the  winter.  Moreover, 
there  has  been  in  recent  years  a  large  increase  in  the  cost  of  living  in 
Italy,  for  farm  products  as  a  rule  have  greatly  risen.  From  the 
investigation  of  the  Commission  it  would  seem  that  the  cost  of  living, 
especially  in  southern  Italy,  has  risen  in  as  great  a  proportion  as 
wages,  which  is  conservatively  estimated  at  from  one-third  to  one- 
half,  while  in  some  sections  having  'a  high  rate  of  emigration  it  is 
said  that  the  increase  in  wages  in  ten  years  has  been  about  100 
per  cent. 

Viscount  Combes  de  Lestrade  °  thinks  that  in  Sicily  the  increase  is 
even  greater  than  the  increase  in  wages.  Every  town  reported  by 
the  Royal  Agricultural  Commission,  in  so  far  as  this  matter  is  men- 
tioned in  the  report,  shows  increase.  Antonio  Mangano  6  says  that 
in  visiting  Italy  recently,  after  an  interval  of  eight  years,  he  found 
that  all  foodstuffs  are  noticeably  higher;  that  wine,  for  instance,  has 
advanced  3  or  4  cents  a  liter,  and  that  vegetables  are  20  to  30  per  cent 
higher.  This  works  special  hardship  upon  some  professional  men, 
small  officials,  and  petty  proprietors,  for  they  have  had  no  corre- 
sponding increase  in  income,  as  the  peasants  have,  but  often  the 
contrary. 

FARM    WAGES   AND  EMIGRATION. 

In  the  year  1906,  according  to  the  Italian  records,  787,975  persons 
emigrated  from  Italy.  This  number  includes  the  emigration  to  other 
countries  of  Europe  and  to  African  and  Asiatic  countries  bordering 
, • • 

0  International  Economic  Review,  Aug.  13,  1007;  article  quoted^  by  Antonio 
Mangano  in  "  Effect  of  emigration  upon  Italy,"  Charities,  Vol.  XIX,  p.  1484. 

6  "  Effects  of  emigration  on  Italy,"  Charities,  Vol.  XIX,  p.  1484. 


164 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


on  the  Mediterranean  Sea  as  well  as  to  transoceanic  countries.  This 
number  represented  24  for  every  1,000  of  the  population,  and  varied 
from  8  in  Liguria  and  Sardinia  to  41  per  1,000  in  Calabria. 

The  average  yearly  wages  paid  to  farm  laborers  in  the  same  year 
varied  from  $50.37  in  the  Marches  to  $103.20  in  Piedmont,  and  the 
mean  daily  wage  from  26  cents  in  the  former  to  44  cents  in  the  latter 
compartimento.  The  average  hours  of  labor  varied  from  nine  per 
day  in  Romagna  to  ten  hours  and  fifty-two  minutes  in  Piedmont. 
The  relation  between  hours  of  labor  and  wages  and  emigration  from 
the  various  compartimenti  is  shown  by  the  following  table : 

TABLE  18. — Farm  wages  and  hours  of  labor  in  Italy  compared  with  emigration 
in  1906,  by  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  "Dati  Statistic!  sul  Mercato  del  lavoro  in  Agricoltura  nel  1905,"  Roma  1906.] 


Compartimenti. 

Average 
hours 
per  day. 

Wages 
per 
day. 

Average 
yearly 
wage. 

Emigrants. 

Number. 

Number 
per  1,000 
of  total 
popula- 
tion. 

Northern  Italy: 
Piedmont 

H.  M. 

10    52 
10      5 
9    44 
9    14 

9    43 
9      0 
9    57 
8    57 
.     9      3 
9    20 

9    54 
9    42 
8    36 
10      7 
9    49 

10      3 
9    13 

$0.44 
.38 
.31 
.34 

.35 
.39 
.32 
.26 
.33 
.39 

.37 
.33 

.32 
.36 
.35 

.30 
.34 

$103.  20 
78.10 
67.59 
74.35 

71.51 

82.08 
70.98 
50.37 
63.11 
91.90 

80.53 
77.89 
75.81 
81.53 

84.78 

75.51 
89.03 

33,885 
6,630 
20,046 
16,338 

42,681 

21 
8 
14 
32 

17 

Liguria  

Lombardy 

Venetia 

Central  Italy: 
Emilia 

Romagna  

Tuscany  

37,111 
34,501 
14,786 
18,507 

58,032 
89,769 
33,762 
18,098 
54,084 

127,603 
6,672 

14 
32 
22 
15 

40 
28 
17 
38 
41 

36 
8 

Marches 

Perugia  (Umbria)  

Roma  (Latium)  

Southern  Italy: 
Abruzzi  &  Molise 

Campania  

Apulia 

Basilicata  

Calabria    .... 

Islands: 
Sicily 

Sardinia                        .             ..          

Average  for  Kindgom  

9    39 

.34 

77.54 

24 

There  seems  to  be  no  general  connection  between  low  farm  wages 
and  emigration,  in  the  different  compartimenti.  In  Abruzzi,  Basili- 
cata, and  Calabria,  where  the  rate  of  emigration  is  the  highest,  rang- 
ing from  38  to  41  per  1,000  population,  yearly  wages  are  reported 
to  be  higher  than  in  Liguria,  where  the  rate  of  emigration  is  only  8 
per  1,000.  Of  the  eight  compartimenti,  Lombardy,  Venetia,  Emilia, 
Tuscany,  Marches,  Perugia,  Apulia,  and  Sicily,  which  show  a  yearly 
wage  below  the  average,  only  two,  Venetia  and  Sicily,  show  a  rate  of 
emigration  in  excess  of  the  average  for  the  Kingdom,  and,  as  is  well 
known,  the  emigration  movement  from  Venetia  is  largely  to  other 
European  countries,  while  Sicilian  emigrants  practically  all  go  beyond 
the  seas. 

THE    INDUSTRIAL   SITUATION. 

The  economic  question  in  Italy  is  largely  agrarian.  In  the  north, 
notably  in  Lombardy,  Tuscany,  Liguria,  and  Piedmont,  manufac- 
turing has  become  an  important  factor  in  the  situation,  but  in  the 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


165 


central  and  southern  parts  of  the  Kingdom  there  has  been  compara- 
tively little  development  along  this  line.  In  Italy  as  a  whole,  ac- 
cording to  the  census  of  1901,  9,666,467  persons  9  years  of  age  and 
over  were  engaged  in  agriculture,  forestry,  cattle  raising,  fishing, 
and  the  chase,  while  only  3,989,816  were  reported  as  engaged  in  other 
industries.  In  Germany,  where  the  agrarian  and  manufacturing  in- 
dustries are  both  highly  developed,  9,883,257  persons,  according  to 
the  occupation  census  of  1907,  were  engaged  in  agriculture,  cattlo 
raising,  forestry,  hunting,  and  fishing,  and  11,256,254  persons  in 
;<  mining,  metal  works,  and  other  industries."  This  illustrates  in  a 
general  way  the  relative  backwardness  of  Italy  in  industry. 

The  distribution  of  the  industrial  population  of  Italy  among  the 
various  industries  in  1901  was  as  follows: 

TABLE  19. — Number  of  persons  9  years  of  age  or  over  in  industrial  occupations 
in  Italy  in  1901,  by  sex  and  industry. 

[From  the  Statesman's  Year-Book  for  1907,  p.  1130.] 


industry. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

Extractive  industries                                                  

90,680 

979 

91,659 

Mineral  metal  and  mechanical  work 

326,082 

3,069 

329,  151 

Stone  clay  etc                                                 

129,  460 

5,890 

135,350 

Building                    

558,890 

5,908 

564,798 

Wood  straw  furniture      .  .        

343,139 

67,  796 

410,  935 

46,628 

12,346 

58,974 

Textile                               '.  

121,479 

661,774 

783,253 

54,496 

15,558 

70,  054 

Clothing  and  adornment                                          

574,666 

539,  177 

1,113,843 

270,431 

44,069 

314,500 

Various  industries  

102,439 

14,860 

117,299 

Total        

2,618,390 

1,371,426 

3,989,816 

Persons  engaged. 


166 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


EMPLOYEES    IN    INDUSTKIAL    ESTABLISHMENTS. 

According  to  the  Italian  "Annuario  Statistico  "  for  1907,  there 
were  117,278  industrial  establishments  in  the  Kingdom  in  1905-6. 
In  these  were  employed  1,412,262  persons,  of  whom  558,187  were 
women.  The  distribution  of  these  establishments  and  employers  by 
compartimenti  is  shown  in  the  following  table : 

TABLE  20. — Number  of  industrial  establishments  in  Italy  and  persons  employed 
in  such  establishments,  in  1905-6,  by  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  "  Italia  Annuario  Statistico,"  1905-1907.] 


Compartimenti. 

Number 
of  estab- 
lish- 
ments. 

Number  of  employees. 

Total 

per 
1,000 
popu- 
lation. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

15  years 
and  over. 

Under  15 
years. 

15  years 
and  over. 

Under  15 
years.. 

Northern  Italy: 
Piedmont  

9,611 

2,936 
17,218 
8,036 

6,840 
13,086 
4,090 
2,083 
4,060 

5,795 
10,246 
6,310 
1,917 
6,749 

16,232 
2,069 

82,  822 
39,  798 
142,  145 
62,  262 

37,  701 
88,  162 
19,  261 
14,  883 
25,  181 

16,  460 
77,332 
31,860 
4,027 
22,634 

88,  343 
19,  138 

5,886 
2,005 
18,  136 
6,850 

4,7/2 
6,210 
2,215 
324 
1,599 

1,251 
9,909 
3,307 
302 
1,993 

16,452 

855 

61,  539 
11,179 
157,  606 
44,750 

16,500 
86,  969 
11,078 
2,658 
3,241 

2,831 
24,  941 
1,633 
437 
5,430 

6,649 
2,147 

15,  124 
2,691 
39,528 
12,308 

12,022 
26,  978 
2,270 
478 
374 

339 

2,668 
720 
68 
986 

1,844 
201 

165,  371 
55,  673 
357,  415 
126,  170 

70,  995 
208,319 
34,  824 
18,  343 
30,395 

20,881 
114,850 
37,  520 
4,834 
31,043 

113,288 
22,  341 

50 
52 
83 
40 

29 
82 
33 
27 
25 

14 
36 
19 
10 
23 

32 
28 

Liguria 

Lombardy     

Venetia        

Central  Italy: 
Emilia  

Tuscany 

Marches 

Perugia  (Umbria)  

Rome  (I  atium) 

Southern  Italy: 
Abruzzi  and  Molise  

Campania 

Apulia     

Rasilicata      

Calabria 

Islands: 
Sicily            

Sardinia 

Total         

117,  278 

772,009 

82,066 

439,  588 

118,  599 

1,  412,  262 

43 

The  above  data,  arranged  according  to  the  larger  geographical 
divisions  of  Italy,  are  shown  by  the  following  table : 

TABLE  21. — Number  of  industrial  establishments  in  Italy  and  persons  employed 
in  such  establishments,  in  1905-6,  by  geographical  divisions. 


Geographical  division. 


Northern  Italy. 
Central  Italy . . 
Southern  Italy. 
Islands 


Number  of  employees. 


and  over. 


and  over. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  167 

The  tables  thus  given  do  not  of  course  represent  the  total  number 
of  persons  engaged  in  industry  in  Italy  a  but  only  such  as  are  em- 
ployed in  industrial  establishments.  They  are  interesting,  however, 
as  showing  how  small  a  proportion  of  the  total  population  is  em- 
ployed in  this  way  and  also  how  much  smaller  that  proportion  is  in 
southern  Italy  and  the  islands  of  Sicily  and  Sardinia. 

The  two  compartimenti  which  stand  ahead  of  any  others  in  per- 
centage of  industrial  workers,  Lombardy  and  Tuscany,  also  have 
much  the  largest  percentage  of  women  workers,  and  a  very  large 
percentage  of  children.  The  women  amount  to  nearly  as  many  as 
the  men  in  Tuscany  and  to  considerably  more  than  the  men  in 
Lombardy.  This  suggests  a  fact,  which  in  general  holds  good 
throughout  Italy,  that  wherever  industrial  development  is  most 
marked  female  and  child  labor  is  common.  This  is  indicated  by 
the  small  proportion  of  women  to  men  in  the  south  compared  with 
the  large  proportion  in  the  north.  In  Sicily,  where  manufacturing 
is  crude  and  still  largely  individualistic  in  methods,  the  number  of 
men  and  boys  working  in  such  occupations  exceed  the  number  in 
Piedmont,  but  of  women  and  girls  nine  times  as  many  are  so  em- 
ployed in  Piedmont  as  in  Sicily.  This  is  partly  due  to  the  differ- 
ences in  the  industries  but  by  no  means  entirely  so.  It  is  characteris- 
tic of  textile  industries  that  they  can  employ  female  labor  to  good 
advantage.  But  great  numbers  of  women  are  employed  in  other 
industries  in  Italy.  The  fact  that  the  number  of  women  employed  in 
all  industrial  labor  amounts  to  about  four-sevenths  of  the  number  of 
men  shows  that  women  must  be  generally  employed  wherever  their 
employment  is  physically  possible. 

It  is  said  that  the  labor  of  women  and  children  in  a  very  large 
degree  has  made  possible  the  present  industrial  development  of  Italy. 
Women  and  child  labor  is  regulated  under  law  of  July  7,  1907,  which 
provides  briefly  as  follows : 6 

1.  Twelve  years  is  minimum  age  of  admission  to  industrial  estab- 
lishments generally. 

2.  For  underground  work  in  mines  the  minimum  age  is  13  if  steam, 
electricity,  or  similar  power  is  used,  otherwise  it  is  14. 

3.  Children  under  15  years  of  age  and  women  under  21  may  not 
be  employed  at  work  that  is  too  fatiguing,  dangerous,  or  unhealthful, 
even  though  such  work  is  carried  on  in  establishments  not  subject  to 
the  law. 

4.  In  the  sulphur  mines  of  Sicily  children  14  years  of  age  may  be 
employed  to  fill  and  empty,  ovens. 

5.  Night  work  is  prohibited  for  male  persons  under  15  years  of 
age  and  for  all  female  persons.     The  .prohibition  of  night  work  for 
females  may  be  suspended  at  certain  seasons  of  the  year  and  in  cases 
where  there  would  otherwise  be  an  inevitable  loss. 

6.  Children  between  12  and  15  must  not  be  employed  more  than 
eleven  hours  per  day.     Female  persons  of  whatever  age  must  not  be 
employed  for  more  than  twelve  hours. 

°See  table,  p.  165. 

*  Child  Labor  Legislation  in  Europe.    Bulletin  No.  89,  United  States  Bureau 
f  Labor. 

79524°— VOL  4—11 12 


168 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


INDUSTRIAL  DEVELOPMENT. 

Statistics  relative  to  the  development  of  some  of  the  leading 
industries  in  Italy  show  that  the  increase  in  manufacturing,  al- 
though marked  in  some  lines,  has  not  been  extensive  as  a  whole. 
However,  progress  is  being  made  in  practically  all  industries  for 
which  data  are  available  and  the  outlook  is  regarded  as  encouraging. 
The  following  tables  compiled  from  the  Italian  Statistical  Yearbook 
for  1905-1907  show  the  status  of  several  representative  industries  in 
the  Kingdom  at  different  periods  of  time : 

TABLE  22. — Number  of  establishments,  number  of  employees,  and  value  of  prod- 
ucts, in  several  representative  industries  in  Italy  in  the  years  specified. 

[Compiled  from  "  Italia  Annuario  Statistico,"  1905-1907.] 
MINES. 


Year. 


Number. 


Value  of 
products. 


Number  of 
employees. 


1896 1,052  $9,451,037  46,352 

1,404  13,858,186  57,849 

1901 1,619  16,346,113  67,665 

1904 1,546  16,444,552  62,385 

1906 1,294  17,894,495  62,558 

QUARRIES. 

1890 5,925  $9,210,020  39,706 

1901 11,441  7,179,967  56,948 

1906 11,565  9,280,599  65,648 

FURNACE   AND   KILNS. 

1890 12,678  $19,881,113  85,061 

1901 11,269  23,204,838  94,313 

1906 11,344  26,438,743  96,3CO 

CHEMICAL  FACTORIES. 

1893 281  $5,043,791  3,275 

1901 412  12,311,482  7,393 

1906 , 268  19,748,552  10,397 

PAPER   MILLS. 

1876 521  .  17,312 

1896 1...  244  15,766 

405  19,088 


SILK  MILLS. 


1876. 
1891. 
1903. 


3,829 


2,084 
2,162 


200,393 
172,356 
191,654 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


169 


TABLE  22. — Number  of  establishments,  number  of  employees,  and  value  of  prod- 
ucts, in  several  representative  industries  in  Italy  in  the  years  specified — Con- 
tinued. 

COTTON  FACTORIES. 


Year. 

Number. 

Number  of 
active 
spindles. 

Num- 
ber of 
active 
looms. 

Number  and  age  of  employees. 

Over  15. 

Under  15. 

Total. 

Male. 

Female. 

Male. 

Female. 

1876 

650 
727 
769 

715,  304 
2,111,170 
1,933,953 

26,778 
78,306 
78,700 

15,558 
34,738 
34,  335 

27,309 
82,932 
82,056 

1] 
4,358 
4,739 

,174 
13,  170 
17,750 

54,041 
135,  198 
138,880 

1900 

1903  

LINEN,  HEMP,  JUTE,  AND  MIXED  STUFFS-FACTORIES. 


1876 

241 

50  149 

5  378 

4  578 

5  959 

2  247 

12  784 

1903   

309 

106,  878 

8,016 

8,571 

13  147 

1,047  [   2,920 

25,685 

These  tables  seem  to  indicate  that  while  the  industries  considered 
have  grown  to  a  greater  or  less  extent  during  the  period  of  time 
covered,  their  progress,  as  a  whole,  has  perhaps  not  kept  pace  with 
industrial  progress  in  other  countries.  There  was  a  large  increase  in 
the  value  of  mine  products,  as  well  as  the  number  of  persons  em- 
ployed in  mining  between  1896  and  1906,  but  the  value  of  quarry 
products  was  practically  the  same  in  1906  as  in  1890,  although  there 
was  a  large  increase  in  the  number  of  persons  employed. 

The  output  of  furnaces  and  kilns  increased  in  value  from  1890  to 
1906,  and  the  number  of  employees  was  considerably  larger  in  the 
latter  year.  The  value  of  chemical  factory  products  and  the  number 
of  persons  employed  in  that  industry  increased  more  than  threefold 
from  1893  to  1906,  but  the  number  of  persons  employed  in  paper  mills 
was  but  little  larger  in  1903  than  in  1876. 

The  number  of  silk  mills  and  silk  mill  employees  decreased  from 
1876  to  1903,  but  there  was  a  considerable  increase  in  the  product 
during  that  period.  The  number  of  silk  mills  in  operation  and  the 
number  of  persons  employed  in  that  industry  are  not  available  for 
the  years  following  1903,  but  the  output  increased  from  5,651,000 
kilograms  in  1904  to  6,047,000  in  1906. 

Between  1876  and  1903  the  number  of  active  spindles  in  Italian 
cotton  factories  increased  from  715,304  to  1,933,953,  and  the  number 
of  persons  employed  was  about  two  and  one-half  times  greater  in  the 
latter  year.  It  is  interesting  to  note  from  the  table  relative  to  cotton 
factories  that,  between  1900  and  1903,  the  number  of  adults  employed 
decreased  while  the  number  of  children  increased.  In  1900,  13,170 
girls  under  15  years  of  age  were  employed,  and  in  1903  the  number 
was  17,750.  Women  and  children  constituted  more  than  75  per  cent 
of  the  total  employees  in  the  latter  year. 

Among  the  industries  above  mentioned  cotton  factories  employ  a 
much  larger  number  of  persons  than  any  of  the  others  with  the  ex- 
ception of  silk  mills.  Nevertheless  the  industry  is  not  an  extensive 
one  in  Italy,  for,  according  to  the  United  States  census  of  1900,  the 
city  of  Fall  River,  Mass.,  has  more  than  one  and  one-half  times  as 
tnany  spindles  as  the  whole  Kingdom. 


170 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


In  the  other  textile  establishment  combined  under  linen,  hemp,  jute, 
and  mixed  stuffs,  it  will  be  noted  that  the  number  of  active  spindles 
and  persons  employed  a  little  more  than  doubles  between  1876  and 
1903. 

INDUSTRIAL    WAGES    AND    HOURS    OF    LABOR. 

No  general  or  summary  data  of  wages  and  hours  of  labor  in  indus- 
trial pursuits  in  Italy  are  given  by  the  Italian  bureau  of  labor,  but 
detailed  reports  in  this  regard  are  available  for  a  few  typical  estab- 
lishments in  some  of  the  more  important  industries.  From  these  re- 
ports, as  well  as  from  some  unofficial  sources,  are  compiled  the  follow- 
ing table,  which  doubtless  is  a  fairly  accurate  statement  of  wages  and 
hours  of  labor  in  the  industries  under  consideration.  Wherever  pos- 
sible the  minimum,  maximum,  and  mean  wage  is  given  for  1900-1903 
and  for  1907,  during  which  period  the  emigration  movement  from 
Italy  was  very  large. 

TABLE  23.— -Wages  and  hours  of  labor  in  various  industries  in  Italy,  "by  com- 
partimenti  and  occupation. 

MINES. 


Compartimenti  and  occupation. 

Mean  daily 
wage  in— 

1901. 

1907. 

Romagna  and  the  Marshes  (sulphur  mines): 

JO.  44 
.32 

.83 
.52 

.47 
.55 
.40 
.56 

$0.56 
.42 

.83 
.58 

.47 
.58 
.42 
.58 

Sicily  (sulphur  mines): 

Sardinia: 
Miners        

Carters                                

Machinists  

Hours  of  labor  are  generally  8  for  underground  men  and  10  for  outside  men. 
QUARRIES  (8  ESTABLISHMENTS). 


Occupation. 

Daily  wages  in  1902-3. 

Daily  wages  in  1907. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Mean. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Mean. 

Miners  and  di^^ers               

$0.39 
.38 

$0.81 
.66 

$0.58 
.50 
.45 

$0.48 
.48 
.42 

$0.96 
.75 
.67 

$0.70 
.65 
.55 

Hours  of  labor  average  about  9  daily. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


171 


TABLE  23. — Wages  and  hours  of  labor  in  various  industries  in  Italy,  by  coin- 
partimenti   and   occupation — Continued. 

PRINTING  AND  BINDING. 


Occupation. 

Daily  wages  in  1907. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Mean. 

Compositors: 

$0.71 
.13 
.71 
.45 
.15 

$1.60 
.60 
1.28 
.89 
.40 

$1.00 

.39 
1.00 
.80 
.30 

Apprentices...           

Mechanics  ^.  

Binders  (male)  

Female  employees  .         

Increase  in  wages  over  1901  said  to  be  from  10  to  20  per  cent. 
Hours  of  labor,  9  to  10  daily. 

FOUNDRIES    AND    MACHINE    SHOPS     (14    ESTABLISHMENTS    CONSIDERED,    BESIDES   SOME 

GENERAL   REPORTS.) 

The  rate  of  wages  paid  employees  in  foundries  and  machine  shops 
varies  greatly,  according  to  the  nature  of  work  done,  and  no  accurate 
summary  can  be  made  with  the  data  at  hand.  In  the  various  grades 
of  work  the  mean  wage  ranges  from  about  50  cents  to  $1.25,  or  even 
higher,  but  the  commonest  mean  is  60  to  90  cents.  It  is  stated  that 
wages  increased  from  10  to  25  per  cent  from  1901  to  1907,  according 
to  the  nature  of  the  work  done.  Hours  of  labor  are  ordinarily  10 
daily. 

CHEMICAL   FACTORIES. 

Average  daily  wages,  60  to  80  cents. 

BUILDING  TRADES. 


Occupation. 

Daily  wages  in  1904. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Mean. 

Masons  

$0.30 
.30 

$1.20 
1.40 

$0.  50-80.  60 
.60-  .70 
.60-  .70 
.80-1.00 
.40-  .50 

Carpenters                                                                 

Stonecutters  (in  Turin) 

BRASS  WORKERS  AND  FOUNDERS. 

Mean  daily  wages  in  1903,  60  cents  to  $1. 

PAPER  MILLS  (2  ESTABLISHMENTS). 


Sex  of  employees. 


Establishment  A 
Establishment  B 
female: 

Establishment  A 
Establishment  B 


Daily  wages  in  1907. 


Minimum.    Maximum.       Mean. 


\         $0.37 


.16 
.40 


$0.64 


.21 
.44 


$0.46 
.58 


Increase  in  wages  over  1902:  Establishment  A,  men   about  10  per  cent;  women,  none.    Establishment 
very  slight;  not  over  5  per  cent  for  both  sexes.    Hours  of  labor,  10J  daily  in  both  plants. 


172 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


WOODWORKERS  (2  ESTABLISHMENTS). 

Daily  wages  in  1907. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Mean. 

Woodworkers     .                                                 .        

$0.33 

$1.00 

fO.55 

Increase  in  wages  over  1901,  5  to  10  per  cent  in  1  establishment. 
Hours  of  labor,  8  to  11  daily,  according  to  season. 

FURNITURE  FACTORY  (1  ESTABLISHMENT). 


Sex  of  employees. 

Daily  wages  in  1907. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Mean. 

Male            

$0.58 
.19 

$0.93 
.35 

Female                                               

Increase  in  wages  over  1901,  25  per  cent  for  males;  somewhat  less  for  females. 
Hours  of  labor,  10  to  10$  daily. 

SILK  MILLS  (3  ESTABLISHMENTS  OFFICIALLY  REPORTED,  BESIDES  VARIOUS  NON- 
OFFICIAL  REPORTS). 

Sex  of  employees. 

Daily  wages  in  1907. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Mean. 

Male                           

$0.40 
.10 

$0.60 
.25 

Female                                               .      .......    ... 

Comparatively  few  men  are  employed.    Adult  females  are  paid  not  less  than  16  cents,  and  their  average 
wage  is  about  20  cents  per  day.    There  has  been  no  important  change  in  wages  since  1901. 
Hours  of  labor  average  from  10  to  11  daily. 

WOOLEN  FACTORIES  (2  ESTABLISHMENTS). 


Sex  of  employees. 

Daily  wages  in  1907. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Mean. 

Male                 

$0.46 
.30 

$1.00 
.53 

$0.70 
.40 

Female                          ....    

Increase  in  wages  over  1901:  Males,  10  per  cent;  females,  15  per  cent.    Unofficial  data  from  various  sources 
indicate  that  the  reported  wages  for  1907  are  considerably  above  the  average  for  the  Kingdom. 
Hours  of  labor  in  two  factories  reported,  10  daily. 

COTTON  MILLS. 


Sex  of  employees. 

Daily  wages  in  1907. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Mean. 

$0.38 
.15 

$0.77 
.40 

$0.00 
.30 

Increase  in  wages  over  1901:  Male,  25  per  cent;  female,  15  per  cent. 
Hours  of  labor  average  11  daily. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  173 


LINEN  AND  HEMP  MILLS. 


Sex  of  employees. 

Daily  wages  in  1907. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Mean. 

Male   .                                                 .... 

$0.47 
.20 

$0.77 
.38 

$0.60 
.30 

Increase  in  wages  over  1901:  Male,  25  per  cent  or  more;  female,  everywhere  considerable;  in  some  places 
as  high  as  100  per  cent. 
Hours  of  labor  average  about  10$  daily. 


FEMAL-E    TEXTILE    WORKERS. 

Of  155,000  women  and  girls  employed  in  textile  industries  in  No- 
vember, 1903,  according  to  "  La  Douna  ell'  Industria  Italiana,"  bul- 
letin of  the  Italian  bureau  of  labor,  over  67,000  were  paid  1  lira  (20 
cents)  per  day  or  less,  while  about  the  same  number  received  over 
1  lira,  but  not  over  1.50  lire  (30  cents).  According  to  this  statement 
over  86  per  cent  of  the  female  textile  workers  received  30  cents  or 
less  per  day  in  the  year  mentioned. 

SKILLED    MECHANICS    IN    CITIES. 

• 

A  summary  of  the  data  available  shows  that  in  the  larger  cities 
skilled  workmen,  such  as  master  mechanics  and  those  engaged  in 
building  trades,  etc.,  are  usually  able  to  command  from  $1  to  $1.50 
per  day,  while  in  the  smaller  cities  from  60  cents  to  $1  is  the  usual 
range. 

COMMON    UNSKILLED    LABOR. 

From  such  information  as  is  available  it  would  appear  that  the 
average  wages  of  common  unskilled  workers  in  Italian  cities  and 
towns  is  about  50  cents  per  day.  The  Commission  was  informed  that 
60  cents  was  the  usual  rate  in  Home  and  Milan,  and  from  40  to  60 
in  Turin. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  point  out  that  much  or  the  above  data  is  based 
on  a  very  limited  number  of  establishments  and  consequently  can 
not  be  accepted  as  representing  the  situation  in  the  Kingdom  as  a 
whole  The  figures  are,  however,  practically  all  derived  from  offi- 
cial Italian  publications,  and  may  be  taken  as  representative  of  the 
field  covered  in  each  industry.  As  such  they  shed  light  on  the  sub- 
ject under  consideration.  .  . 

It  will  be  noted  that  wages  paid  industrial  workers  especially  in 
the  more  or  less  skilled  occupations,  as  a  rule  are  considerably  higher 
than  are  paid  agricultural  laborers,  but  all  things  considered  it  seems 
improbable  that  the  difference  much  more  than  compensates  for  the 
higher  cost  of  living  in  industrial  communities.  Certainly  the  wages 
paid  and  the  opportunity  to  work  afforded  to  skilled  laborers  is  not 
sufficiently  high  to  prevent  the  emigration  of  this  class,  for  from 
July  1,  1898,  to  June  30,  1909,  &6,854,  or  16.6  per  cent,  of  all  North 
Italians,  and  199,024,  or  11.6  per  cent,  of  all  South  Italians,  admitted 
to  the  United  States  were  classed  as  skilled. 


174  The  Immigration  Commission. 


LIVING    CONDITIONS. 


Living  conditions  are  generally  better  among  industrial  workers 
than  among  the  lower-paid  agricultural  laborers,  but  the  range  of 
wages  paid  is  sufficient  to  show  that  the  standard  is  low  compared 
with  the  standard  usually  found  in  American  communities.  As 
previously  stated,  the  cost  of  food  does  not  differ  greatly  in  Italy  and 
the  United  States.  James  E.  Dunning,  American  consul  at  Milan, 
stated  that  in  1907  the  cost  of  commodities  was  higher  in  that  city 
than  in  the  United  States.  Sugar  was  quoted  at  16  cents  a  pound ; 
beefsteak  from  26  to  30  cents ;  milk  7  and  8  cents  a  quart,  while  coffee, 
tea,  beans,  chocolate,  cheese,  and  bread  cost  as  much  or  more  than  in 
the  United  States.  All  observers  agree  that  the  poor  in  Italy  live 
miserably.  Among  industrial  workers  as  a  rule  meat  is  a  luxury, 
and  vegetables,  soups,  macaroni,  and  bread  are  the  chief  articles  of 
diet.  Few  of  the  conveniences  of  life  are  within  the  people's  means, 
the  bare  necessities  have  to  suffice,  and  the  quality  of  what  they  can 
get  is  usually  of  the  poorest. 

An  illustration  of  the  standard  of  living  even  in  one  of  the  most 
progressive  sections  of  Italy  is  contained  in  the  following :  Members 
of  the  Commission  visited  a  cotton  mill  near  Milan,  where  a  large 
dormintory  was  being  erected  by  the  proprietor  for  girls  and  women 
employed  in  the  mill.  In  this  building,  which  the  Commissioners 
found  spacious  and  very'well  equipped,  the  proprietor  stated  that  he 
would  furnish  full  board  and  room  for  8  cents  a  day.  This  was  in- 
tended to  merely  cover  the  cost,  but  in  view  of  the  fact  that  food 
supplies  are  not  much,  if  any,  lower  in  Italy  than  in  the  United 
States,  it  follows  that  at  8  cents  a  day  for  room  and  meals  the  actual 
standard  of  living  would  necessarily  be  very  low  indeed. 


L/YBOR   UNIONS  AND   STRIKES. 


In  recent  years  the  labor-union  movement  has  grown  rapidly  and 
to  large  proportions  among  the  industrial  as  well  as  the  agricultural 
workers  of  Italy,  and  it  is  said  that  the  activities  of  the  unions  have 
helped  to  advance  wages  in  both  fields.  In  1907,  according  to  "  An- 
nuario  Statistic©  "  for  1905-1907,  there  were  2,950  industrial  unions  in 
the  Kingdom,  with  a  total  of  362,533  members.  From  1901  to  1904, 
inclusive,  there  were  3,032  industrial  strikes,  involving  621,737  work- 
ers, and  in  the  various  years  from  63  to  80  per  cent  of  the  strikes 
were  reported  as  "  successful  "  or  "  partly  successful." 


INDUSTRY  AND  EMIGRATION. 


Only  43  persons  out  of  every  1,000  of  the  total  population  of  Italy 
were  employed  in  industrial  establishments  in  1906.  In  the  same  year 
24  out  of  every  1,000  of  population  emigrated.  Consequently,  Italy 
lost  in  a  single  year  through  emigration  nearly  one-half  as  many 
people  as  were  employed  in  the  mines,  quarries,  and  factories  of  the 
kingdom.  This  comparison  is  shown  in  detail  in  the  table  next 
presented. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


175 


TABLE  24. — Number  cf  industrial  establishments  and  employees  in  Italy   com- 
pared with  emigration  from  Italy,  in  1906,  by  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  "  Italia  Annuario  Statistico,"  1905-1907.] 


Compartimenti. 

Number  of 
industrial 
establish- 
ments. 

Employees. 

Emigrants. 

Number. 

Per  1,000  of 
total  popu- 
lation. 

Number. 

Per  1,000  of 
total  popu- 
lation. 

Northern  Italy: 
Piedmont  

9,611 
2,936 
17,  218 
8,036 

6,840 
13,086 
.  4,  090 
2,  083 
4,060 

'  5,795 
10,  246 
6,310 
1,917 
6,749 

16,  232 
2,069 

165,371 
55,673 
357,  415 
126,  170 

70,995 
208,319 
'    34,  824 
18,  343 
30,  395 

20,881 
114,850 
37,  520 
4,834 
31,043 

113,288 
22,341 

50 
52 
83 
40 

29 
82 
33 
27 
25 

14 
36 
19 
10 
23 

32 
28 

33,885 
6,630 
20,046 
16,338 

42,681 
37,  111 
34,  501 
14,786 
18,507 

58,032 
89,769 
33,  762 
18,098 
54,084 

127,603 
6,672 

21 

8 
14 
32 

17 
14 
32 
22 
15 

40 
28 
17 
38 
41 

4 

8 

Liguria  .... 

Lombardy  

Venetia  

Central  Italy: 
Emilia  

Tuscany..  . 

Marches  

Perugia  (Umbria)  

Roma  (  Latium)  

Southern  Italy: 
Abruzzi  et  Molise  

Campania 

Apulia  

Basilicata  

Calabria  

Islands: 
Sicily  

Sardinia 

Total  

117,  278 

1,  412,  262 

43 

787,977 

24 

It  will  be  seen  that  as  a  rule  the  heaviest  emigration  originated  in 
the  compartimenti  where  the  proportion  of  industrial  workers  was 
smallest.  This  is  true  of  Abruzzi,  Basilicata,  and  Calabria,  where  the 
number  of  emigrants  was  relatively  greatest  and  the  proportion  of 
industrial  workers  lowest.  Of  the  four  northern  compartimenti, 
Venetia  has  much  the  smallest  proportion  of  persons  employed  in 
industrial  establishments  and  by  far  the  highest  proportion  of  emi- 
grants. Lombardy  and  Tuscany  have  the  highest  proportion  of 
industrial  workers  and  the  lowest  proportion  of  emigrants  of  any 
compartimenti  of  continental  Italy  excepting  Liguria.  The  small 
proportion  of  emigrants  from  the  latter  compartimento  is  in  part 
accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  25.5  per  cent  of  the  population  there  is 
in  the  commune  of  Geneva,  and  it  is  well  known  that  comparatively 
little  Italian  emigration  originates  in  the  large  cities.  The  same  con- 
dition is  found  in  Koma  (Latium) ,  where  38.7  per  cent  of  the  popula- 
tion in  1901  was  found  in  the  commune  of  Kome.  From  this  it  seems 
clear  that  industrial  conditions  to  a  great  degree  regulate  the  present 
emigration  movement  from  Italy. 


CHAPTER  IV. 
CHARACTER  OF  ITALIAN  IMMIGRATION. 

NORTH  AND  SOUTH  ITALIANS. 

Ethnologically  there  are  two  distinct  branches  of  the  Italian  race—^ 
the  North  and  the  South  Italian.  In  the  "  Dictionary  of  Races  or 
Peoples"0  which  forms  a  part  of  the  Commission's  general  report, 
these  branches  are  fully  discussed  from  a  scientific  standpoint  and 
consequently  an  extended  description  is  unnecessary  here.  It  may  be 
briefly  said,  however,  that  the  North  Italians  have  a  large  admixture 
of  Celtic  and  ^  Teutonic  blood,  while  the  South  Italians  are  largely 
a  mixed  type  in  which  Greek,  Spanish,  Saracen,  and  other  blood  is 
more  or  less  prominent.  As  previously  stated  the  Bureau  of  Immi- 
gration classification,  which  is  generally  accepted  as  the  correct  one, 
considers  as  North  Italians  all  persons  who  are  natives  of  the  corii- 
partimenti  of  Piedmont,  Lombardy,  Venetia,  and  Emilia,  and  as 
South  Italians  those  native  to  Liguria,  Tuscany,  Marches,  Perugia 
(Umbria),  Roma  (Latium)^Abruzzi  and  Molise,  Campania,  Apulia, 
Basilicata,  Calabria,  and  the  islands  of  Sicily  and  Sardinia.  The 
infusion  of  the  blood  of  so  many  races  has  produced  various  types 
in  the  different  sections  of  Italy.  It  is  said  that  the  people  of  Pied- 
mont have  the  largest  admixture  of  Celtic  blood,  and  that  they  re- 
semble the  French  in  many  respects.  The  Lombards  have  both 
Teutonic  and  Celtic  strains  and  consequently  the  men  are  generally 
tall  and  of  powerful  build  as  compared  with  most  other  Italians, 
while  fair  hair  and  blue  eyes  frequently  occur.  A  different  type 
occurs  in  the  Sicilians,  who  are  said  to  be  largely  a  mixture  of 
Italian,  Greek,  Spanish,  and  Arab  with  some  infusion  of  Teutonic 
blood.  Sardinians  have  a  considerable  infusion  of  Spanish  blood, 
while  the  Neopolitans  are  said  to  incline  slightly  toward  the  African 
or  negro  type.  The  South  Italian  as  a  general  thing  is  smaller  in 
statue  than  those  of  the  north,  although  in  Calabria  and  Basilicata 
where  Greek  blood  is  prominent  some  of  the  men  are  of  powerful 
build. 

To  the  student  of  Italian  immigration  to  the  United  States  the 
South  Italian  movement  numerically  and  otherwise  is  of  by  far 
the  greatest  importance.  In  the  11  years  ending  June  30,  1909,  83.4 
per  cent  of  the  total  immigration  of  Italians  was  made  up  of  South 
Italians,  the  number  admitted  during  that  period  being  1,719,260, 
while  the  number  of  North  Italians  admitted  was  only  341,888.  The 
numerical  preponderance  of  the  former  race  when  compared  with  the 
latter  of  course  adds  vastly  to  its  relative  importance  in  this  respect, 
but,  in  popular  opinion  at  least,  it  is  the  character  rather  than  the 

0  Dictionary  of  Races  or  Peoples.  Reports  of  Immigration  Commission,  vol. 
&  (S.  Doc.  No.  662,  61st  Cong.,  3d  sess.) 

177 


178 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


number  of  South  Italians  which  constitutes  the  real  problem.  It 
is  generally  accepted  that  the  North  Italians  make  a  most  desirable 
class  of  immigrants.  They  are  more  progressive,  enlightened,  and  it 
is  claimed  are  more  easily  assimilated  than  their  southern  country- 
men, who,  because  of  their  ignorance,  low  standards  of  living,  and 
the  supposedly  great  criminal  tendencies  among  them  are  regarded 
by  many  as  racially  undesirable. 

Something  of  the  character  of  Italian  immigrants  may  be  presented 
statistically  as  follows: 


SEX. 

Reliable  data  concerning  the  sex  distribution  among  earlier  immi- 
grants are  not  available,  but  a  computation  from  old  records  shows 
that  from  July  1,  1819,  to  June  30,  1910,  about  78  per  cent  of  all 
immigrants  from  Italy  to  the  United  States  were  males,  indicating, 
as  elsewhere  suggested,  essentially  a  movement  of  individuals  rather 
than  families.  For  the  twelve  years  ending  June  30,  1910,  these 
data  are  available  for  North  and  South  Italian  immigrants  separately, 
and  it  is  shown  that  during  this  period  78.3  per  cent  of  the  former 
and  78.6  per  cent  of  the  latter  were  males,  indicating  litle  change  in 
this  regard  in  recent  years. 

AGE. 

The  Bureau  of  Immigration  and  Naturalization  records  show  that 
an  overwhelming  proportion  of  Italian  immigrants  admitted  to  the 
United  States  are  between  the  ages  of  14  and  44  years.  During  the 
eleven  years  ending  June  30,  1909,  87  per  cent  of  the  North  Italians 
and  82.4  per  cent  of  the  South  Italians  so  stated  their  age.  In  both 
races  the  proportion  under  14  years  was  considerably  greater  than 
the  proportion  above  45  years. 

The  following  table  shows  the  number  and  proportion  of  each  race 
in  the  various  age  groups  for  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909,  inclusive : 

TABLE  25. — Italian  immigration  to  the  United  States,  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909, 

inclusive,  by  age  groups. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner  General  of  Immigration.] 


Number. 

Per  cent. 

Race  or  people. 

Under  14 
years. 

14  to  44 

years. 

45  years 
and  over. 

Under  14 

years. 

14  to  44 
years. 

45  years 
and  over. 

Italian  North              

30,  645 

297,442 

13,  801 

9  0 

87  0 

4  0 

201,  492 

1,416,075 

101  693 

11  7 

82  4 

5  a 

OCCUPATIONS    OF    ITALIAN    IMMIGRANTS. 

Nearly  all  Italians  who  come  to  the  United  States  as  immigrants 
are  drawn  from  the  laboring  classes  of  their  native  country,  and  the 
great  majority  are  rated  as  common  or  farm  laborers.  The  follow- 
ing table  shows  the  occupational  status  of  both  North  and  South 
Italian  immigrants  for  the  eleven  years  ending  June  30,  1909 : 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy 


179 


TABLE  26.— Italian  immigration  to  the  United  States,  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909, 
inclusive,  by  occupations. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner  General  of  Immigration.] 


Race. 

Profes- 
sional. 

Skilled. 

Farm 
laborers. 

Farmers. 

Common 
laborers. 

Servants. 

Other 
occupa- 
•tion. 

No 

occupa- 
tion. 

Italian,  North 

0  9 

16  6 

15  0 

Italian,  South  

3 

11  6 

24  4 

7 

6.3 

1.7 

20.2 

1.0 

23.3 

It  will  be  noted  that  the  proportion  of  skilled  workers  is  larger 
and  the  proportion  of  farm  laborers  considerably  smaller  among 
North  Italians  than  among  those  from  the  south.  This  is  natural,  for 
the  reason  that  the  southern  compartimenti  are  so  poorly  developed 
in  an  industrial  way  that  the  proportion  of  skilled  laborers  in  the 
population  is  small  and  the  proportion  of  agricultural  workers  large. 
The  proportion  of  servants  in  the  Italian  movement  as  a  whole  is 
small  when  compared  with  immigration  from  some  other  European 
countries,  and  the  proportion  of  farmers  is  also  much  smaller.0  The 
proportion  of  those  rated  as  having  no  occupation,  which  classifica- 
tion includes  for  the  most  part  women  and  children,  is  somewhat 
Jarger  among  South  Italians,  and  this  may  be  considered  as  showing 
that  the  number  of  families  is  relatively  greater  among  the  latter. 
This  is  also  indicated  by  a  larger  proportion  of  females  among  South 
Italian  immigrants. 

PHYSICAL   CONDITION. 

Generally  speaking,  both  branches  of  the  Italian  race  are  by  nature 
strong,  vigorous,  and  capable  of  great  physical  endurance.  As  a  race 
they  have  few  vices  which  lead  to  physical  deterioration.  Drunken- 
ness is  rare  among  them,  and  the  out-of-door  country  life,  which  is 
the  lot  of  the  great  majority  of  the  emigrating  classes,  has  kept  them 
largely  free  from  deteriorating  influences.  Moreover,  the  immigra- 
tion movement  to  the  United  States  is  recruited  from  the  young  and 
most  vigorous  element  in  the  Italian  population.  In  fact,  the  situa- 
tion from  the  Italian  standpoint  can  not  be  better  described  than  by 
quoting  from  the  Sicilian  newspaper  which,  in  discussing  the  emigra- 
tion from  that  island,  said :  "  It  is  the  strongest  and  best  arms  that 
are  leaving  us." 

As  explained  elsewhere,6  United  States  Public  Health  and  Marine- 
Hospital  surgeons  are  stationed  at  Italian  ports  for  the  purpose  of 
examining  into  the  physical  condition  of  intending  emigrants.  This 
practice  dates  from  1899,  when  fear  that  the  plague,  then  prevalent 
in  Egypt,  would  be  introduced  into  the  United  States  through  vessels 
from  Mediterranean,  led  to  the  detail  of  American  surgeons  to  make 
a  sanitary  inspection  of  ships  sailing  from  Naples,  and  in  subsequent 
years  large  numbers  of  intended  imigrants  have  been  turned  back  at 
Italian  ports,  mostly  on  account  of  trachoma. 


•  See  table,  p.  27. 


*  See  p.  113. 


180  The  Immigration  Commission. 

Exact  statistics  as  to  the  extent  of  trachoma  are  not  available,  but 
various  scattered  investigations  have  been  made,  based  mainly  on 
school  inspections  and  army  recruitments.0  In  one  public  school 
near  Syracuse  36  per  cent  of  the  pupils  were  found  to  be  trachoma- 
tous.  In  another  school  in  Calabria,  where  there  were  34  pupils,  28 
were  found  .to  be  affected  with  the  disease.  In  1892  in  one  of  the 
sections  of  Palermo  it  was  found  that  among  a  school  population  of 
607  there  were  160  cases  of  trachoma.  Figures  based  on  army  recruit- 
ments show  a  steady  increase.  They  indicate  also  that  the  disease 
prevails  more  in  maritime  places  than  inland,  and  that,  with  some 
exceptions,  it  becomes  progressively  more  frequent  from  north  to 
south,  assuming  a  grave  epidemic  character  in  Sicily  and  Sardinia, 
the  climate,  topographical  conditions,  and  uncleanly,  habits  of  the 
people  in  Southern  Italy  being  conducive  to  the  diffusion  and  per- 
sistence of  the  disease.  Dispensary  reports  from  Turin  also  show 
that  the  disease  is  greatly  on  the  increase  in  Italy.  The  Marine-Hos- 
pital Report  referred  to  states  that : 

Valenti,  in  a  critical  study  of  the  levy  of  Italiap  troops,  presents  certain  con- 
clusions showing  the  increased  proportion  of  trachoma  between  the  years  1880 
and  1894.  For  instance,  the  figures  for  the  Province  of  Lecce  are  1  per  1,000  in 
1880  and  17.70  per  1,000  in  1894;  in  Bari,  almost  no  return  in  1880  and  12.70 
per  1,000  in  1894 ;  and  in  Sicily  and  Sardinia,  hotbeds  of  trachoma,  the  increase 
is  still  more  marked,  reaching  in  1894  in  Catania  21.5  per  1,000.  in  Cagliari  28 
per  1,000,  and  in  Sassari  38  per  1,000,  whereas  in  1880  the  number  of  cases  was 
so  insignificant  as  not  to  be  deemed  worthy  of  note. 

Professor  Fortunato  states  that  from  all  available  means  of  obser- 
vation it  might  almost  be  said  that  the  entire  population  of  some  of 
the  maritime  Provinces  of  Sicily  and  Sardinia  is  trachomatous.  Pro- 
fessor de  Vincentiis,  a  celebrated  Neapolitan  oculist,  has  declared  that 
75  per  cent  of  the  cases  that  present  themselves  at  the  Italian  ophthal- 
mic clinic  are  trachomatous. 

In  Naples,6  the  great  number  of  rejections  for  trachoma  has  induced 
certain  medical  practitioners  and  quacks  to  advertise  quick  cures  for 
the  disease,  and  the  business  of  "  fixing  up  "  trachomatous  emigrants 
has  attained  considerable  proportions. 

The  second  important  cause  for  the  rejection  of  emigrants  at 
Italian  ports  is  favus,  but  the  number  turned  back  on  that  account  is 
not  very  large.  The  inspecting  physicians  find  it  in  all  its  stages. 
Diagnosis  is  difficult  because  of  the  custom  which  prevails  in  Italy 
of  smearing  infants'  heads  with  a  tarry  preparation,  which  is  apt  to 
produce  a  chronic  eczematous  condition.  Seborrhoea,  eczema,  and 
ringworm  of  the  scalp  are  also  commonly  met  with  in  the  inspection, 
and  if  severe  enough  constitute  a  cause  for  rejection. 

GENERAL. 

While  in  Italy  the  Commission  received  many  expressions  of 
opinion  respecting  the  general  character  of  Italian  emigration  to 
the  United  States.  These  included  the  opinions  of  Americans  who 
had  long  resided  in  Italy,  and  of  leading  Italians  in  various  parts  of 

0  Annual  Report,  United  States  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service, 
1903,  pp.  377-378. 

6  Annual  Report  of  the  United  States  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital 
Service,  1901,  p.  465. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy  181 

the  Kingdom,  and  almost  without  exception  it  was  asserted  that  the 
country  emigrants  as  a  rule  represented  the  best  type  of  the  classes 
from  which  they  were  drawn,  but  that  the  opposite  was  generally  true 
of  the  comparatively  few  who  left  the  cities. 

From  the  various  expressions  of  opinion  above  referred  to  the  fol- 
lowing are  presented  as  being  fairly  representative : 

OPINION    OF    DR.    ALLAN    J.    M'LAUGHLIN. 

Passed  Assist.  Surg.  Allan  J.  McLaughlin,  for  several  years  in 
charge  of  the  United  States  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital 
Service  station  at  Naples,  in  an  interview  with  the  chairman  of  the 
Commission,  said  in  substance  as  follows: 

Generally  speaking,  I  think  the  best  feature  of  the  Italian  emigration  is  that 
the  bulk  of  it,  I  should  say  over  90  per  cent,  is  made  up  of  country  people,  or 
people  from  small  villages.  I  think  most  of  the  trouble  makers  in  America, 
those  who  give  the  bad  reputation  to  Italian  immigration,  will  be  found  to  be 
former  residents  of  Naples  or  Palermo.  They  come  from  the  big  cities  and  form 
here  what  is  known  as  the  "  mala  vita  "  of  the  cities.  They  do  not  emigrate  in 
large  numbers,  but  the  element  is  bad.  They  will  give  us  trouble,  and  they  do 
give  us  trouble  in  our  large  cities.  They  go  to  the  United  States  not  to  work, 
but  to  live  on  the  other  emigrants.  You  will  find  them  in  Mulberry  street. 
Lieutenant  Petrosini  can  tell  you  about  them.  The  police  officers  of  New  York 
know  .them.  That  element  is  as  bad  as  it  can  be,  and  when  one  of  its  members 
commits  a  crime,  of  course  the  whole  thing  is  charged  up  in  the  newspapers  to 
the  Italian  immigrants.  But  the  Italian  emigration,  the  contadino,  the  man 
from  the  country,  impresses  me  as  being  a  healthy  animal,  ignorant,  but  with 
splendid  adaptability,  quick  to  learn,  bright,  considering  that  he  is  a  descendant 
of  a  race  ill  treated  for  centuries,  quick  tempered,  perhaps,  and  passionate. 
They  do  what  they  are  told  to  do.  When  they  are  rejected  they  cry.  They 
make  a  fuss ;  but  they  do  not  threaten  to  use  the  knife  or  do  anything  like  that 
as  you  might  expect.  Their  offenses  are  not  of  a  serious  sort.  Physically  they 
are  very  rugged  and  strong  when  they  arrive  here.  They  are  not  large,  in  fact, 
rather  thin.  They  are  capable  of  doing  a  long  day's  work  and  possess  a  great 
deal  of  endurance. 

I  think  that  it  is  true  that  the  United  States  gets  the  cream  of  those  who 
have  enterprise  enough  to  exercise  an  initiative.  In  fact,  one  of  the  complaints 
of  the  present  day  of  the  Italian  officials  is  that  the  very  best  young  blood 
of  the  Italian  plebes  is  going  out  of  the  country.  They  recognize  that  fact. 
It  is  the  man  with  the  initiative  who  leaves.  That  is  the  law  in  emigration. 
I  think  all  in  America — I  hope  I  have  gotten  over  it,  although  I  was  the  same 
as  everybody  else  at  first — are  inclined  to  think  that  all  immigrants  belonging 
to  one  race  are  good  and  all  belonging  to  another  race  are  bad.  In  fact,  about 
the  worst  emigrants  we  get  in  America,  physically,  morally,  and  intellectually, 
are  those  classed  as  English.  So  it  is  not  fair  to  say  that  because  a  man 
belongs  to  a  certain  race  he  is  a  good  immigrant  or  a  bad  immigrant,  because 
we  all  know  that  if  we  get  the  best  type  of  the  Englishman  he  would  be  the 
best  type  of  immigrant  we  could  get,  but  the  best  Englishman  does  not  come. 
The  immigrant  we  get,  known  as  the  English,  is  the  product  of  the  slums — a 
Jew,  a  Syrian,  the  element  from  Whitechapel  and  Liverpool,  the  dregs  of  the 
great  city.  The  country  people  from  England  do  not  go  as  a  rule,  but  we  get  a 
few  Cornish  miners  who  are  good  people.  It  is  a  mistake  to  consider  an  immi- 
grant bad  because  he  belongs  to  some  one  race.  The  thing  is  to  treat  the 
immigrant  as  an  individual.  Treating  an  Italian  from  that  standpoint,  you  will 
find  the  Italian  as  good  as  any  of  the  other  races  from  farther  north,  with  the 
possible  exception  of  those  from  Scandinavia  and  the  British  Isles.  But  I  do 
not  think  the  Polacks  and  the  Magyars  and  the  Slovaks,  who  are  considered 
by  some  as  superior  to  the  Italians,  are  superior.  I  think  one  is  as  good  as 
the  other,  but  of  course  it  is  pretty  hard  to  get  people  to  look  at  it  from  that 
standpoint. 


182  The  Immigration  Commission. 

OPINION   OF   REV.    N.    WALLING    CLARK. 

Rev.  N.  Walling  Clark,  an  American,  who  for  a  long  period  has 
been  in  charge  of  the  educational  work  of  the  Methodist  Church  in 
Italy,  and  who  has  had  an  exceptional  opportunity  to  study  Italian 
character,  in  a  statement  to  the  Commission  said  in  part  as  follows: 

As  to  the  character  of  the  Italian  workmen,  they  are  industrious,  quite 
decidedly  so.  They  are  ready  to  work  and  work  hard  from  early  morning  until 
late  at  night.  They  are  not  intemperate,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  a  great 
deal  of  wine  is  drunk  in  this  country.  They  drink  it  as  men  in  foreign  coun- 
tries drink  milk,  but  it  is  almost  an  uncommon  thing  to  see  a  drunken  man  in 
the  agricultural  districts.  They  are  good  to  their  families.  The  family  life, 
of  course,  is  not  developed  anything  like  it  is  with  the  laboring  classes  at  home. 
They  do  not  know  much  about  the  home  life,  and  yet  they  are  most  affectionate 
toward  their  children  and  reasonably  faithful  to  their  wives  as  a  rule.  There 
is,  however,  a  great  deal  of  laxity  of  marital  relation  growing  out  of  the  lack 
of  a  divorce  law. 

The  class  of  emigrants  who  go  to  the  United  States  are  unquestionably  the 
more  enterprising,  the  better  element ;  only  those  would  be  able  to  go  who  have 
the  money  to  get  tickets;  many  are  too  poor  to  go.  Educational  facilities  are 
very  limited.  The  majority — 80  per  cent,  I  have  even  heard  85  per  cent — are 
illiterate.  Comparing  the  country  and  the  city  people — those  who  emigrate  to 
the  United  States — I  believe  that  the  country  people  are  more  desirable  than 
those  from  the  cities.  The  people  from  the  cities  are  more  immoral,  more 
vicious,  and  also  from  the  standpoint  of .  hygiene  the  country  people  are  more 
desirable.  With  regard  to  ability  to  read  and  write,  a  larger  proportion  can  in 
the  city  than  in  the  country.  In  northern  Italy  the  percentage  of  illiterates  is 
much  less  than  in  the  south. 

I  believe  the  Italians  under  proper  restrictions  are  the  most  desirable  emi- 
grants to  the  United  States.  I  think  there  should  be  pretty  severe  restrictions. 
T,heir  documents  should  be  examined  carefully.  Nothing  is  done  in  Italy  until 
the  papers  are  examined  very  carefully.  When  this  is  done,  as  far  as  it  can 
be  done,  and  all  possible  restrictions  are  put  upon  men  entering  the  United 
States — that  is  men  of  vicious  character — then  I  believe  the  Italian  is  a  very 
desirable  emigrant.  There  is  no  emigrant  who  goes  from  Europe  who  is  a 
better  worker,  a  man  who  has  more  power  of  enduring  work,  and  he  is  a  will- 
ing worker  and  has  the  desire  to  work.  There  is  no  man  who  is  more  sus- 
ceptible to  moral  and  intellectual  influence ;  he  is  not  set  in  his  ways ;  he  has  not 
the  stubbornness  of  some  of  the  northern  races;  he  is  easily  molded  and  adapts 
himself  to  conditions. 

As  to  the  comparative  value  of  the  German  and  Italian  emigrants  to  the 
south,  I  would  say  that  the  German  has  desirable  qualities  which  the  Italian 
has  not.  That  is,  the  German  is  very  solid ;  very  stolid ;  he  does  not  get  angry 
quickly.  He  moves  slowly,  but  he  is,  perhaps,  a  little  surer.  In  some  respects 
he  is  more  reliable.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Italian,  as  a  rule,  is  the  quicker 
and  more  intelligent  worker,  and  would  slave  like  a  dog  if  you  get  his  confi- 
dence. He  will  work  for  you  from  morning  until  night  with  the  greatest 
devotion. 

I  think  the  Italians  are  quite  saving.  They  are  inclined  to  put  money  In 
the  savings  banks.  The  postal  savings  service  here  is  one  of  the  most  pros- 
perous branches  of  the  Government.  There  are  not  many  cases  in  Italy  where 
a  man  can  save  sufficient  money  to  buy  a  farm,  but  there  are  many  cases  where 
a  man  has  saved  money  in  America  and  returned  here,  bought  a  farm,  and 
settled  down.  I  think  the  Italian  would  save  his  money  and  buy  farms  in  the 
United  States  if  he  had  the  proper  opportunity,  but  perhaps  not  to  so  large 
an  extent  as  do  the  Germans. 

Among  prominent  Italians  interviewed  by  the  Commission,  some 
of  whom  were  students  of  the  emigration  situation  in  their  country, 
the  feeling  prevailed  that  Italy  had  lost  and  was  continually  losing 
much  of  its  best  peasant  blood.  Many  expressions  of  regret  were 
heard  from  Italian  officials  and  others,  but  as  a  rule  it  was  recognized 
that  emigration  resulted  from  an  economic  necessity  which  could  not 
be  satisfied,  and  therefore  was  inevitable. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  183 

CHARACTER  OF  SICILIAN  IMMIGRATION. 

In  a  report  to  the  Department  of  State,  dated  May  2, 1906,  William 
Henry  Bishop,  American  consul  at  Palermo,  submits  quotations  from 
the  country  correspondents  of  a  leading  Sicilian  newspaper,  which 
show  the  local  estimate  of  the  character  of  emigration  from  that 
island. 

The  text  of  Consul  Bishop's  report  follows: 

REPORT  ON  THE  IMPROVED  CHARACTER^F^HE  EMIGRATION  FROM  SICILY  TO 

It  seems  desirable  to  report  upon  competent  testimony  that  a  considerable 
improvement  is  taking  place  in  the  character  of  the  emigration  going  from 
Sicily  to  the  United  States.  The  testimony  is  that  contained  in  the  advices  of 
the  local  correspondents  stationed  at  various  small  points  throughout  the 
island,  which  appear  on  the  page  devoted  to  country  and  suburban  matters  in 
the  L'  Ora,  of  Palermo,  probably  the  leading  daily  paper  in  Sicily.  As  these 
accounts  were  in  no  way  prepared  for  the  foreign  eye,  or  for  any  official  or 
polemical  purpose,  but  only  by  way  of  a  routine  chronicle  of  the  happenings  of 
life  in  the  minor  communities,  they  are  spontaneous  and  unbiased  and  have  an 
authority  that  can  hardly  be  impeached.  While  it  is  not  to  be  supposed  that 
some  undesirable  subjects  do  not  still  succeed  in  evading  all  the  restrictions 
imposed  against  their  entering  the  United  States,  the  intelligence  therein 
gathered  at  least  strikes  a  more  encouraging  note  and  presents  a  more  cheerful 
side  of  the  great  immigration  problem,  which  is  so  often  treated  among  our 
people  only  with  pessimistic  gloom. 

My  extracts  are  nine  in  number,  from  widely  separated  places,  and  cover  a 
period  of  about  three  months,  but  do  not  assume  to  be  exhaustive  even  for  the 
period.  I  translate  from  the  Italian  originals  as  follows: 

"  Girgenti  (Province  of  Girgenti),  February  6,  1906:  The  emigration  this  year 
is  assuming  extraordinary  proportions.  The  local  ticket  agencies  are  continu- 
ally crowded  with  people  who  would  like  to  depart  at  once,  but  can  not  do  so, 
as  the  steamers  are  filled  up  already  for  the  months  of  February  and  March. 
The  part  of  our  populaton,  too,  that  is  emigrating  is  the  youngest,  sturdiest,  and 
the  soundest  morally.  It  can  not  be  said  that  they  are  driven  out  by  dire  want 
and  necessity;  they  are  lured  away  rather  by  the  desire  to  better  themselves 
in  the  world  and  make  a  possible  fortune.  Whole  families,  including  old  folks, 
women,  and  children,  and  young  couples  but  just  married  are  seen  bidding  fare- 
well to  their  homes.  Many  are  of  a  class  possessing  some  little  property,  the 
easy  so-called  borghesi  (meaning  a  lower  middle  class).  All  this  is  coming  to 
be  a  serious  cause  of  anxiety,  as  an  inevitable  shortage  of  labor  is  imminent, 
while  labor  was  never  so  much  needed  in  our  region  as  now,  engaged  as  we  are 
in  the  renewing  of  our  vineyards.  When  and  how  will  a  stop  be  put  to  this 
feverish  tendency  of  our  steady-going  farm  population,  which  till  now  had  re- 
mained doggedly  obtuse  to  any  suggestions  of  emigration? 

"Raffadili  (Province  of  Girgenti),  February  11:  Disintegrated  by  the  in- 
creasing current  of  emigration,  it  has  looked  lately  as  if  our  local  pride,  the 
musical  band,  would  have  to  go  to  pieces  and  be  abolished.  It  was  greatly 
feared  that  we  must  lose  its  young  and  skillful  director,  Signer  Parisi,  who  had 
excellent  offers  from  several  other  towns.  However,  although  many  of  the 
musicians  have  decided  to  leave  for  the  new  world  in  search  of  large  gains. 
I  am  able  to  announce  that  the  band  has  now  been  reconstructed  and  Signor 
Parisi  will  remain. 

"  Gratteri  (Province  of  Palermo),  March  11:  The  emigration  in  this  district 
continues,  and  it  is  with  veritable  grief  that  we  see  entire  families  departing, 
going  to  take  up  their  residence  in  distant  lands,  in  search  of  bread  and  work. 
If  this  state  of  things  continues  it  will  produce  the  gravest  consequences,  and 
it  is  difficult  even  now  to  find  sufficient  labor  to  till  the  ground. 

"Raccalmuto  (Province  of  Girgenti),  March  12:  This  year  the  emigration 
for  America  has  taken  on  alarming  proportions.  Within  a  few  months  several 
hundred  laborers  have  departed,  not  being  able  here  to  properly  provide  for 
their  families.  It  is  an  exodus  sorrowful  to  witness,  since  it  is  the  best  and 
strongest  arms  that  are  leaving  us,  who  will  be  extremely  missed  in  the  sulphns 
industry.  A  hundred  more  are  to  go  in  the  course  of  this  month  and  April. 

79524°— VOL  4—11 13 


184  The  Immigration  Commission. 

The  effects  of  the  emigration  are  already  felt  in  the  enhanced  cost  of  manual 
labor. 

"  Montelepre  (Province  of  Palermo),  March  14:  The  growing  economic  de- 
pression has  caused  the  enterprising  and  robust  youth  of  this  place  to  tnrn  their 
eyes  to  distant  America.  These  young  men  confiding  in  their  strength  and  the 
vision  of  a  happy  future,  are  leaving  in  large  numbers,  parents  often  encour- 
aging their  sons,  wives  their  husbands,  and  sisters  their  brothers,  to  go.  But 
this  emigration,  which  comprises  even  people  in  fairly  easy  circumstances,  is 
matter  of  anxious  worry  with  land  owners,  who  see  good  hands  becoming 
always  scarcer  and  the  rate  of  wages  of  those  that  remain  every  rising.  They 
fear  that  soon  the  land  will  not  give  a  sufficient  yield  to  meet  the  many  heavy 
demands  upon  it. 

"  Falcone  (Province  of  Messina),  April  11:  The  condition  of  agriculture  and 
landowners  in  this  vicinity  is  causing  much  uneasiness  on  account  of  the  grow- 
ing evil  of  emigration.  Even  from  so  small  a  place  as  this  (2,119  inhabitants) 
not  a  week  passes  in  which  there  are  not  many  departures  for  America,  and  it 
is  always  the  stoutest  arms,  the  robust  youth,  that  go.  A  few  days  back  not 
less  than  30  persons  left  here  in  a  single  day.  The  country  is  becoming  de- 
populated ;  the  land  is  abandoned.  Even  being  willing  to  concede  any  advance 
in  wages  whatever,  it  is  often  impossible  to  find  a  man  for  the  most  essential 
farm  labors. 

"  Kaggi  (Province  of  Messina),  April  11:  For  several  months  past  the  de- 
partures for  America  from  this  village  follow  fast  one  upon  another.  It  is  for 
the  most  part  the  young,  in  all  the  vigor  of  life,  who  thus  adventure  beyond  the 
ocean.  If  you  ask  them  where  they  are  going  and  to  what  kind  of  labor,  they 
answer  that  they  do  not  know;  they  are  only  after  a  bright  and  enticing  hope 
of  fortune,  which,  as  we  know,  often  proves  but  a  bitter  illusion. 

"  Spadaf ora  (Province  of  Messina),  April  22:  The  emigration  of  the  Sicilian 
laborers  is  a  social  danger.  No  one  seems  to  regard  the  new  aspect  that  emi- 
gration has  taken  on.  Why  do  we  not  ask  ourselves  the  question:  What 
element  is  the  main  body  of  emigrants  now  composed  of,  in  comparison  with 
that  of  heretofore?  It  used  to  be  the  poor  and  needy,  who  could  not  find  pay- 
ing work  in  Italy;  but  at  present  we  see  the  departure  in  troops  of  thrifty, 
forehanded  mechanics  and  laborers,  for  whom  there  lacks  at  home  neither 
steady  employment  nor  good  remuneration  for  it.  And  these  men  do  not  go 
alone ;  the  most  depressing  feature  of  it  all  is  that  they  take  their  whole  fami- 
lies with  them.  This  constitutes  a  grave  peril  for  our  country,  for  when  an 
emigrant  takes  his  family  along  it  means  that  it  is  his  settled  purpose  never 
to  return.  Such  emigration  exhausts  the  very  lifeblood  of  the  nation.  What 
remedies  can  we  devise  for  so  crying  an  evil?" 

Thus  the  reports  continue  to  come  in,  and  the  burden  of  them  all  is  the  same — 
namely,  the  progressive  loss  of  much-needed  labor  and  disastrous  increase  in 
the  price  of  that  which  remains.  It  is  clear  from  these  laments,  by  those  who 
should  be  excellent  judges  of  the  subject,  that  the  emigration  from  this  quarter 
is  now  considered  to  be  of  an  unusually  valuable  quality.  It  would  seem  to 
rest  with  our  own  people  only  to  keep  it  from  congesting  in  the  cities,  and 
spread  it  over  the  large  expanses  where  it  can  be  advantageously  used,  to  derive 
from  it  the  greatest  benefits. 

American  Consulate,  Palermo,  Italy,  May  2.  1006. 

WILLIAM  HENRY  BISHOP,  Consul. 


CHAPTER  V. 
ILLITERACY  IN  ITALY. 

ILLITERATES  IN   THE  GENERAL  POPULATION. 

In  common  with  other  southern  and  eastern  European  countries 
the  proportion  of  illiterates  among  Italians  is  very  high ;  48.5  per 
cent  of  the  total  population  6  years  of  age  and  over  and  52.3  per 
cent  21  years  and  over  being  so  classed  by  the  census  of  1901.  Among 
the  so-called  emigrating  classes  in  the  southern  compartimenti,  which 
furnish  the  greater  part  of  the  immigration  to  the  United  States,  the 
proportion  of  illiterates  is  considerably  higher  than  in  the  country 
as  a  whole.  Data  relative  to  illiteracy  among  military  conscripts  as 
well  as  among  persons  contracting  marriage  are  also  available  for 
Italy,  and  these  fully  confirm  the  census  returns.  Data  from  all 
these  sources,  however,  show  that  a  rather  remarkable  change  has 
occurred  in  the  educational  status  of  the  people  of  Italy  during  recent 
years  and  the  situation  in  all  parts  of  the  kingdom  is  steadily  im- 
proving. This  is  clearly  indicated  by  the  following  table,  which 
shows  the  proportion  of  illiterates  of  different  age  groups  in  the 
years  1872,  1882,  and  1901. 

TABLE  27. — Per  cent  of  illiterates  in  the  population  of  Italy  in  1812,  1882,  and 
1901,  ~by  sex  and  age  groups. 

[Compiled  from  "  Italia  Annuario  Statistico,"  1905-1907.] 


1872. 

1882. 

1901. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

6  years  and  over  
12  years  and  over  

61.9 
60.0 

75.7 
75.2 

68.8 
67.6 

54.6 
53.3 

69.3 

69.8 

61.9 
61.6 

42.5 
42.0 

54.4 
55.5 

48.5 
48.8 

21  years  and  over  

60.2 

77.4 

68.7 

53.9 

72.9 

63.4 

43.9 

00.4 

52.3 

Apart  from  showing  the  large  proportion  of  illiterates  in  the 
population,  and  the  marked  improvement  in  the  situation  between 
1872  and  1901,  the  most  significant  feature  of  this  table  is  the  rela- 
tively higher  percentage  of  illiteracy  among  females.  This,  it  is 
claimed,  is  due  to  the  generally  inferior  status  of  women  in  Italian 
affairs,  the  female  population,  especially  in  the  lower  classes,  being 
excluded  from  all  public  life.0  If  any  benefit  is  recognized  as  being 
derived  from  an  education  the  boy  rather  than  the  girl  is  naturally 
the  claimant  for  it. 

The  general  decrease  in  the  prevalence  of  illiteracy  is  due  to  a 
growing  appreciation  of  the  value  of  an  education  and  the  gradual 
extension  and  improvement  of  the  public-school  system.  Italy  has  a 


«  "  Italy."    Prof.  W.  Deecke,  p.  289. 


185 


186 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


compulsory  school-attendance  law  and  the  State  maintains  the 
secondary  schools  and  universities.  The  expense  of  maintaining 
elementary  schools,  however,  is  placed  upon  the  communes  and 
provinces,  and  many  of  these  are  too  poor  to  provide  adequate  school 
facilities.  Consequently,  in  many  parts  of  central  and  southern  Italy 
school  privileges  are  not  available  to  a  large  part  of  the  population. 
The  effect  of  this  condition  is  clearly  indicated  in  the  following  table, 
which  shows  the  percentage  of  illiterates,  by  age  .groups,  in  each 
compartimento : 

TABLE  28. — Per  cent  of  illiterates  in  the  population  of  Italy  in  1901,  by  sex  and 
age  groups  and  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  "  Italia  Annuario  Statistico,"  1905-1907.] 


Per  cent  of  illiterates— 


Compartimenti. 

6  years  and  over. 

21  years  and  over. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

Northern  Italy: 
Piedmont                        

13.8 
21.9 
20.4 
27.9 

42.0 
42.0 
54.1 
52  0 

21.4 
31.2 
22.7 
42.7 

50.6 
54.5 
70.5 
69.1 
50.6 

79.8 
72.6 
75.3 
83.1 
87.0 

76.6 
76.1 
54.4 

17.7 
26.5 
21.6 
35.4 

.46.3 
48.2 
62.5 
60.3 
43.8 

69.8 
65.1 
69.5 
75.4 

78.7 

70.9 
68.3 
48.5 

16.8 
24.6 
24.0 
30.7 

46.8 
41.7' 
55.4 
54.0 
37.9 

59.5 
57.3 
63.3 
67.4 
67.7 

64.9 
59.4 
43.9 

28.8 
38.6 
28.9 
52.2 

59.6 
58.7 
76.2 
75.7 
55.1 

85.2 
76.5 
80.3 
87.9 
89.5 

81.4 
80.5 
60.4 

22.9 
31.6 
26.4 
41.7 

53.1 
50.1 
66.2 
64.4 
46.1 

73.4 

67.5 
71.9 
78.7 
79.8 

73.2 
69.6 
52.3 

Llguria 

Venetia              

Central  Italy: 
Emilia  

Tuscany                      .  .  . 

Marches 

Pamela  (Umbrla) 

Roma  (Latium)  

37.7 

58.5 
56.  9 
63.7 
66.5 
69.2 

65.2 
61.0 
42.5 

Southern  Italy: 
Abruzzi        

Campania      

Basilicata 

Calabria 

Islands: 
Sicily  

Sardinia 

Kingdom 

This  table  illustrates  the  wide  difference  between  conditions  of 
literacy  in  the  north  and  south,  the  extremes  for  persons  6  years  of 
age  and  over  being  found  in  Piedmont,  where  17.5  per  cent,  and  in 
Calabria,  78.8  per  cent,  are  unable  to  read  and  write.  The  reason 
for  the  wide  difference  between  the  northern  and  southern  comparti- 
menti in  this  regard  is  explained  by  Egisto  Rossi,  royal  Italian  com- 
missioner of  emigration,  who,  in  a  statement  to  the  Immigration 
Commission,  said  in  substance: 

The  classes  of  Italian  emigrants  which  would  be  most  affected  by  an  edu- 
cational test  in  the  United  States  law  are  those  belonging  to  the  agricultural 
districts  of  the  southern  provinces,  and  I  will  tell  you  the  reason  for  that.  We 
have  a  compulsory  educational  law,  as  you  know.  It  makes  it  the  duty  of  a 
commune  to  have  a  school  for  a  determined  number  of  inhabitants,  and  those 
people  are  supposed  to  be  not  very  far  away  from  the  school  and  to  be  able  to 
send  their  children  to  the  school  and  have  them  come  back  the  same  day.  This 
is  very  easy  in  the  cities  or  in  the  northern  provinces,  where  all  sections  are 
full  of  people,  where  the  communi  are  near  each  other.  There  you  have  a 
school  corresponding  to  the  needs  of  our  population,  and  it  is  very  easy  for  the 
children  to  go  from  their  own  houses  to  the  school.  In  addition  to  that,  we 
must  remember  that  the  communi  in  the  northern  Provinces  have  better  means ; 
they  are  richer.  They  can  appropriate  for  the  maintenance  of  elementary 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


187 


schools  larger  amounts  than  in  the  southern  provinces.  In  the  southern  country 
the  population  is  more  scattered.  You  will  find  a  town  of  5,000  people.  In  this 
town  you  will  find  a  school,  and  the  boy  or  girl  goes  to  the  school,  and  they  can 
enforce  the  law,  and  every  parent  who  does  not  send  his  children  to  school  is 
subject  to  a  fine.  But  around  these  little  villages  there  are  fifteen  or  twenty 
thousand  people,  scattered  at  a  distance  of  5  or  6  kilometers,  and  the  communi, 
in  order  to  provide  instruction  for  the  children  of  these  people  scattered  over 
that  distance  ought  to  open  schools  at  distances  between  them  not  greater  than 
5  or  10  kilometers  in  order  to  reach  every  part  of  its  jurisdiction.  But  you 
can  not  conscientiously  compel  these  people  living  at  a  distance  of  15  to  20 
kilometers  from  the  school  to  send  their  children  every  morning  and  bring 
them  back  every  evening.  The  poor  parents  can  not  send  the  boy  such  a  dis- 
tance, and  the  communi  is  not  in  position  to  provide  nearer  accommodations. 
This  accounts  for  a  great  deal  of  the  illiteracy.  The  General  Government 
bears  the  expense  of  universities  and  of  secondary  schools,  but  the  expense 
of  common-school  education  is  placed  upon  the  municipalities.  Since  we  have 
seen  the  consequences  of  the  present  system  there  is  a  strong  opinion  in  favor 
of  passing  over  the  elementary  schools  to  the  Government  and  of  appropriating 
money  to  provide  schools  as  the  necessity  requires.  I  have  been  advocating 
this  change  in  the  system. 

SCHOOL    ATTENDANCE. 

As  suggested  by  Mr.  Rossi,  the  compulsory  school  law  has  been 
very  imperfectly  carried  out  in  central  and  southern  Italy  on  account 
of  the  inability  of  the  communes  to  furnish  the  needed  instruction. 
School  attendance,  however,  is  rapidly  rising,  the  number  of  pupils 
in  the  elementary  schools  during  the  last  forty  years,  allowing  for  the 
increase  of  population,  having  increased  121.2  per  cent.  The  follow- 
ing table  gives  the  proportion  of  each  sex  attending  the  public  ele- 
mentary schools  in  the  various  compartimenti  in  the  periods  1883-4 
and  1901-2 : 

TABLE  29. — Proportion  of  male  and  female  pupils  in  Italian  elementary  public 
schools  per  1,000  of  the  total  population,  in  1883-4  and  1901-2,  t>y  comparti- 
menti. 

[Compiled  from  "Italia  Annuario  Statistico,"  1905-1907.] 


Compartimenti. 

Proportion  of  pupils  per  1,000  population. 

Males. 

Females. 

1901-2. 

1883-4. 

1901-2. 

1883-4. 

Northern  Italy: 

124.0 
99.3 
112.1 
113.5 

97.3 

74.2 
77.5 
78.9 
74.7 

71.7 
62.6 
53.7 
57.6 
53.6 

56.9 
61.4 
85.1 

127.0 
93.0 
106.7 
107.2 

78.4 
56.1 
57.8 
62.0 
56.1 

61.8 

54.4 
41.8 
47.9 
49.8 

41.3 
59.4 
75.9 

113.1 

89.2 
99.4 
92.1 

84.6 
60.9 
54.1 
63.5 
69.0 

50.2 
45.1 
49.5 
39.7 
32.5 

53.2 
57.5 
71.7 

114.2 
82.1 
95.1 

82.5 

64.9 
44.8 
40.2 
48.7 
58.9 

43.8 
41.7 
40.1 
32.0 
31.0 

36.7 
49.6 
63.6 

Central  Italy: 
Emilia                                                          

Perugia  (Umbria)                                                 

Southern  Italy: 

Calabria                                        

Islands: 
Sicily                                                    

188 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


With  one  exception.  Piedmont,  the  school  attendance  for  each  class 
has  increased  to  a  marked  degree,  but  in  spite  of  a  slight  falling  off 
in  the  proportions  Piedmont  still  maintains  its  lead  much  in  advance 
of  any  other  compartiineiito.  Calarbria  has  the  lowest  record  both 
for  boys  and  girls. 

MOVEMENT  TO  REDUCE  ILLITERACY. 

In  1904  a  campaign  was  begun  for  the  more  effectual  suppression 
of  illiteracy.  By  a  law  enacted  that  year  the  former  age  limit  for 
compulsory  school  attendance,  6  to  9  years,  was  continued  for  com- 
munes where  there  was  no  higher  elementary  school,  but  in  com- 
munes having  the  latter  the  compulsory  school  age  was  raised  to 
twelve  years.  This  law  also  provided  that  illiterates  should  be  sub- 
ject to  various  disabilities:  no  illiterate  born  after  1885  will  be  al- 
lowed to  carry  arms ;  no  one  born  after  1890  will  be  allowed  to  open 
any  establishment  under  police  supervision — tavern,  cafe,  etc. — un- 
less he  himself  is  able  to  draw  up  formal  application  for  permission ; 
and  no  one  born  after  1900  will  be  admitted  to  a  salaried  position  \n 
the  public  administration  unless  he  produces  a  certificate  of  primary 
instruction.  Under  this  law7  and  also  that  of  July,  1906,  5,000  addi- 
tional evening  and  Sunday  schools  were  to  be  provided  for  the  adult 
illiterate.  As  stated  by  Mr.  Rossi,  there  is  at  present  on  foot  the 
strongly  favored  movement  to  place  the  maintenance  of  the  elemen- 
tar}T  school  upon  the  Government,  so  that  they  might  be  provided 
as  necessity  required,  and  thus  make  possible  the  enforcement  of  the 
compulsory  attendance  law. 

ILLITERACY    AMONG    CONSCRIPTS.    • 

A  study  of  illiteracy  among  military  conscripts  in  Italy  is  of  spe- 
cial interest  in  this  connection,  for  the  reason  that  both  emigrants 
and  recruits  are  largely  drawn  from  the  same  age  groups.  The  pro- 
portion of  illiterates  among  conscripts  in  the  years  1872,  1901,  and 
1904  is  shown  in  the  following  table : 

TABLE  30. — Proportion  of  illiterates  among  Italian  conscripts  per  100  enrolled, 
in  1872,  1901,  and  1904,  ly  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  "Italia  Annuario  Statistico,"  1905-1907.] 


Compartimenti. 

1904. 

1901. 

1872. 

Northern  Italy: 
Piedmont  .                       .....                             .  . 

8  9 

11  3 

26  2 

Liguria 

15  5 

16  4 

35  1 

Lombardy  

14.6 

15  3 

33  1 

Venetia 

21  5 

23  6 

51  4 

Central  Italy: 
Emilia  

26.8 

30  5 

58  5 

Tuscany                                        

29  1 

37  2 

55  2 

Marches 

40  2 

43  2 

66  7 

Perugia  (Umbria)  

40.4 

38  6 

66  6 

Roma  (Latium)  ..                                       

29  g 

33  2 

59  7 

Southern  Italy: 
Abruzzi  

43.6 

44  2 

66  9 

Campania  i  

42  5 

44  2 

71  3 

Apulia 

50  3 

53  1 

71  2 

Basilicata  

61.1 

49  2 

75  0 

Calabria        

51  8 

54  1 

77  i 

Islands: 

Sicily 

51  5 

53  3 

78  7 

Sardinia  

53  8 

52  9 

72  5 

'Kingdom 

31  2 

32  6 

56  5 

Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


189 


This  table  clearly  shows  a  rather  remarkable  advance  in  literacy 
among  Italian  young  men,  the  proportion  of  those  who  could  not 
read  and  write  having  decreased  from  56.5  per  100  in  1872  to  31  2 
per  100  in  1904.  In  Perugia,  Basilicata,  and  Sardinia  the  proportion 
of  illiterates  increased  slightly  between  1901  and  1904,  but  there  was 
a  decrease  in  every  other  compartimento  and  in  each  instance  the  de- 
crease for  the  longer  period,  1872  to  1904,  was  sufficiently  large  to 
show  conclusively  that  great  progress  has  been  made. 

That  literacy  has  steadily  increased  among  all  classes  of  Italian 
young  men  is  shown  from  the  following  table  which  gives  the  pro- 
portion of  illiterates  among  military  conscripts  according  to  their 
occupation : 

TABLE  31. — Proportion  of  illiterates  among  Italian  conscripts  per  100  enrolled,  in 
periods  specified,  by  occupation. 

[Compiled  from  "Italia  Annuario  Statistico,"  1905-1907.] 


Per- 

Com- 

Period. 

Agri- 
cultur- 
ists and 
related 
occupa- 
tions. 

Sailors 
and 
fisher- 
men. 

Masons, 
miners, 
etc. 

Work- 
men of 
other 
indus- 
tries 
and  ar- 
tisans. 

con- 
nected 
with 
the 
prep- 
aration 
and  sale 

Trades- 
men in 
general. 

Ser- 
vants 
in  gen- 
eral. 

mon  la- 
borers 
not  al- 
ready 
speci- 
fied and 
profes- 

Pro- 
prie- 
tors. 

Total. 

sional 

ables. 

beggars. 

1871-1875  

65.7 

60.7 

44.0 

34.4 

30.6 

18.3 

46.3 

75.8 

14.0 

53  5 

1S76-1880            .     . 

63.4 

59.4 

40.8 

32.6 

29.7 

16.8 

46.1 

70.2 

14  0 

50  3 

1881-1885 

60  5 

58  4 

39.6 

29.9 

29  1 

11.7 

42  0 

62  2 

13  8 

47  3 

1880-1890  

56.0 

54.6 

36.5 

26.8 

25.2 

10.1 

37.8 

61.9 

11.5 

43.1 

1891-1895 

52.2 

51.4 

32.7 

25.8 

23.7 

8.2 

32.1 

54.7 

10.8 

39  4 

189(5-1900  

47.8 

42.4 

28.6 

23.0 

21.3 

5.9 

30.3 

49.7 

9.6 

35.4 

1901-1905       

43.0 

35.9 

25.3 

21.4 

19.8 

4.0 

25.4 

42.1 

7.9 

31.6 

The  three  classes  in  which  inability  to  read  and  write  has  been 
and  continues  to  be  most  widespread  are  -agricultural  laborers,  com- 
mon laborers,  and  sailors  and  fishermen.  Of  these  the  first  two  form 
the  most  considerable  part  of  Italian  immigration  to  the  United 
States.  It  should  also  be  noted  that  it  is  in  the  very  three  classes 
where  illiteracy  is  most  prevalent  that  the  decline  in  the  rate  from 
1871-1875  to  1901-1905  has  been  most  marked.  During  that  period 
the  percentage  of  illiterates  among  the  total  number  of  recruits  fell 
from  53.5  per  cent  to  31.6  per  cent,  a  difference  of  21.9  per  cent.  For 
the  common  laborers  and  professional  beggers  the  difference  in  the 
rates  for  that  period  was  33.7  per  cent ;  for  the  sailors  and  fishermen 
it  was  24.8  per  cent ;  for  the  agricultural  laborers  it  was  22.7  per  cent. 
In  the  other  occupations  the  decline  in  the  percentage  of  illiterates 
was  less  than  that  for  the  total  number  of  conscripts. 


190 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


MARRIAGE  RECORDS. 

Marriage  records  are  another  source  of  data  respecting  literacy  in 
Italy,  the  test  in  this  case  being  the  ability  of  the  contracting  parties 
to  sign  the  marriage  register.  The  record  in  this  regard  for  the 
years  1872,  1901,  and  1905  is  shown  by  the  following  table: 

TABLE  32. — Per  cent  of  illiterates  among  persons  contracting  marriage  in  the 
various  compartimenti  of  Italy  in  1872,  1901,  and  1905,  by  sex. 

[Compiled  from  "Italia  Annuario  Statistico, "  1905-1907.] 


Per  cent  of  illiterates. 


Compartimenti. 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

• 

1872. 

1901. 

1905. 

1872. 

1901. 

1905. 

1872. 

1901. 

1905. 

Northern  Italy: 
Piedmont     

24.1 

5.6 

4.2 

46.6 

7.1 

5.9 

35.3 

6.3 

5.0 

Liguria 

38.8 

12.5 

9.4 

56.5 

16.7 

13.8 

47.6 

14.6 

11  6 

Lombardy  

37.7 

10.6 

8.1 

53.5 

11.6 

9.0 

45.6 

11.1 

8.5 

Venetia 

47.0 

18.0 

14.6 

80.1 

32.8 

25.9 

63.5 

25.4 

20.3 

Central  Italy: 
Emilia  

58.9 

32.8 

26.2 

77.1 

42.6 

35.3 

68.0 

37.7 

30.8 

Tuscany 

46.1 

28.0 

25.9 

71.9 

48.8 

43.5 

59.0 

38.4 

34.7 

Marches  

63.6 

42.3 

36.5 

82.2 

63.9 

59.2 

72.9 

53.1 

47.8 

Perugia  (Umbria)  .  . 

61.2 

42.6 

38.8 

82.1 

65.1 

61.1 

71.6 

53.9 

50.0 

Roma  (Latium) 

32.3 

30.3 

26.9 

57.0 

49.3 

45.6 

44.6 

39.8 

36.2 

Southern  Italy: 
Abruzzi 

72.3 

45.4 

39.9 

93.2 

73.1 

68.6 

82.7 

59.2 

54.2 

Campania 

69.0 

46.5 

41.8 

87.4 

67.5 

62.9 

78.2 

57.0 

52.4 

Apulia  

80.5 

55.1 

54.4 

93.3 

73.3 

72.5 

86.9 

64.2 

63.4 

Basilicata  .  . 

85.9 

63.8 

61.4 

96.1 

79.4 

77.6 

91.0 

71.6 

69.5 

Calabria 

81  0 

63.9 

59  3 

94.9 

83.8 

80  8 

88  0 

73  9 

70  0 

Islands: 
Sicily..  .     . 

79.5 

56.2 

52.5 

91.5 

69.7 

65.1 

85.5 

63.0 

58.8 

Sardinia 

70  6 

51  1 

48  5 

87.8 

71.7 

70  0 

79  2 

61  4 

59.3 

Kingdom  

56.2 

32.7 

30.3 

75.3 

46.1 

43.5 

65.8 

39.4 

36.9 

This  table  is  of  particular  interest  because  it  includes  persons  of 
both  sexes  who  correspond' in  age  to  a  very  large  proportion  of  the 
emigrant  group.  It  shows  also  the  greater  prevalence  of  illiteracy 
among  women,  and  the  same  steady  improvement  in  educational  con- 
ditions throughout  Italy  which  have  been  noted  in  preceding  tables. 
As  shown  in  all  other  tables,  the  percentage  of  illiterates  among  per- 
sons contracting  marriage  in  the  northern  compartimenti  of  Pied- 
mont, Liguria,  and  Lombardy  is  very  much  smaller  than  in  other 
parts  of  Italy.  Moreover,  the  decrease  in  illiteracy  between  1872 
and  1905  was  relatively  much  greater  in  these  compartimenti,  the 
changed  educational  status  of  women  in  this  section  being  especially 
noteworthy. 

ILLITERACY    AMONG    ITALIAN    IMMIGRANTS. 

Unfortunately  none  of  the  data  contained  in  the  above  tables  are 
entirely  comparable  with  statistics  relative  to  illiteracy  among  Italian 
immigrants  admitted  to  the  United  States.  Table  30,  showing  the 
degree  t)f  illiteracy  among  military  conscripts,  concerns  an  age  group 
which  approximates  the  emigrant  group,  but  it  includes  persons  of 
one  sex  only.  Table  32  also  concerns  persons  of  what  may  be  called 
the  emigrant  age,  and  both  sexes  are  represented,  but  in  both  these 
tables  the  data  relate  to  all  sections  of  Italy  and  to  all  classes  in  the 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


191 


population,  whereas  by  far  the  greater  part  of  the  emigration  move- 
ment to  the  United  States  is  drawn  from  the  southern  compart imenti 
and  from  the  peasant  class.  Moreover,  data  are  not  available  to  show 
the  relative  educational  status  of  country  and  city  dwellers  in  Italy 
but  it  was  stated  to  the  Commission  that  superior  school  facilities  in 
the  cities  had  considerably  reduced  the  degree  of  illiteracy  prevailing 
there.  This  fact  further  complicates  the  situation,  for  it  is  well 
known  that  the  country  districts  furnish  by  far  the  greater  proportion 
of  immigrants.  It  is,  therefore,  impossible  to  determine  from  exist- 
ing data  how  greatly  the  educational  status  of  Italian  immigrants  to 
the  United  States  differs  from  corresponding  groups  in  the  population 
of  Italy  as  a  whole. 

During  the  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909,  inclusive,  1,829,011  Italian 
immigrants,  14  years  of  age  and  over,  were  admitted  to  the  United 
States,  and  of  these  858,982,  or  47  per  cent,  were  illiterate.  The  dis- 
tribution of  these  immigrants  in  the  different  years,  and  among  North 
and  South  Italians,  is  shown  in  the  following  table : 

TABLE  33.— Number  and  per  cent  of  illiterates  among  Italian  immigrants  14 
years  of  age  and  over  admitted  to  the  United  States,  fiscal  years  1899  to  1909, 
inclusive. 

[Compiled  from  reports  of  the  United  States  Commissioner  General  of  Immigration.] 


Fiscal  year. 

Number  of  arrivals  14  years 
and  over. 

Numbmof  illiterates  14  years 
and  over. 

Per  cent  of  illiterates. 

North 
Italians. 

South 
Italians. 

Total. 

North 
Italians. 

South 
Italians. 

Total. 

North 
Italians. 

South 
Italians. 

Total. 

1899 

11,625 
15,742 
20,273 
25,405 
34,025 
33,066 
36,  361 
42,293 
47,556 
21,925 
22,  972 

53,266 
71,814 
99,910 
135.961 
174,498 
138,  434 
169,475 
213,982 
217,607 
92,082 
150,739 

64,891 
87,556 
120,183 
161,366 
208,523 
171,500 
205.836 
256,275 
265,163 
114,007 
173,711 

1,320 
1.804 
3,  122 
3,550 
4,283 
4,150 
5,058 
5,042 
4,741 
1,885 
1,908 

30,463 
39,  150 
58,493 
76,529 
84,512 
74,889 
95,  407 
114,957 
115,803 
46,654 
85,256 

31,783 
40,954 
61,615 
80,085 
88,  795 
79,039 
100,465 
119,999 
120,544 
48,539 
87,164 

11.4 
11.4 
15.3 
13.9 
12.5 
12.3 
13.9 
11.9 
9.9 
8.5 
8.3 

57.2 
54.5 
58.5 
56.2 
48.4 
54.0 
56.2 
53.7 
53.2 
50.6 
56.6 

49.0 
46.8 
51.3 
49.6 
42.6 
46.1 
48.8 
46.8 
45.5 
42.6 
50.2 

1900 

1901  

1902 

1903 

1904  

1905 

1906 

1907  

1908  

1909 

Total.. 

311,243 

1,517,768 

1,829,011 

36,869 

822,  113 

858,  982 

11.8 

54.2 

47.0 

As  stated  elsewhere  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Immigration  and 
Naturalization  classifies  as  North  Italians  the  people  who  are  native 
to  the  compartimenti  of  Piedmont,  Lombardy,  Venetia,  and  Emilia, 
while  natives  of  the  rest  of  Italy  are  classed  as  South  Italians.  Else- 
where in  this  report  the  racial  or  ethnological  difference  between 
North  and  South  Italians  is  discussed,0  and  it  is  shown  that,  in 
popular  opinion  at  least,  the  North  Italians  are  a  superior  race. 
The  above  table  shows  that  their  educational  status  is  much  above 
thatNof  the  South  Italians  just  as  the  tables  derived  from  Italian 
statistical  data  show  that  the  proportion  of  illiterates  in  the  popu- 
lation of  North  Italy  is  much  smaller  than  in  the  southern  comparti- 
menti. A  comparison  of  Table  33  with  the  preceding  tables,  how- 
ever, indicates  that  the  line  which  divides  the  people  of  Italy  into 
two  general  classes,  so  far  as  literacy  is  concerned,  can  not  be  drawn 

«See  p.  177. 


192  The  Immigration  Commission. 

between  North  and  South  Italians,  as  those  races  are  defined  by 
the  Bureau  of  Immigration.  This  conclusion  is  based  on  a  consider- 
ation of  illiteracy  in  Liguria  and  Emilia.  Geographically,  Liguria 
is  classed  as  a  part  of  Northern  Italy,  while  Emilia  is  one  of  the  so- 
called  central  compartimenti,  but  according  to  the  Bureau's  classi- 
fication the  people  of  the  former  are  South  Italians  and  those  of 
Emilia,  North  Italians.  Keference  to  Tables  28,  30,  and  32  shows 
that  the  educational  status  of  Ligurians,  who  are  South  Ital- 
ians, approximates  that  of  the  population  of  Piedmont  and  Lom- 
bardy,  who  are  North  Italians,  while  the  degree  of  illiteracy  pre- 
vailing among  the  people  of  Emilia,  also  North  Italians,  approxi- 
mates that  found  in  the  other  central  and  southern  compartimenti. 
From  this  comparison  it  would  appear  that  the  degree  of  illiteracy 
prevailing  in  the  different  sections  of  Italy  was  dependent  upon 
economic  and  other  conditions  rather  than  upon  race.  Liguria,  in 
every  way,  is  one  of  the  most'  advanced  sections  of  Italy,  and  Emilia, 
while  more  advanced  than  some  of  the  southern  compartimenti,  is, 
nevertheless,  generally  backward  when  compared  with  the  more 
northern  parts  of  the  country.  Consequently  it  would  seem  that 
backwardness  along  educational  and  other  lines  is  not  inherent  in 
the  South  Italian  nor  progress  in  the  North  Italian,  as  is  perhaps 
the  popular  belief  in  the  United  States. 

As  before  stated,  it  is  impossible  from  a  consideration  of  the  pre- 
ceding statistical  data  to  determine  whether  the  proportion  of  illiter- 
ates among  Italian  immigrants  to  the  United  States  is  greater  or 
less  than  among  corresponding  classes  in  Italy.  All  things  consid- 
ered, however,  the  group  considered  in  Table  32,  which  shows  the 
educational  status  of  persons  contracting  marriage,  more  nearly  cor- 
responds to  the  immigrant  group  than  any  of  the  others.  In  the 
matter  of  age  the  marriage  group  would  probably  correspond  rather 
closely  to  the  immigrant  group,  but,  as  before  pointed  out,  the  former 
is  drawn  from  all  sections  of  the  country  and  from  all  classes  of  the 
population,  while  immigrants  are  largely  from  the  peasant  class  of 
the  more  southern  compartimenti.  Moreover,  among  the  immigrants 
males  predominate,  and  males  are  conspicuously  less  illiterate  than 
females.  It  will  be  noted  from  the  two  tables  referred  to  that  in 
1905  36.9  of  the  total  population  contracting  marriage  and  48.8  per 
cent  of  the  immigrants  were  illiterate. 

EFFECTS    OF   EDUCATIONAL    TEST. 

In  ascertaining  the  educational  status  of  immigrants  to  the  United 
States  no  practical  test  is  applied,  and  the  data  upon  the  subject 
result  only  from  an  inquiry  as  to  the  ability  of  each  individual  to  read 
and  write.  The  records  of  the  Immigration  Bureau,  however,  as 
shown  in  Table  33  so  nearly  approximate  the  Italian  records  shown  in 
other  tables  that  it  is  safe  to  assume  that  the  data  relative  to  arriving 
immigrants  fairly  represent  the  educational  status  of  Italians  coming 
to  the  United  States.  Therefore,  if  illiterates,  without  exceptions, 
were  denied  admission  Italian  immigration  undoubtedly  would  be 
reduced  to  about  one-half  its  present  volume. 

It  is  certain  that  the  peasant  classes  of  the  southern  compartimenti 
would  be  severely  affected  by  the  application  of  a  literary  test,  but  it 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  193 

may  be  doubted  whether  such  a  test  would  very  greatly  reduce  the 
coming  of  the  morally  undesirable.  No  data  are  available  to  sl^v 
conclusively  what  sections  of  Italy  furnish  the  criminal  clement, 
which  is  so  prominent  among  Itatian  immigrants,  but  different  per- 
sons conversant  with  the  subject  expressed  to  the  Commission  the 
belief  that  the  great  majority  of  such  criminals  were  products  of  the 
cities  and  towns.  The  Commission  was  unable  to  secure  statistics 
relative  to  the  literacy  of  criminals  in  Italy,  but  all  available  informa- 
tion leads  to  a  belief  that  as  a  rule  the  worst  type  of  the  Italian  crimi- 
nal possesses  some  degree  of  education. 

Passed  Asst.  Surg.  Allan  J.  McLaughlin,  of  the  United  States 
Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service,  a  well-known  writer  on 
immigration  subjects,  who  was  in  charge  of  the  Naples  station  at  the 
time  of  the  Commission's  visit,  made  the  following  statement  to  the 
Commission : 

The  adoption  of  an  educational  test  by  the  United  States  would  fall  heavier 
on  the  contadini  than  on  the  city  population.  The  city  population  is  smart. 
The  rascal  who  makes  trouble  in  New  York  is  very  apt  to  be  able  to  read  and 
write,  while  the  innocent,  simple,  childlike  contadini  are  illiterate. 

In  discussing  the  relative  literacy  of  city  and  country  immigrants 
with  a  member  of  the  Commission,  Homer  M.  Byington,  American 
vice-consul  at  Naples,  said:  • 

There  are  no  statistics  as  to  those  coming  from  the  cities,  but  from  my  expe- 
rience I  should  say  that  the  percentage  would  be  very  much  larger,  because  the 
people  in  the  country  have  absolutely  no  facilities  for  education,  whereas  in  the 
cities  the  majority  learn  to  read  and  write.  With  regard  to  the  ability  of  the 
city  criminal  to  read  and  write  I  will  say  that  it  depends  entirely  upon  the  class 
you  take  him  from.  There  are  two  classes  from  the  cities — the  lower  class  and 
the  highqr  class.  The  higher  class  all  know  how  to  read  and  write  and  depend 
upon  their  wit  and  ability  in  crime,  whereas  the  lower  class  depend  upon  their 
physical  force.  In  Naples  most  of  the  leaders  of  the  secret  societies,  like  the 
Mafia  and  the  Camorra,  know  how  to  read  and  write. 


CHAPTER  VT. 


CRIME  IN  ITALY, 

CHARACTER  AND   NUMBER  OF  CRIMES  REPORTED,  1880-1906. 

Criminality  among  Italians  in  the  United  States  has  become  a  mat- 
ter of  such  great  moment  in  recent  years  that  a  brief  study  of  the 
crimes  of  that  race  in  their  native  country  will  be  of  interest.  For- 
tunately official  records  are  available  to  show  the  number  of  crimes 
of  different  classes  reported  to  the  authorities  in  Italy  for  various 
periods  of  time  from  1880  to  1906,  and  these  data  for  Italy  as  a  whole, 
as  well  as  for  each  compartimento,  are  presented  in  the  tables  which 
follow.  It  will  be  understood  that  in  each  instance  the  tables  refer 
to  crimes  committed  and  reported  rather  than  to  convictions  for 
crimes,  the  former  data  obviously  being  of  greater  value  for  the  pur- 
pose at  hand  because  they  more  nearly  indicate  the  actual  prevalence 
of  crime  in  Italy. 

The  first  series  of  tables  show  the  number  and  class  of  crimes  re- 
ported in  each  compartimento  in  the  years  specified. 

TABLE  34. — Number  and  character  of  crimes  on  which  action  was  taken  by  the 
office  of  the  public  prosecutor,  and  by  the  prwtors,  Italy,  in  various  periods 
from  1880  to  1906,  by  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  Statistica  Guidiziaria  Penale,  per  gli  anni  1905-1906,  Roma,  1909.] 

PIEDMONT. 


Description  of  crimes. 

1880  to 
1886. 

1887  to 

1889. 

1890  to 
1892. 

1893  to 
1895. 

1896  to 
1898. 

1899  to 
1901. 

1902  to 
1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority 

707 
824 

332 
232 
4,193 
3,756 

170 
7,735 
1,470 

5,412 

9,908 

813 
1,386 

282 
194 
3,870 
4,221 

231 
8,871 
1,342 

4,860 
15,212 

962 
1,528 

337 
235 
4,674 
4,701 

244 
8,641 
1,541 

5,767 
14,654 

923 
1,599 

361 
199 
4,713 
5,224 

260 
9,437 
1,673 

6,262 
13,990 

955 
1,109 

383 
202 
4,794 
5,413 

214 

8,578 
1,823 

6,740 
15,797 

965 
1,452 

395 
187 
4,690 
5,387 

219 
9,063 
1,593 

7,470 
14,925 

1,078 
2,000 

389 
168 
4,756 
4,721 

197 
10.074 
1,593 

6,833 
15,499 

1,139 
2,215 

418 
132 
4,441 
4.677 

263 
11,097 
1,720 

6,979 
16,290 

Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit  
Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  

1,755 

237 
258 

Criminal  libel  and  slander 

Robbery,     extortion,     and 
blackmail                       

278 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in    the   penal   code,    and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special  laws 
and  in  general  and  local 
regulations  

Total              



34,739 

41,282 

43,284 

44,641 

46,008 

46,346 

47,308 

49,371 

195 


196 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  34. — Number  and  character  of  crimes  on  which  action  was  taken  by  the 
office  of  the  public  prosecutor,  etc. — Continued. 

LIGURIA. 


Description  of  crimes. 

1880  to 
1886. 

1887  to 
1889. 

1890  to 
1892. 

1893  to 
1895. 

1896  to 
1898. 

1899  to 
1901. 

1902  to 
1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority 

557 

588 

741 

585 

597 

694 

782 

794 

Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit  

643 

427 

686 

809 

444 

390 

374 

570 

800 

Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  
Murder  and  homicide  

121 
99 

1.58 
113 

164 
109 

215 
102 

193 

82 

227 
79 

254 
73 

257 

88 

222 
80 

Willful  personal  injuries 

2,390 

2,137 

2,220 

2,253 

2,180 

2,  699 

2.964 

2,867 

Criminal  libel  and  slander  

2,385 

2,870 

3,090 

3,620 

3,511 

3,261 

3,115 

3,448 

Robbery,  extortion,  and 
blackmail 

48 

97 

122 

76 

89 

96 

121 

137 

154 

Larceny 

3  601 

4,277 

3,993 

4,628 

5,035 

5,316 

5,  768 

6,003 

Swindles  and  other  frauds.  . 

728 

768 

9G6 

1,023 

983 

1,030 

1,085 

1,132 

Other  crimes  foreseen  in  the 
penal  code  

2,407 

2,668 

3,062 

3,477 

2,771 

3,039 

3,090 

3,390 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in  the  penal  code,  and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special  laws 
and  in  general  or  local  regu- 
lations    

7,630 

12,602 

10,653 

12,077 

12,808 

14,075 

15,234 

14,637 

Total 

20  493 

26  991 

25,  927 

28,  471 

28,677 

30,936 

33,090 

33,527 

LOMBARDS. 


Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority  

753 

998 

376 
110 

4,  4(19 
3,788 

113 

8,156 
1,904 

5,437 
13,191 

793 
1,243 

313 
103 

3,767 
4,783 

179 
9,795 
1,830 

4,729 
16,  627 

866 
1,335 

357 
120 
4,267 
5,124 

162 
9,  672 
1,833 

5,235 
16,837 

1,009 
1,550 

418 
108 
4,983 
5,357 

191 
11,335 
2,552 

5,902 
16,548 

1,063 
1,043 

430 

96 
5,911 
5,753 

272 
11,040 
2,407 

6,825 
20,142 

1,200 
1,202 

485 
121 
6,  256 
6,232 

298 
12,  996 
2,546 

8,038 
20,767 

1,256 

1,796 

474 
101 
6,520 
6,  103 

302 
14,  691 
2,546 

7,916 
22,460 

1,662 
1,558 

476 
147 
6,331 
6,  333 

367 
16,  196 
2,417 

7,380 
24,774 

Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit 

1,335 

317 
126 

171 

Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  
Murder  and  homicide  

Willful  personal  injuries  
Criminal  libel  and  slander  
Robbery,     extortion,     and 
blackmail  

Larceny 

Swindles  and  other  frauds  
Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the 
penal  code 

Misdemeanors  provided  for  in 
the  penal  code  and  crimes 
and    misdemeanors    pro- 
vided for  in  special  laws 
and  in  general  or  local  regu- 
lations 

Total  

39,295 

44,  162 

45,  808 

49,953 

54,  982 

60,  141 

64,  225 

67,  641 

VENETIA. 


Violence,  resistance  to  and 
insults  against  authority... 
Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit 

1  677 

933 
734 

914 

868 

907 
1  046 

1,056 
1  082 

1,131 

674 

919 

785 

1,090 
930 

1,187 
1  423 

Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals 
Murder  and  homicide 

260 
151 

345 
132 

265 
106 

287 
103 

290 
85 

256 
84 

295 

77 

315 
65 

360 
72 

Willful  personal  injuries  

3,001 

3,245 

3,518 

3,575 

3,657 

4  25Q 

4  042 

4  266 

Criminal  libel  and  slander 

4,772 

5,  118 

5  344 

5  712 

5  810 

6  190 

6  ^8 

5  871 

Robbery,  extortion,  and 
blackmail 

101 

79 

94 

104 

102 

80 

79 

100 

90 

Larcenv 

12,  107 

10,915 

9,074 

8  478 

7  559 

8  744 

9  135 

q  989 

Swindles  and  other  frauds 

1  516 

1  266 

1  205 

1  344 

1  443 

1  150 

1  234 

1  287 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the 
penal  code 

5,363 

4  912 

5  141 

5  333 

5  654 

6  184 

6  362 

6  516 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in  the  penal  code,  and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special  laws 
and  in  general  or  local  regu- 
lations 

14  049 

16  536 

17  344 

16  942 

18  194 

17  859 

19  293 

29  165 

Total 

43  031 

44  239 

44,  073 

43  999 

44  542 

46  541 

48  834 

60  226 

Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


197 


TABLE  34.— dumber  and  character  of  crime*  on  which  action  mis  taken  by  the 
office  of  the  public  prosecutor,  etc. — Continued. 


EMILIA. 


Description  of  crimes. 

1880  to 
1886. 

1887  to 
1889. 

1890  to 
1892. 

1893  to 
J89S. 

1896  to 
1898. 

1899  to 
190). 

1902  to 
1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority  .  .  . 

550 

788 

873 

ono 

Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit  

1  447 

783 

901 

1  191 

836 

842 

Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  
Murder  and  homicide 

16l' 
158 

204 
141 

180 
141 

178 

218 

247 

249 

1,181 
284 

1,259 
273 

\\  illful  personal  inj  uries  

3  037 

2  754 

2  047 

9   ggl 

9   Q(*r 

103 

118 

Criminal  libel  and  slander  
Ilobbery,     extortion,     and 
blackmail  

213 

2,411) 
135 

2,709 
187 

3,178 

3,418 

3,376 

3,612 

3,408 

3,420 

Larceny  . 

5  817 

0  475 

154 

Swindles  and  other  frauds 

1  045 

944 

936 

9,535 

9,417 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the 
penal  code  

4  324 

4  948 

4  055 

4  675 

5  315 

c    790 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in  the  penal  code  and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special  laws 
and  in  general  or  local  regu- 
lations 

10  733 

14  0^7 

17  166 

91  17s; 

Total  

29  1S5 

34  390 

3"  G93 

40  718 

40    C77 

TUSCANY. 


Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority.  .  . 

202 

702 

894 

926 

890 

927 

962 

968 

Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit.  . 

731 

704 

911 

1  183 

1  099 

838 

1  060 

815 

472 

Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  
Murder  and  homicide 

274 
224 

288 
162 

240 
131 

263 
151 

254 
122 

283 
101 

313 
110 

255 
91 

236 
90 

Willful  personal  injuries  

3,000 

2,  931 

3,270 

3,400 

3,588 

4,434 

4,838 

3,938 

Criminal  libel  and  slander.  . 

3,577 

2,  951 

3,208 

3  370 

3,225 

3  235 

3  102 

2  823 

Robbery,  extortion,  and 
blackmail 

147 

124 

110 

147 

207 

210 

172 

153 

155 

Larceny  

4,588 

5,  394 

5,  429 

0,  553 

7,442 

7,201 

7,593 

8,104 

Swindles  and  other  frauds 

888 

831 

981 

1  190 

1.205 

1,210 

1,012 

850 

Other  crimes  foreseen  \iy  the 
penal  code  

3,506 

3,334 

4,  103 

4,710 

5,004 

5,097 

5,184 

5,430 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in  the  penal  code,  and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special 
laws,  and  in  general  or 
local  regulations  

15,  831 

17,  606 

26,  490 

34,585 

32,878 

25,888 

30,853 

30,966 

Total 

33  530 

35  201 

46.  119 

50,503 

55,  670 

49,  647 

54,858 

54,032 

MARCHES  AND  UMBRIA. 


Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority.  . 
Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit  

847 

519 
581 

592 
]  ,  052 

652 

982 

718 
012 

669 

487 

636 
499 

651 

474 

.595 
506 

Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  
Murder  and  homicide  
Willful  personal  injuries 

142 
206 

170 
108 

3,886 

158 
162 
3,  595 

16U 
168 
3,048 

183 
135 

4,000 

185 
101 
3,537 

211 
97 
3,842 

186 
96 
4,321 

230 
106 
4,300 

Criminal  libel  and  slander  .  .  . 

1.808 

2,408 

2,908 

3,  185 

3.  J21 

2,976 

2,  603 

2,585 

Robbery,     extortion,     and 
blackmail 

08 

40 

74 

83 

84 

01 

60 

60 

70 

Larceny 

3.601 

4,538 

4.874 

5.656 

o,  904 

6,015 

5,  391 

5,546 

Swindles  and  other  frauds  

642 

635 

655 

751 

694 

590 

617 

618 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the 
penal  code 

3,  019 

3,879 

4,070 

4,  673 

4,917 

4.982 

4,322 

4,366 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in    the   penal    code,    and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided    for    in    special 
laws  and  in  general  or  local 
regulations  

7,305 

8.583 

9,102 

9.509 

9,  877 

9,  .569 

9,473 

9,9(52 

Total 

21,  859 

25,  676 

27,  371 

29,512 

29,613 

29,  477 

28,194 

28,884 

198 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  34. — Number  and  character  of  crimes  on  which  action  was  taken  by  the 
office  of  the  public  prosecutor,  etc. — Continued. 

ROMA  (LATIUM). 


Description  of  crimes. 

1880  to 
1886. 

1887  to 
1889. 

1890  to 
1892.- 

1893  to 
1895. 

1896  to 
1898. 

1899  to 
1901. 

1902  to 
1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority 

1,020 

1,308 

1,267 

1,254 

1,362 

1,489 

1,470 

1,539 

Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit  .  .  

452 

617 

913 

839 

743 

1,224 

1,448 

1,124 

792 

Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  
Murder  and  homicide  

188 
235 

250 

250 

261 
191 

278 
209 

266 
143 

382 
131 

461 
158 

362 
136 

325 

104 

Willful  personal  injuries     .  . 

4,977 

3,821 

3,791 

4,696 

4,618 

4,377 

3,976 

3  940 

Criminal  libel  and  slander 

1,613 

2,298 

2,902 

3,670 

3,954 

3,933 

2,907 

2,734 

Robbery,  extortion,  and 
blackmail  .  .  .... 

153 

166 

166 

204 

JOG 

121 

120 

146 

120 

Larceny 

6,195 

6,674 

7,970 

7,982 

8,269 

8,919 

9,580 

9,822 

Swindles  and  other  frauds  .  .  . 

1,305 

1,385 

1,778 

1,772 

1,875 

1,913 

2,OS1 

1,469 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the 
penal  code 

4,109 

4,525 

5,311 

6,778 

7,072 

7,541 

6,557 

5,530 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in  the  penal  code,  and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special  laws 
and  in  general  or  local  regu- 
lations   

16,  738 

32,  101 

43,687 

79,543 

74,  697 

69,606 

78,  775 

87,599 

Total 

37,240 

53,643 

68,236 

107,  013 

103,  705 

99  965 

107  114 

113  974 

CAMPANIA  AND  MOLISE.a 


Violence  and  resistance  to  and 
insults  against  authority  .  .  . 
Offenses  against  public  faith 

1,470 

1,808 
1,509 

2,435 
1,729 

2,562 
1,603 

2,724 
1,646 

2,504 

1,254 

2,502 
1  662 

2,450 
1  159 

2,597 
1  270 

Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  

662 

575 

990 

1,095 

1,276 

1,460 

1,694 

1,238 

1  478 

Murder  and  homicide            ^ 

1,139 

807 

830 

802 

855 

725 

673 

580 

434 

Willful  personal  injuries 

18,  487 

16,  279 

16,702 

17,  549 

17  264 

20  238 

19  793 

17  672 

Criminal  libel  and  slander  
Robbery,    extortion,    and 
blackmail  

524 

4,877 
281 

8,  984 
339 

10,  798 
382 

12,  408 
560 

11,  842 
494 

12,410 
954 

10,  837 
1,139 

11,008 
1,557 

Larceny                    

9,913 

11,854 

12,  928 

15,  805 

16,  791 

16,131 

13  951 

14  618 

Swindles  and  other  frauds 

2,121 

2,616 

2,645 

3,476 

3,388 

3  666 

3  464 

3  660 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the 
penal  code 

14,  530 

16,  395 

18,  758 

22,  517 

24,036 

24,  964 

21,  692 

25  561 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in  the  penal  code  and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special  laws 
and  in  general  or  local  regu- 
lations 

29,808 

41,  9C1 

38,  959 

45,  351 

42  384 

48  387 

48  649 

60  987 

Total      

84,  716 

104,  352 

107,  234 

124,  167 

122,  142 

133  281 

124  952 

140  742 

a  The  data  for  the  years  1880-1886  refer  not  only  to  Campania  and  Molise,  but  also  to  Basilicata,  because 
the  penal  statistics  up  to  the  end  of  1883  do  not  distinguish  the  proceedings  of  the  courts  of  Potenza  from 
that  of  the  court  of  appeals  at  Naples. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


199 


TABLE  34.— Number  and  character  of  crimes  on  which  action  was  taken  by  the 
office  of  the  public  prosecutor,  etc.— Continued. 

BASILlCATA.o 


Description  of  crimes. 

1880  to 
1886. 

1887  to 
1889. 

1890  to 
1892. 

1893  to 
1895. 

1896  to 
1898. 

1899  to 
1901. 

1902  to 
1904. 

1995. 

1906. 

Violence,  resistance  to  and 
insults  against  authority... 
Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit  

284 
120 

224 
162 

236 
180 

215 
227 

247 

223 

168 

167 

Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals 

151 

163 

374 

220 

Murder  and  homicide  

149 

125 

113 

92 

173 

161 

Willful  personal  injuries 

2,721 

2  273 

2  145 

2  OQI 

Criminal  libel  and  slander 

1,011 

1  297 

1  682 

1  079 

1,793 

Robbery,  extortion,  and 
blackmail  

23 

20 

21 

38 

00 

1,176 

Larceny 

3,512 

3  827 

3  181 

2  950 

o    i  ep 

Swindles  and  other  frauds  

246 

209 

223 

272 

316 

oni 

OQ1 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the 
penal  code 

2,504 

2,954 

3  652 

3  677 

3  G70 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in  the  penal  code,  and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special 
laws  and  in  general  or 
local  regulations 

3,788 

3,811 

3  280 

3  121 

3  091 

3  054 

2  758 

2  9">fi 

Total  

14,509 

15,065 

14  887 

14  633 

14  631 

14  610 

12  865 

12  379 

ABRUZZI. 


Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority... 

513 

508 

528 

C87 

634 

672 

570 

481 

Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit  
Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  
Murder  and  homicide  
Willful  personal  injuries  
Criminal  libel  and  slander.   . 

520 

166 
220 

424 

167 
180 
5,442 
1,733 

536 

210 

180 
4,767 
2,858 

523 

252 
164 
4.728 
3,  549 

306 

341 
175 
5,186 
4,325 

294 

326 
158 
4,971 
4,091 

386 

319 
111 
5,296 
3,505 

433 

357 
103 
5,246 
3  354 

372 

306 
97 
4,550 
3  057 

Robbery,  extortion,  and 
blackmail  

43 

21 

31 

47 

55 

42 

29 

30 

35 

Larceny 

5,018 

5,593 

5,719 

6,668 

6,689 

7,019 

5,755 

5,530 

Swindles  and  other  frauds 

401 

352 

437 

547 

608 

606 

400 

371 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the 
penal  code 

3,608 

4,899 

5,596 

6,996 

6,790 

6,476 

5,348 

5,305 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in    the   penal   code,    and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special  laws 
and  in  general  or  in  local 
regulations  

8,692 

8,900 

8,254 

8,754 

8,742 

9,558 

9,014 

8,564 

Total 

26,  199 

28,  834 

29,  797 

34,  040 

33,345 

33,977 

30,610 

28,668 

0  For  the  three  years  1884-1886  data  for  Basilicata  were  recorded  separately  instead  of 
with  data  for  Campania  and  Molise,  as  had  been  the  practice  previously.  During  the  three 
years  the  character  and  number  of  crimes  reported  were  as  follows  :  Counterfeiting  and 
forgery,  116;  offenses  against  public  decency  and  good  morals,  106;  murder  and  homicide, 
126  ;  robbery,  extortion,  and  blackmail,  27. 


79524°— VOL  4— 11- 


-14 


200 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  34. — Number  and  character  of  crimes  on  which  action  was  taken  by  the 
office  of  the  public  prosecutor,  etc. — Continued. 

APULIA. 


Description  of  crimes. 

ISSO.to 
1886. 

1887  to 
1889. 

1890  to 
1892. 

1893  to 
1895. 

1896  to 
1908. 

1899  to 
1901. 

1902  to 
1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority.  .  - 

1,070 
419 

308 
249 
7.249 
3,216 

86 
6,  693 
978 

4,652 
9,984 

948 
812 

493 
227 
7,017 
4,999 

112 
6,640 
832 

6,621 
10,630 

1,003 

787 

596 
243 
7,655 
6,419 

99 
7,398 
1,145 

8,366 
11,  107 

1,238 

754 

818 
289 
8,402 
7,316 

127 
9,788 
1,494 

10,185 
11,870 

1,214 
818 

784 
228 
8,273 
7,367 

133 
11,938 
1,427 

11,039 
11,435 

1,375 
712 

775 
187 
8,  636 
6,737 

138 
13,681 
1,388 

11,745 
11,788 

1,219 
510 

701 
152 

8,265 
6,088 

130 
10,816 
1,178 

10,  361 
11,740 

1,290 
428 

758 
165 
8,153 
6,014 

151 
10,554 
1,021 

10,609 
11,691 

Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit 

545 

216 
256 

Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  
Murder  and  homicide 

Willful  personal  injuries 

Criminal  libel  and  slander  

Robbery,  extortion,  and 
blackmail 

77 

Larceny  

Swindles  and  other  frauds  .  .  . 

Other  crimes  foreseen  in  the 
penal  code 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in  the  penal  code,  and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special 
laws,  and  in  general  or  in 
local  regulations 

Total  

34,904 

39,331 

44,818 

52,281 

54,  656 

57,  162 

51,160. 

50,837 

CALABRIA. 


Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority 

802 

801 

864 

888 

898 

766 

787 

790 

Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit  . 

230 

267 

437 

641 

585 

519 

423 

533 

450 

Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  
Murder  and  homicide 

373 
423 

464 
358 

507 
339 

549 
354 

590 

267 

549 
251 

634 
174 

642 
166 

591 

165 

Willful  personal  injuries  

9,106 

7,890 

7,  904 

8,048 

7,358 

7,330 

7  048 

6  806 

Criminal  libel  and  slander 

3  480 

4  869 

5  218 

5  616 

5  566 

5  250 

4  476 

4  926 

Robbery,  extortion,  and 
blackmail 

85 

77 

83 

125 

122 

82 

103 

75 

Larceny  . 

5  003 

5  702 

5  645 

7  567 

8  717 

6  777 

5  636 

5  931 

Swindles  and  other  frauds.  .. 

865 

773 

795 

992 

1,027 

887 

'675 

'757 

Other  crimes  foreseen  in  the 
penal  code 

7  824 

10  214 

10  726 

12  124 

12  071 

11  035 

q  132 

10  331 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in  the  penal  code,  and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special  laws 
and  in  general  or  in  local 
regulations 

12  098 

12  446 

11  158 

12  327 

11  568 

10  500 

9  820 

10  441 

Total    

40  352 

44  055 

43  937 

49  129 

48  646 

43  957 

39  018 

41  263 

SICILY. 


Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority 

1,643 

1,696 

1,999 

2,057 

2  050 

1  858 

1  833 

1  610 

Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit  
Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  
Murder  and  homicide  

826 

570 
939 

900 

674 
875 

1,405 

1,058 
984 

1,615 

1,307 
954 

1,560 

1.615 
1.000 

1,574 

1,774 
918 

1.438 

1,946 
826 

1,339 

1,912 

787 

1,092 

1,901 

727 

Willful  personal  injuries 

13,217 

11,733 

12,174 

12,912 

12  392 

13  207 

12  475 

11  314 

Criminal  libel  and  slander 

6,897 

10,  128 

12,  308 

13  501 

13  302 

13  900 

11  860 

11  168 

Robbery,  extortion,  and 
blackinail 

515 

470 

645 

841 

1,049 

1  060 

1  114 

1  272 

I  006 

Larceny 

11,178 

12,  940 

13,  793 

17,445 

19  107 

15  980 

16  243 

14  369 

Swindles  and  other  frauds.  .  . 

2,  366 

2,186 

2,696 

3,396 

3,  583 

3,152 

3  125 

2  814 

Other  crimes  foreseen  in  the 
penal  code 

11,545 

15,  782 

19,  095 

21,587 

21  800 

21  639 

19  446 

18  764 

Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in  the  penal  code,  and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  loi  in  special  laws 
and  in  general  or  in  local 
regulations 

15.682 

16,254 

17,225 

18,  558 

10  781 

17  967 

°0  652 

18  347 

Total      

65,447 

74,811 

84,007 

94,680 

97,431 

93,027 

90,944 

83,112 

Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


201 


TABLE  34.— Number  and  character  of  crimes  on  which  action  was  taken  by  the 
office  of  the  public  prosecutor,  etc.— Continued. 

SARDINIA. 


Description  of  crimes 

1880  to 
1886. 

1887  to 
1889. 

1890  to 
1892. 

1893  to 
1895. 

1896  to 
1898. 

1899  to 
1901. 

1902  to 
1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

Violence,  resistance  to,  and 
insults  against  authority..  . 

415 
138 

128 
164 
2,023 
3,338 

88 
4,887 
865 

6,471 
6,225 

421 

476 

151 
171 
1,906 
4,104 

149 
5,760 
903 

7,050 
7,575 

619 
551 

177 
194 
2,121 
4,331 

202 
6,624 
1,298 

7,437 
10,  571 

620 
531 

173 
209 
2,087 
4,383 

196 
8,075 
1,422 

8,102 
8,342 

638 
467 

209 
153 
2,180 
4,362 

161 
8,436 
1,778 

10,035 
8,958 

617 

487 

211 
151 

2,438 
4,500 

131 

8,663 
1,778 

10,  555 
7,708 

676 
428 

217 
145 

2,462 
4,048 

140 

7,777 
1,661 

9,612 
7,135 

593 

489 

189 
117 
2,265 
3,703 

167 
8,311 
1,434 

9,534 
7,327 

Offenses  against  public  faith 
and  credit  
Offenses  against  public  de- 
cency and  good  morals  
Murder  and  homicide  

344 

102 
186 

Willful  personal  injuries  

Criminal  libel  and  slander 

Robbery,     extortion,     and 
blackmail    . 

97 

Larceny  

Swindles  and  other  frauds  .  .  . 
Other  crimes  foreseen  in  the 
penal  code  



Misdemeanors  provided  for 
in    the    penal  code,   and 
crimes  and  misdemeanors 
provided  for  in  special  law« 
and  in  general  or  local  regu- 
lations           ..    .  . 

Total       

24,742 

28,666 

34,  125 

34,  140 

37,377 

37,239 

34,301 

34,129 

The  above  data  are  presented  for  Italy  as  a  whole  in  the  following 
table,  which  also  shows  the  relation  between  the  crimes  of  each  class 
and  the  total  population  of  the  country : 

TABLE  35. — Average  annual  number  of  crimes  on  which  action  was  taken  by 
the  office  of  the  public  prosecutor,  and  by  the  prwtors,  and  the  proportion  of 
crimes  to  every  100,000  inhabitants,  Italy,  in  various  periods  from  1880  to 
1906,  by  class  of  crime. 

[Compiled  from  Statistica  Giudiziaria  Penale,  per  gli  anni  1905-1906,  Roma,  1909.] 


Description  of  crime. 

1880  to  1886. 

1887  to  1889. 

1890  to  1892. 

Average 
annual 
number. 

To  every 
100,000 
inhabit- 
ants. 

Average 
annual 
number. 

To  every 
100,000 
inhabit- 
ants. 

Average 
annual 
number. 

To  every 

100,000 
inhabit- 
ants. 

Violence,  resistance  to,  and  insults  against 

11,775 
9,  446 

4,590 
4,089 
87,796 

48,  727 
1,977 
98,005 
17,342 

84,774 

181,720 

39.62 
31.78 

15.44 
13.76 
295.  41 
163.96 
6.65 
329.  76 
58.35 
285.23 

611.43» 

13,  531 
13,577 

5,441 
3,993 
77,985 
64,657 
2,536 
109,  255 
16,872 
97,071 

235,780 

44.58 
44.73 

17.  93 
13.16 
256.94 
213.  03 
8.36 
359.  97 
65.  59 
319.83 

776.85 

Offenses  against  the  public  faith  and  credit. 
Offenses  against  public  decency  and  good 

12,  822 

3,789 
4,260 

44.70 

13.20 
16.10 

2,559 

8.89 

Misdemeanors  provided  for  in  the  penal 
code,  and  crimes  and  misdemeanors  pro- 
vided for  in  special  laws  or  in  local  and 
general  regulations  

550,241 

1,851.39 

640,698 

2,  110.  97 

202 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  35. — Average  annual  number  of  crimes  on  which  action  was  taken  by  the 
office  of  the  public  prosecutor,  etc. — Continued. 


Description  of  crime. 

1893  to  1895. 

1896  to  1898. 

1899  to  1901. 

Average 
annual 
number. 

To  every 
100,000 
inhabit- 
ants. 

.A  verage 
annual 
number. 

To  every 
100,000 
inhabit- 
ants. 

Average 
annual 
number. 

To  every 
100,000 
inhabit-      | 
ants. 

Violence,  resistance  to,  and  insults  against 
authority  
Offenses  against  the  public  faith  and  credit. 
Offenses  against  public  decency  and  good 
morals                                         

14,973 
14,813 

6,234 

4.043 
81,464 
74,  820 
2,852 
112,121 
19,134 
110,374 

256,488 

48.33 
47.81 

20.12 
13.05 
262.  94 
241.  50 
9.20 
361.90 
61.76 
356.26 

827.  87 

15,704 
13,521 

7,157 
3,874 
86,737 
82,  790 
3,  427 
130,240 
23,022 
127,003 

310,  402 

49.68 
42.77 

22.64 
12.25 
274.  38 
261.  80 
10.84 
412.00 
72.83 
401.  76 

98i.  91 

15,599 
11,599 

7,676 
3,411 
85,798 
82,394 
3,221 
136,  387 
23,651 
133,  739 

311,527 

48.38 
35.97 

23.81 
10.58 
266.11 
255.55 
9.99 
423.  01 
73.35 
414.  79 

966.21 

Murder  and  homicide 

Willful  personal  injuries  

Criminal  libel  and  slander.  .  
Robbery  extortion   and  blackmail 

Larceny                                        

Swindling  and  other  frauds 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the  penal  code.  .  . 
Misdemeanors  provided  for  in  the  penal 
code,  and  crimes  and  misdemeanors  pro- 
vided for  in  special  laws  or  in  local  and 
general  regulations 

Total            

697,316 

2,  250.  74 

803,877 

2,  542.  95 

815,  002 

2,  527.  75 

Description  of  crime. 

1902  to  1904. 

1905. 

1906. 

Average 
annual 
number. 

To  every 
100.000 
inhabit- 
ants. 

Number. 

To  every 
100,000 
inhabit- 
ants. 

Number. 

To  every 
100,000* 
inhabit- 
ants. 

Violence,  resistance  to,  and  insults  against 

16,596 
13,111 

8,412 
3,106 
92,  717 
82,563 
3,676 
138,564 
22,884 
138,408 

298,644 

47.  51 
39.  91 

25.  H2 
9.46 
282.  43 
251.  50 
11.19 
422.08 
69.  56 
421.  61 

909.  70 

15,828 
13,  432 

7,762 
2,847 
91,471 
74,  214 
4,  131 
134,  676 
22,  047 
124,  830 

320,  249 

47.56 
40.36 

23.  32 
8.55 
274.83 
222.  98 
12.41 
404.  64 
66.24 
375.  06 

962.20 

16,  254 
13,  346 

7,924 
2,612 
85,593 
72,  943 
4,391 
138.  144 
'  20,  711 
128,744 

354,918 

48.  60 
39.90 

23.69 
7.81 
255.  94 
218.  12 
13.13 
413.  09 
61.  96 
384.99 

1,061.31 

Offenses  against  the  p  ablic  faith  and  credit  . 
Offenses  against  public  decency  and  good 
morals                                       

Murder  and  homicide  

Willful  personal  injuries 

Criminal  libel  and  slander  

Robbery,  extortion,  and  blackmail  

Swindling  and  other  frauds  
Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the  penal  code  
Misdemeanors  provided  for  in  the  penal 
code,  and  crimes  and  misdemeanors  pro- 
vided for  in  special  laws  or  in  local  and 
general  regulations  

Total 

817,631 

2,  490.  60 

811,  487 

2,  438.  15 

845,580 

2,528.54 

A  comparison  between  crimes  of  each  class  and  the  total  population 
of  the  different  compartimenti  in  the  period  1902  to  1906,  inclusive^ 
is  presented  in  the  table  next  submitted. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


203 


TABLTC  3(>. — Proportion  of  crimes  to  every  100,000  inhabitants,  based  on  tlic 
average  annual  number  of  crimes  in  the  period  1902  to  1906,  inclusive,  Italy, 
by  compartinienti  and  class  of  crime. 

[Compiled  from  Statistica  Giudiziaria  Penale  per  gli  anni,  1905-1906,  Roma,  1909.] 


Description  of  crime. 


Proportion  of  crimes  to  every  100,000  inhabitants  in- 


Pied- 
mont. 


Liguria. 


Lom- 
bardy. 


Venetia. 


Emilia. 


Tuscany. 


Violence,  resistance  to,  and  insults  against 
authority 

Offenses  against  the  public  faith  and  credit. 

Offenses  against  public  decency  and  good 
morals 

Murder  and  homicide 

Willful  personal  injuries 

Criminal  libel  and  slander 

Robbery,  extortion,  and  blackmail 

Theft  (larceny) 

Swindling  and  other  frauds 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the  penal  code. . 

Misdemeanors  provided  for  in  the  penal 
code,  and  crimes  and  misdemeanors  pro- 
vided for  in  special  laws,  and  in  local  or 
general  regulations 


27.28 
45.75 

10.63 

4.59 

124. 18 

136. 42 

5.96 

258. 11 

43.20 

193. 33 


408.65 


56.68 


19.22 

6.00 

215.80 

253.27 

10.15 
429.54 

82.25 
241.71 


1,117.17 


32.50 
34.69 

11.99 

3.05 

157. 66 

155.22 

8.10 

348.39 

62.83 

196.50 


546.15 


30.96 
28.97 


2.26 
129.70 
188.91 

2.62 

279.02 

36.74 

193.34 


627.69 


31.83 
45.61 

10.54 

4.07 

118.09 

142.80 

5.77 

367.45 

42.56 

233.44 


734,08 


38.85 
36.84 

11.78 
4.21 

182.06 
128.89 
6.80 
307.59 
45.29 
213.61 


1,150.23 


Total . 


1,258.10 


2,470.42 


1,537.1 


1,529.81 


,736.24 


2, 126. 15 


Description  of  crime.     . 


Violence,  resistance  to,  and  insults  against 
authority 

Offenses  against  the  public  faith  and  credit. 

Offenses  against  public  decency  and  good 
morals 

Murder  and  homicide 

Willful  personal  injuries 

Criminal  libel  and  slander 

Robbery,  extortion,  and  blackmail 

Theft  (larceny) 

Swindling  and  other  frauds 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the  penal  code. . . 

Misdemeanors  provided  for  in  the  penal 
code,  and  crimes  and  misdemeanors  pro- 
vided for  in  special  laws,  and  in  local  or 
general  regulations 


Total. 


Marches 

and 
Umbria. 


36.11 
28.35 

12.01 

5.67 

230. 63 

161.59 

3.55 

331.77 

34.38 

270.57 


551.12 


1,665.75 


Roma. 


121.50 
101.77 

33.65 

11.61 

342. 15 

283.46 

10.18 

750.32 

150-99 

564.18 


6,098.64 


8,468.45 


Campania 

and 
Molise. 


71.07 
41.98 

44.16 
17.17 
555.87 
334. 47 
31.47 
435. 75 
102.03 
691.55 


1,442.60 


5,768.12 


Basilicata. 


41.90 
29.54 

35.14 
13.44 

415.28 

282.83 
4.34 

628. 46 
56.16 

754.19 


620.66 


Abruzzi. 


56.82 
36.35 


475.84 

313.59 

2.83 

599. 15 

47.97 

557.32 


856.87 


2,881.94          2,986.67 


Description  of  crime. 


Apulia. 


Calabria. 


Sicily. 


Sardinia.      Kingdom. 


Violence,  resistance  to,  and  insults  against 
authority 

Offenses  against  the  public  faith  and  credit. 

Offenses  against  public  decency  and  good 
morals 

Murder  and  homicide 

Willful  personal  injuries 

Criminal  libel  and  slander 

Robbery,  extortion,  and  blackmail 

Theft  (larceny) 

Swindling  and  other  frauds 

Other  crimes  foreseen  by  the  penal  code . . 

Misdemeanors  provided  for  in  the  penal 
code,  and  crimes  and  misdemeanors  pro- 
vided for  in  special  laws,  and  in  local  or 
general  regulations - 

Total 


66.61 
30.84 

37.99 

8.81 

424.94 

324.42 

6.96 

626. 60 

63.87 

564.28 


590.30 


55. 60 
32.33 

45.02 
12.26 

514.39 

361.36 
6.08 

457. 78 
58.75 

754.40 


746. 73 


50.48 
37.75 

54.03 

22.35 
354.95 
362. 34 

31.46 
439.72 

86.17 
577. 28 


520.04 


76.56 
58.38 

25.47 

17.55 

295. 45 

521.46 

17.20 

1,032.57 

206. 87 

1,246.84 


922.33 


47.74 
40.02 

24.77 

8.94 

275. 54 

239.00 

11.83 
416. 75 

67.34 
404.81 


950.97 


2,745.62 


3,044.70 


2,536.57 


4,420.68 


2,487.71 


204 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


While  the  preceding  tables  reveal  the  criminal  records  of  Italy  so 
clearly  that  an  extended  analysis  is  unnecessary,  the  data  respecting 
some  classes  of  crime  are  of  such  great  significance  in  a  consideration 
of  Italian  immigration  to  the  United  States  that  attention  should  be 
directed  to  them.  In  this  connection  the  data  respecting  murder  and 
homicide  are  the  most  interesting  features  of  the  tables,  because  of 
a  remarkable  decrease  in  the  number  reported  between  the  period 
]  880-1886  and  the  year  1906,  and  also  because  of  the  striking  preva- 
lence of  such  crimes,  even  in  the  later  years,  in  the  compartimenti 
which  are  the  chief  sources  of  immigration  to  the  United  States. 


MURDER    AND   HOMICIDE. 

Between  the  period  1880-1886  and  the  year  1906  the  number  of 
murders  and  homicides  in  the  Kingdom  of  Italy  as  a  whole  decreased 
from  a  yearly  average  of  4,260,  or  about  16  to  every  100,000  of  the 
total  population  in  the  former  period,  to  2,612  in  1906,  the  proportion 
of  such  crimes  to  the  population  in  that  year  being  7.8  per  every 
100,000  persons.  Reference  to  the  table  below  will  show  that  the  de- 
crease occurred  in  every  compartimento  except  Lombardy,  where  an 
increase  from  126  in  the  former  period  to  147  in  the  year  1906  is 
recorded.  It  will  be  noted,  however,  that  even  in  Lombardy,  with 
the  exception  of  1906,  the  general  trend  was  downward  during  the 
period  considered.  As  shown  by  the  following  table,  the  decrease 
in  the  number  of  murders  and  homicides  was  not  peculiar  to  any  par- 
ticular section  of  Italy : 

TABLE  37. — Increase  or  decrease  in  number  of  murders  and  homicides  between 
the  period  1880-1886  and  the  year  1906,  Italy,  ly  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  Table  34,  pp.  195-201.] 


Compartimenti. 

Number  of  murders  and 
homicides  reported. 

Per  cent  of 
decrease. 

Yearly 

average, 
1880-1886. 

1906. 

Piedmont                              

268 
99 
126 
151 
224 
158 
206 
235 
6807 
220 
256 
c!26 
423 
939 
186 

132 
80 
147 
72 
90 
118 
106 
104 
434 
97 
165 
58 
165 
727 
117 

48.8 
19.2 
ol6.7 
52.3 
59.8 
25.3 
48.5 
55.7 
46.2 
55.9 
35.5 
54.0 
61.0 
22.6 
37.1 

Venetia                           

Emilia                  

Campania  and  Molise                               

Abruzzi                  

Apulia                          

Basilica  ta                                      

Calabria                                                           

Sicily               

Sardinia                       •  

Increase. 


t>  Yearly  average  for  1887-1 


c  Yearly  average  for  1884-1886. 

To  what  extent  emigration  is  responsible  for  the  remarkable  de- 
crease in  the  number  of  murders  and  homicides  in  Italy,  as  shown 
above,  obviously  can  not  be  mathematically  determined.  However, 
in  view  of  the  fact  that  the  decrease  has  been  coincident  with  the  emi- 
gration movement,  and  also  with  the  startling  growth  of  Italian 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


206 


?o  ?™f  &  the.same  nature  in  the  United  States,  it  is  impossible 
•  avoid  the  conclusion  that  the  very  desirable  result  in  Italy  had 
been  due  n.  large  part  to  the  emigration  to  this  country  of  criminals 
and  the  criminally  mclmed.  There  are  of  course  other  elements 
which  should  be  taken  into  consideration,  such  as  the  advance  of 
civilization  and  the  better  enforcement  of  law  in  parts  of  llalvbu 

krl^n  °r  >  h^lT  above.  des<="bed  the  responsibility  can  not  in 
large  part  be  shifted  from  emigration 

It  does  not  appear  in  every  case  that  the  decrease  in  crime  has  been 
greatest  in  compartimenti  from  which  the  heaviest  emigration  has 
taken  place  but  in  Abruzzi,  Basilicata,  and  Calabria,  which  com- 
partimenti  furnish  the  greatest  number  of  transoceanic  emigrants 
according  to  the  population,  there  has  been  an  exceptionally  large 
decrease  in  the  number  of  murders  and  homicides  committed  On  the 
other  hand,  Sicily  which  has  a  large  emigration,  and  Liguria,  which 
has  much  the  smallest  emigration  in  proportion  to  population  show 
nearly  the  same  per  cent  of  decrease  in  crimes  of  this  class. 

A  serious  aspect  of  the  situation  is  presented  in  Table  36,  which 
shows  that  the  prevalence  of  murder  and  homicide  is  as  a  rule  much 
greater  in  compartimenti  which  furnish  the  largest  number  of  trans- 
oceanic emigrants,  and  consequently  are  the  source  of  the  greater 
part  of  the  Italian  movement  to  the  United  States.  The  following 
table,  compiled  from  Tables  36  and  10,  while  not  furnishing  exact 
comparison  in  the  case  of  all  compartimenti,  nevertheless  illustrates 
the  point  under  discussion. 

TABLE  38. — Murders  and  homicides  in  Italy  and  transoceanic  emigration  from 
Italy,  in  years  specified,  by  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  Tables  36  and  10.} 


Compartimenti. 

Proportion 
of  murders 
and  homi- 
cides to  every 
100,000  in- 
habitants — 
1902-1906 
(yearly 
average). 

Transoceanic 
emigration 
in  1907. 

Number  of 
transoceanic 
emigrants  to 
each  1,000 
population. 

Piedmont 

4  59 

26  232 

7  7 

Liguria  

6.00 

6  714 

5  8 

Lombardy  

3.05 

15  506 

3  4 

Venetia                                                                          

2.26 

14  703 

Emilia 

4  07 

10  022 

Tuscany 

4  21 

13  778 

C    0 

Marches  and  Umbria  ...                          

5.67 

17,760 

9  9 

Roma 

11.61 

15  485 

12  1 

Campania  and  Molise 

17.17 

a  70  228 

a  22  0 

Abruzzi  

9.90 

644,024 

630  3 

Apulia  ....  ,  

8.81 

25,313 

12  4 

Basilicata 

13.44 

14,685 

31  2 

Calabria 

12.26 

46  184 

39  7 

Sicily 

22  35 

91  902 

25  7 

Sardinia  

17.55 

3,365 

4  0 

Kingdom  

8.94 

415,  901 

Campania  alone. 


Abruzzi  and  Molise. 


This  table  shows  clearly  that  the  northern  compartimenti  which 
furnish  comparatively  few  transoceanic  emigrants  in  proportion  to 
the  population  have  a  much  smaller  proportion  of  murders  and  homi- 


\ 


206  The  Immigration  Commission. 

cides,  while  as  a  rule  the  opposite  is  true  of  the  central  and  sou  thorn 
sections,  by  far  the  worst  situation  appearing  in  Sicily,  which  fur- 
nished 91,902  transoceanic  emigrants  in  1907  and  had  the  remark- 
able record  of  a  yearly  average  of  22  murders  and  homicides  to  every 
100,000  of  the  population  during  the  period  1902-1906. 

OTHER    CRIMES    AND    OFFENSES. 

The  number  of  crimes  classed  as  "willful  personal  injuries  "  also 
decreased  in  the  Kingdom  as  a  whole  during  the  period  considered, 
but  the  per  cent  of  decrease  was  small  compared  with  that  of  murder 
and  homicide.  The  decrease,  however,  was  confined  entirely  to 
Emilia,  Roma,  Compania,  Basilicata,  Abruzzi,  Calabria;  and  Sicily, 
and  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  five  compartimenti  last  named 
contribute  a  larger  proportion  of  their  population  to  the  trans-Atlantic 
emigrant  movement  than  do  any  other  sections  of  Italy.  There  was 
an  increase  for  Italy  as  a  whole  in  the  number  of  crimes  and  offenses 
included  in  the  other  classes  considered  in  the  tables,  but  this  was  not 
general  throughout  the  compartimenti.  Crimes  of  "  violence,  resist- 
ance to  and  insults  against  authority  "  decreased  in  the  four  great  im- 
migrant-furnishing compartimenti  of  Bascilicata,  Abruzzi,  Calabria, 
and  Sicily. 

"  Offenses  against  the  public  faith  and  credit "  increased  from  a 
yearly  average  of  12,822  in  1880-1886  to  13,346  in  1906,  but  the  pro- 
portion of  such  offenses  decreased  from  44.70  to  100,000  of  the  popu- 
lation in  the  former  period  to  39.90  in  1906.  Decreases  in  the  num- 
ber of  offenses  of  this  class  are  noted  in  Venetia,  Emilia,  Tuscany, 
Marches,  Umbria,  Compania,  Molise,  Abruzzi,  and  Apalia. 

The  number  of  "  offenses  against  public  decency  and  good  morals  " 
increased  in  every  compartimento  except  Tuscany,  the  increase  for 
the  Kingdom  as  a  whole  being  from  an  annual  average  of  3,789  in 
1880-1886  to  7,924  in  1906.  The  largest  number  of  these  crimes  are 
reported  for  Sicily,  which  also  shows  the  greatest  increase  in  the  pe- 
riod considered. 

The  number  of  cases  of  "  criminal  libel  and  slander  "  reported  in- 
creased from  an  average  of  48,727  in  the  years  1887-1889  to  72,943  in 
1906,  Tuscany  being  the  only  compartimento  to  show  a  decrease. 

In  the  class  of  crimes  stated  as  "  robbery,  extortion,  and  blackmail " 
the  number  of  cases  increased  from  a  yearly  average  of  2,559  in  1880- 
1886  to  4,391  in  1906,  but  decreases  are  noted  in  Piedmont,  Venetia, 
Emilia,  Roma,  Abruzzi,  and  Calabria.  It  is  perhaps  worthy  of  note 
that  of  the  three  classes  of  crime,  "  murder  and  homicide,"  "  willful 
personal  injuries,"  and  "robbery,  extortion,  and  blackmail,"  which 
are  largely  responsible  for  the  criminal  reputation  of  Italians  in  the 
United  States,  the  last  named  is  the  only  one  for  which  a  consistent 
decrease  is  not  shown  in  the  largest  emigrant-furnishing  comparti- 
menti of  Italy.  There  was  a  large  increase  in  the  number  of  larceny 
cases  for  the  Kingdom  and  decreases  only  in  Venetia  and  Basilicata. 
In  the  crimes  or  offenses  classed  as  "  swindling  or  other  frauds  "  the 
increase  was  smaller,  and  decreases  occurred  in  Venetia,  Tuscany, 
Basilicata,  Abruzzi,  and  Calabria. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


207 


The  following  table  shows  the  annual  average  number  and  the  num- 


in 


her  per  100,000  inhabitants  of  offenses  classed  as  "misdemeanors" 
-1906  for  each  compartimento  and  for  Italy  as  a  whole : 

TABLE  ^.—Average  annual  number  of  misdemeanors  on  which  action  was  taken 
by  the  office  of  the  public  prosecutor,  and  by  the  prwtors,  1902  to  1906  in- 
clusive, by  compartimenti. 

[Compiled  from  Statistica  Giudiziaria  Penale  per  gli  anni  1905-6 ;  Roma,  1909.] 


Compartimenti. 

Misdemeanors  reported. 

Total. 

Beggary. 

Carrying  arms. 

Drunkenness. 

Others.o 

Aver- 
age an- 
nual 
num- 
ber. 

To 
every 
100,000 
inhab- 
itants. 

Aver- 
age an- 
nual 
num- 
ber. 

To 

every 
100,000 
inhab- 
itants. 

Aver- 
age an- 
nual 
num- 
ber. 

To 

every 
100,000 
inhab- 
itants. 

Aver- 
age an- 
nual 
num- 
ber. 

To 
every 
100,000 
inhab- 
itants. 

Aver- 
age an- 
nual 
num- 
ber. 

To 
every 
100.000 
inhab- 
itants. 

Piedmont  

14,  747 
13,  964 
20,  796 
19,  285 
27,  637 
17,928 
9,337 
74,  831 
49,  255 
2,832 
9,011 
10,  990 
9,910 
17,658 
7,413 

305,  594 

393.  55 
1,081.91 
518.  45 
593,  17 
1,  139.  52 
724.61 
534.  40 
6,081.78 
1,394.34 
590.  95 
834.  70 
551.  67 
711.  15 
494.  24 
909.52 

924.86 

375 
817 
946 
577 
470 
293 
97 
1,731 
820 
8 
35 
69 
47 
168 
19 

6,475 

10.01 
63.33 
23.58 
17.73 
19.37 
11.98 
5.53 
140.  70 
23.22 
1.75 
3.22 
3.46 
3.40 
4.70 
2.28 

19.59 

518 
460 
780 
608 
774 
596 
910 
884 
5,066 
529 
627 
1,665 
1,  901 
2,112 
396 

17,  826 

13.82 
35.62 
19.46 
18.70 
31.92 
24.06 
52.11 
71.83 
143.  41 
110.46 
58.  05 
83.60 
136.  39 
59.12 
48.56 

53.95 

1,631 
1,458 
2,238 
1,873 
983 
853 
478 

r,o2o 

1,026 
163 
558 
500 
686 
357 
537 

14,  367 

43.53 
112.96 
55.80 
57.62 
40.55 
34.47 
27.34 
83.40 
29.03 
34.00 
51.73 
25.07 
49.23 
9.98 
65.  94 

43.48 

12,223 
11.229 
16,832 
16,227 
25,410 
16,  183 
7,852 
71,  190 
42,343 
2,132 
7,791 
8,756 
7,276 
15,  021 
6,461 

266,926 

326.  19 
870.00 
419.61 
499,  12 
1,047.68 
654.10 
449.42 
5,  785.  85 
1,198.68 
444.74 
721.  70 
439.54 
522.  13 
420.44 
792.74 

807.84 

Liguria 

Lombardy  

Venetia  

Tuscany 

Emilia  

Marches  and  Umbria.  . 
Roma  (Latium)  

Campania  and  Molise. 
Basilicata 

Abruzzi  

Apulia. 

Calabria 

Sicily  

Sardinia 

Kingdom  

i  This  includes  misdemeanors  provided  for  in  the  penal  code,  in  special  laws,  and  in  local  or  general 
regulations. 

This  table  is  inserted  for  the  purpose  of  showing  how  inconspicu- 
ous a  place  drunkenness  occupies  among  the  crimes  and  offenses  of 
Italy.  Reference  is  made  elsewhere  to  the  fact  that  Italians  in  Italy, 
and  particularly  in  the  southern  sections,  are  a  remarkably  sober  peo- 
ple, and  this  is  substantiated  by  the  above  table.  When  contrasted 
with  more  serious  crimes  a  curious  situation  appears,  for  a  compari- 
son between  the  above  table  and  Table  36  shows  that  for  Italy  as  a 
whole  several  of  the  higher  crimes  occur  more  frequently  than  drunk- 
enness. In  Sicily  even  murder  and  homicide  appears  to  be  consider- 
ably more  common  than  drunkenness,  the  proportion  of  such  crimes 
being  22.35  annually  per  100,000  inhabitants  in  the  former  case  and 
only  9.98  annually  for  100,000  in  the  latter. 


CHAPTER  VII. 
EMIGRATION  OF  THE  CRIMINAL  CLASSES. 


r  future  of  the  Italian  immigration  movement  to  the 

United  States  is  the  fact  that  it  admittedly  includes  many  individuals 
belonging  to  the  criminal  classes,  particularly  of  southern  Italy  and 
Sicily.  Moreover,  the  prevailing  alarm  in  this  respect  is  not  oc- 
casioned entirely  by  the  fact  that  a  good  many  actual  criminals  come 
to  the  United  States  from  Italy,  but  also  by  the  not  unfounded  belief 
that  certain  kinds  of  criminality  are  inherent  in  the  Italian  race. 
In  the  popular  mind,  crimes  of  personal  violence,  robbery,  blackmail^ 
and  extortion  are  peculiar  to  the  people  of  Italy,  and  it  can  not  be 
denied  that  the  number  of  such  offenses  committed  among  Italians  in 
this  country  warrants  the  prevalence  of  such  a  belief.  Accompany- 
ing a  tendency  to  commit  crimes  of  the  nature  stated  is  also  a  seem- 
ingly inherent  ability  to  avoid  arrest  and  conviction,  the  experience 
of  both  American  and  Italian  officials  in  this  respect  being  much 
the  same. 

It  is  generally  and  reasonably  said  that  the  prevalence  of  the 
above  enumerated  crimes  among  Jtalians  of  the  southern  comparti- 
menti  and  Sicily  is  due  to  conditions  under  which  these  people  lived 
for  centuries.  The  territory  known  in  earlier  times  as  the  "  Two 
Sicilies,"  which  included  the  southern  part  of  the  Italian  mainland 
and  the  island  of  Sicily,  was  almost  from  the  beginning  of  history 
subject  to  the  despotic  rule  of  various  peoples.  The  Greeks,  Nor- 
mans, Spanish,  French,  and  Austrians  were  at  different  times  in  pos- 
session of  all  or  a  part  of  the  "  Two  Sicilies,"  and  the  people  were 
almost  constantly  under  a  despotism  which  retarded  progress  and 
even  civilization. 

Conditions,  however,  have  steadily  improved  under  the  enlightened 
government  which  has  been  accorded  to  the  "  Two  Sicilies  "  since 
they  became  a  part  of  united  Italy  in  1861.  The  spirit  of  brigandage 
which  formerly  prevailed  has  almost  disappeared  with  the  passing 
of  old  leaders,  and  the  people  are  said  to  be  slowly  losing  the  old 
characteristics  of  lawlessness  which  have  made  members  of  the  race 
so  conspicuous  in  the  criminal  element  of  the  United  States  during 
recent  years. 

It  is  certain  that  many  Italian  criminals,  both  those  who  had  served 
sentences  and  others  who  had  escaped  punishment,  have  come  to  the 
United  States  during  the  past  30  years.  It  was  frequently  stated  to 
members  of  the  Commission  in  southern  Italy  and  Sicily  that  crime 
had  greatly  diminished  in  many  communities  because  most  of  the 
criminals  had  gone  to  America.  An  Italian  official  in  Messina  who 
was  interviewed  by  a  representative  of  the  Commission  stated  that 
southern  Italy  was  a  hotbed  of  crime  several  years  ago;  that  criminals 
were  in  abundance,  but  that  very  few  of  them  are  left  now.  When 
asked  as  to  their  whereabouts,  he  replied  :  "  Why,  they  are  all  in  the 

209 


210  The  Immigration  Commission. 

United  States."  He  illustrated  this  contention  by  saying  that  in  the 
city  of  Palermo  a  few  years  ago  there  were  between  400  and  500  Ital- 
ians with  criminal  records  continually  under  police  surveillance,  but 
that  less  than  a  dozen  of  this  class  remained,  the  rest  having  emi- 
grated to  America.  The  chief  of  police  at  Palermo  failed  to  cor- 
roborate this  story,  although  he  admitted  that  the  number  of  criminals 
in  the  city  had  decreased. 

Various  other  persons  interviewed  by  commissioners  volunteered  in- 
formation similar  to  that  above  quoted.  Of  course,  most  of  the  state- 
ments were  more  or  less  indefinite,  but  they  were  sufficient  to  show 
that  the  emigration  of  the  criminal  element  is  a  matter  of  common 
knowledge  in  Sicily  and  southern  Italy. 

EFFECT    ON    EMIGRATION. 

A  member  of  the  Commission  found  that  some  Calabrians  and 
Sicilians  of  the  better  class  were  refraining  from  emigrating  to  the 
United  States  because  of  the  "  black  hand,"  while  some  had  actually 
returned  from  the  United  States  to  Calabria  and  Sicily  to  find  safety 
from  it.  Instances  of  this  tendency  were  found  in  Syracuse,  Messina, 
and  in  two  Calabrian  villages,  and  it  was  evident  that  the  "black- 
hand  "  agitation  in  this  country  not  only  restricted  emigration,  but 
drove  back  to  Italy  immigrants  who  felt  safer  even  in  Calabria  and 
Sicily  tnan  in  New  York  City.  At  Gallina,  Calabria,  a  prominent 
Italian  asked  why  the  "  black  hand  "  was  not  suppressed  in  New  York, 
where  it  was  worse  than  in  Sicily.'  He  said  there  was  a  man  then 
living  in  Gallina  who  had  been  in  a  good  position  on  the  New  York 
Central  Railway.  He  had  received  two  "  black-hand  "  letters  demand- 
ing money,  and  rather  than  take  any  chances  had  come  back  to  Cala- 
bria, where  he  felt  safe.  The  gentleman  interviewed  expressed  the  be- 
lief that  the  "  black  hand  "  was  a  real  deterrent  to  emigration. 

PASSPORTS   DENIED   TO    CRIMINALS. 

It  is  provided  in  the  Italian  law  that  no  subject  of  Italy  shall  be 
allowed  to  emigrate  without  a  passport,  and  the  law  also  stipulates 
that  no  passport  shall  be  issued  if  the  applicant  is  not  admissible 
under  the  laws  of  the  country  to  which  he  proposes  to  emigrate. 
Therefore  the  Italian  law  in  effect  denies  a  passport  to  the  United 
States  to  any  person  who  has  "  been  convicted  of  *  *  *  a  felony 
or  other  crime  or  misdemeanor  involving  moral  turpitude,"  because 
the  law  of  this  country  denies  admission  to  immigrants  of  that  class. 
From  all  that  could  be  learned  by  the  Commission  the  Italian  law 
in  this  regard  is  generally  well  enforced,  but  as  the  possession  of  a 
passport  is  not  a  requisite  of  admission  to  the  United  States  the 
vigilance  of  Italian  officials  avails  little  in  preventing  the  coming 
of  criminals  to  this  country.  Passports  to  other  countries  whose 
laws  are  less  rigid  than  the  United  States  are  issued  to  criminals 
without  question,  and  once  out  of  Italy  there  is  little  to  prevent 
their  coming  to  the  United  States.  Moreover,  it  is  not  difficult  for 
Italians  to  leave  Italy  overland  without  passports,  in  which  case 
they  can  easily  embark  fop  the  United  States  at  some  French,  Ger- 
man, or  other  port.  According  to  the  Commission's  information 
many  criminals  reach  this  country  by  both  of  the  methods  referred  to. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  211 

•  __ _______^^^__^_____^_____ 

DECREE    GOVERNING    ISSUANCE    OF    PASSPORTS. 

As  passports  play  so  important  a  part  in  the  administration  of  the 
Italian  emigration  law,  a  reference  to  the  laws  and  regulations  gov- 
erning their  issuance  will  be  of  interest  in  this  connection.  The 
royal  decree  of  January  31,  1901,  "  on  the  "granting  of  passports  to 
foreign  countries  and  instructions  relative  thereto,"  as  amended  by 
royal  decree  of  November  20,  1902,  provides  that  passports  to  foreign 
countries  are  granted  in  the  name  of  the  King  to  subjects: 

In  the  Kingdom — by  the  minister  of  foreign  affairs,  and  under  his 
authority  by  the  prefects,  subprefects,  district  commissioners,  or  by 
the  chiefs  of  police  if  the  latter  are  especially  authorized  to  do  so 
by  the  prefects. 

In  foreign  countries — by  the  royal  diplomatic  and  consular  offi- 
cers, and  by  royal  consular  agents,  if  they  are  authorized  to  do  so  by 
the  consul  to  whom  they  are  responsible. 

Whoever  desires  a  passport  in  the  Kingdom  must  apply  either 
orally  or  in  writing  to  the  mayor  of  the  commune  (town)  where  he 
has  his  usual  residence,  and  the  latter  shall  request  the  passport  of 
the  proper  authority  by  forwarding  a  certificate  of  "  nulla  osta."  ° 

It  is  prohibited  to  act  on  application  for  a  certificate  of  "  nulla 
osta  "  or  to  issue  passports  to  foreign  countries  to  persons  who  are 
shown  to  be  in  one  of  the  following  classes : 

1.  Those  who  are  abandoning  persons  whom  they  are  legally  bound 
to  support,  and  who  do  not  make  suitable  provisions  for  their  care. 

2.  Persons  who,  according  to  the  civil  laws,  are  subject  to  the 
authority  of  others,  if  they  lack  the  consent  of  the  persons  to  whom 
they  are  subject,  or,  in  the  absence  of  such  persons,  of  the  judge  of 
the  chief  towns  of  the  district,  or  otherwise  of  the  justice  of  the 
peace;  and,  in  the  case  of  persons  under  16  years  of  age,  if  there 
are  reasons  for  believing  that  it  is  desired  to  take  them  abroad  for 
immoral  purposes,  or  in  order  to  perform  work  in  industries  which 
are  dangerous  or  injurious  to  health. 

3.  Persons  who  must  serve  a  sentence  in  prison  for  any  crime,  or 
against  whom  there  has  been  issued  a  warrant  of  arrest  or  an  order 
to  appear  in  criminal  proceedings  begun  for  an  offense  punishable  by 
solitary  confinement  or  detention  of  not  less  than  one  year. 

4.  Persons  entered  on  the  recruiting  roll  for  the  army,  who  are 
in  the  Kingdom  and  have  attained,  or  do  attain,  the  eighteenth  year 
of  age,  except  by  permission  of  the  prefect  or  subprefect. 

5.  Soldiers  of  the  first  category  of  the  army,  who  are  in  the  King- 
dom and  who  have  not  reached  the  age  of  28  years,  except  by  per- 
mission of  the  commander  of  the  district. 

6.  Soldiers  of  the  first  category  of  the  army,  who  are  in  the  King- 
dom and  who  have  attained  the  twenty-eighth  but  not  the  thirty- 
second  year  of  age,  if  notice  has  not  been  previously  given  to  the 
commander  of  the  district  of  their  intention  of  leaving  the  Kingdom. 

-7.  Persons  inscribed  on  the  recruiting  roll  of  the  navy,  who  are 
in  the  Kingdom  and  have  attained  or  do  attain  the  eighteenth  year 
of  age,  except  by  permission  of  the  harbor  master. 

«  A  declaration  that  there  is  no  legal  obstacle  to  the  applicant's  receiving  a 
passport. 


212  The  Immigration  Commission. 


8.  Soldiers  belonging  to  the  royal  equipage  corps,  who  are  in  the 
Kingdom,  except  by  permission  of  the  commander  of  the  corps,  and 
through  him  of  the  harbor  master. 

The  permission  referred  to  under  paragraphs  4,  5,  7,  and  8  will 
be  refused  on  instructions  from  the  ministers  of  war  and  navy  when- 
ever there  is  reason  to  believe  that  the  person  who  requests  the  pass- 
port wishes  to  go  abroad  in  order  to  escape  some  military  duty. 
The  privilege  of  emigration  may  be  temporarily  suspended  in  ex- 
ceptional cases  with  respect  to  all  soldiers,  by  royal  decree,  upon  the 
recommendation  of  the  ministers  of  war  and  navy. 

9.  Citizens  of  foreign  countries  who,  asking  for  a  passport  after 
the  1st  of  January  of  the  year  in  which  they  reach  the  twentieth  year 
of  age,  do  not  prove  their  regular  status  with  regard  to  the  obligation 
to  perform  military  service,  persons  shirking  military  duties,  and 
deserters. 

10.  Persons  liable  to  be  denied  admission  to  the  country  of  their 
intended,  destination  because  of  provisions  of  the  immigration  law 
of  that  country. 

11.  Persons  who  are  expressly  prohibited  from  emigrating  by  some 
other  order. 

The  following  persons  may  be  inscribed  on  the  same  passports : 

The  head  of  a  family  with  his  wife  and  relatives  in  the  ascending 
or  descending  line  habitually  residing  with  him;  a  guardian  with 
the  persons  under,  his  charge;  a  brother  who  has  attained  his  major- 
ity, together  with  his  minor  brother  and  any  unmarried  sisters  resid- 
ing with  him. 

Passports  to  foreign  countries,  whether  issued  in  Italy  or  abroad, 
shall  last  three  years.  However,  persons  who  are  inscribed  on  the 
recruiting  rolls  shall  not  have  a  passport  issued  to  them  for  a  period 
of  time  reaching  beyond  the  date  on  which  the  recruitment  for  their 
class  is  authorized. 

Passports  which  have  expired  for  not  over  three  months  may  be 
directly  renewed  by  one  of  the  authorities  competent  to  issue  pass- 
ports without  the  .formality  of  securing  another  certificate  of  "  nulla 
osta,"  provided  the  proper  declaration  is  made  on  the  passport  itself, 
and  upon  payment  of  the  fee  which  would  be  due  for  a  new  passport. 
The  renewals  shall  not  be  made  for  a  longer  period  than  three  years 
each,  and  must  be  renewed  every  time  it  is  shown  that  the  applicant 
does  not  fulfill  the  conditions  under  which  alone  the  passport  may 
be  issued  to  him  in  accordance  with  the  present  decree. 

Passports  for  foreign  countries  shall  be  subject  to  the  payment  of 
a  fee,  which  shall  be,  according  to  the  class,  10.2  lire  or  2.2  lire. 

First-class  passports  issued  to  persons  in  easy  circumstances  are 
subject  to  a  fee  of  10.2  lire. 

Second-class  passports  issued  to  persons  not  coming  within  the 
foregoing  category  are  subject  to  a  fee  of  2.2  lire. 

Passports  issued  or  renewed,  either  in  Italy  or  abroad,  to  persons 
going  abroad,  or  who  are  abroad  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  work, 
and  to  their  families,  and  those  to  all  persons  who  are  in  a  condition 
of  destituteness,  shall  be  free  of  charge. 

Royal  diplomatic  and  consular  officers  in  foreign  countries  may 
issue  or  renew  passports  in  accordance  with  the  royal  decree  when 
it  is  evident  to  them  that  the  applicant  fulfills  the  conditions  pre- 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  213 

scribed  in  order  that  passports  may  be  issued  to  him;  or,  when  this 
is  not  known  to  them,  on  the  basis  of  a  gratuitous  declaration  that 
there  is  no  obstacle,  issued  by  the  proper  prefect. 

The  minister  of  foreign  affairs,  with  the  consent  of  the  minister  of 
the  interior,  may,  with  respect  to  all  or  certain  classes  of  persons, 
temporarily  suspend  the  issuance  of  passports  to  certain  res-ions  for 
reasons  of  public  order,  or  when  the  lives,  liberty,  or  property  of  emi- 
grants might  be  gravely  endangered. 

All  authorities  who  have  the  power  to  issue  passports  to  foreign 
countries  may  withdraw  them  even  before  their  expiration  when  it 
becomes  known  to  them  that  the  holder  no  longer  fulfills  the  condi- 
tions required  by  the  royal  decree  for  the  issuance  of  passports  abroad. 

INSTRUCTIONS  TO  OFFICERS  ISSUING  PASSPORTS. 

As  an  evidence  of  the  interest  of  the  Italian  Government  in  the 
matter  of  passports  to  the  United  States,  a  recent  circular  of  instruc- 
tions  upon  the  subject,  issued  by  the  minister  for  foreign  affairs  is 
given  herewith  in  part : 

CIRCULAR  OF  THE  MINISTER  FOR  FOREIGN  AFFAIRS  No.  13,  DECEMBER  10,  1908, 
TO  THE  PREFECTS,  VICE  PREFECTS,  DISTRICT  COMMISSIONERS,  MAYORS,  AND 
ROYAL  DIPLOMATIC  AND  CONSULAR  OFFICERS  IN  REGARD  TO  THE  GRANTING  OF 
PASSPORTS  FOR  THE  UNITED  STATES. 

Certain  difficulties  which  recently  have  arisen  concerning  the  granting  of 
passports  to  the  United  States  make  it  advisable  for  me  again  to  remind  the 
royal  authorities  in  charge  of  this  service  of  the  rules  of  the  Italian  regulations 
as  well  as  the  American  law  on  immigration. 

Article  III  of  the  royal  decree  dated  January  31,  1901  (No.  36),  amended  by 
the  decree  of  November  20,  1902  (No.  523),  provides  that  it  is  forbidden  to 
issue  declarations  of  "nnlla  osta  "  (nothing  to  the  contrary)  and  passports  to 
persons  likely  to  be  rejected  from  the  country  of  destination  by  reason  of  the 
local  law  of  immigration. 

The  immigration  law  of  the  United  States  dated  February  20,  1907,  provides 
as  follows: 

( Sections  2,  3,  and  4  of  the  United  States  immigration  law  quoted. ) 

This  department  has  already  recommended  to  the  competent  royal  authori- 
ties before  granting  certificates  of  "  nulla  osta  "  or  passports  to  examine  dili- 
gently and  to  discover  if  the  applicant  complies  with  the  requirements  for 
admission  into  the  United  States. 

Above  all  it  is  necessary  to  make  certain  that  the  applicant  for  a  passport  is 
not  a  person  likely  to  become  a  public  charge,  and  that  he  has  not  been  con- 
victed of  crime  involving  moral  turpitude,  and  that  he  does  not  emigrate  under 
a  labor  contract.  In  all  those  cases  the  passports  must  be  refused. 

The  royal  Government  while  insisting  that  all  regulations  actually  in  force 
in  the  Kingdom  in  regard  to  the  granting  of  passports  be  scrupulously  enforced, 
is  firmly  decided  to  cooperate  with  the  Governments  of  the  countries  of  destina- 
tion of  Italian  emigrants  for  the  exact  enforcement  of  their  immigration  laws. 

Nor  is  it  superfluous  for  me  to  recall  the  fact  that  according  to  Article  IX 
of  the  regulations  on  emigration,  officers  who  do  not  attend  in  the  granting  of 
passports  in  the  ways  prescribed  by  law  will  be  punished  by  the  department 
to  which  they  belong  as  their  remissness  deserves. 

The  service  of  granting  passports  up  to  the  present,  with  few  exceptions, 
has  been  conducted  with  the  care  that  its  importance  has  demanded,  and  I 
regret  to  be  obliged  on  account  of  the  few  exceptoins  above  mentioned  to  again 
state  the  law  and  urge  its  enforcement. 

I  rely  strongly  upon  the  diligence  and  the  zeal  of  the  officers  to  whom  the 
present  is  addressed  in  order  that  this  service  be  conducted  always  and  every- 
where according  to  the  exact  rules  established  by  our  regulations  a'nd  agree- 
ably with  the  rules  in  foreign  countries  which  govern  immigration. 


214  The  Immigration  Commission. 

STATEMENT    OF    EG1STO    ROSSI. 

In  a  conference  with  members  of  the  Immigration  Commission  at 
Rome,  Egisto  Rossi,  royal  Italian  commissioner  of  emigration,  ex- 
plained the  Italian  passport  system  and  its  relation  to  the  emigration 
of  criminals  to  the  United  States  substantially  as  follows : 

The  law  prescribes  that  the  emigrant,  especially  for  America,  must  have  a 
passport  before  leaving  the  country,  but  to  get  a  passport  means  that  he  must 
have  nothing  pending  with  the  courts  and  be  exempt  from  military  service. 
If  it  is  found  that  a  man  has  fallen  into  some  trouble  with  officers  of  justice  and 
is  under  judgment,  he  can  not  leave,  so  when  an  emigrant  arrives  in  the  United 
States  with  a  passport  you  may  be  sure  that  from  our  standpoint  he  is  an 
honest  man.  Those  who  can  not  procure  a  passport  seek  to  emigrate  clan- 
destinely— to  cross  the  frontier  and  embark  at  some  foreign  port.  Sometimes 
they  are  afraid  that  on  arriving  at  their  destination  a  passport  will  be  required, 
and  they  produce  a  fraudulent  or  an  old  passport  pertaining'  to  a  period  of 
time  when  there  was  no  complaint  against  them.  Fortunately  or  unfortunately, 
a  passport  is  seldom  required  at  Ellis  Island.  Sometimes  American  officials 
find  a  man  who  has  committed  a  crime  and  who  has  entered  the.  United  States 
and  who  had  a  passport.  Then  those  officials  have  argued,  without  further 
evidence,  that  we  even  allow  criminals  to  come  into  the  United  States,  because 
this  man  has  a  passport  and  this  passport  has  been  given  by  one  of  our  officers. 

Many  people  who  have  done  something  wrong  in  Italy  and  find  it  impossible 
to  get  a  genuine  passport  in  a  regular  way  cross  the  frontier  and  embark  at 
foreign  ports,  usually  at  Antwerp,  Hamburg,  or  Havre. 

When  I  was  at  Ellis  Island,0  on  the  arrival  of  steamers  from  Havre  and  other 
foreign  ports  one  of  my  clerks  had  special  instructions  to  inquire  whether  arriv- 
ing Italians  had  passports.  When  it  was  found  that  a  man  had  no  passport  he 
was  interrogated  as  to  how  he  got  there  without  one.  The  man  would  say,  "  I 
was  working  in  Switzerland  or  Germany  and  decided  to  come  to  the  United 
States.  Of  course,  being  abroad,  I  could  not  get  a  passport  from  Italy.  I  could 
have  obtained  it  by  writing  or  by  going  myself,  but  it  would  have  taken  too 
long."  Sometimes  the  story  was  true,  and  then  my  inquiries  stopped  at  once. 
In  other  cases  I  found  that  the  people  had  come  from  Italy  by  crossing  Ger- 
many or  Switzerland,  because,  having  committed  a  crime  or  offense,  they 
could  not  get  a  passport  in  Italy,  and  so  tried  to  escape  in  that  way. 

It  is  required  that  Italians  going  to  other  European  countries  have  a  passport, 
but  it  is  not  so  necessary  as  in  the  case  of  those  who  leave  for  America.  A 
passport  for  other  European  countries  is  easily  obtained,  but  not  very  often 
asked  for  by  the  French,  Swiss,  or  German  authorities. 

If  a  man  has  served  his  sentence  for  a  crime,  so  far  as  we  are  concerned  he 
can  get  a  passport.  Sometimes  this  has  been  misunderstood  by  the  United 
States.  I  remember  one  case ;  it  was  that  of  a  man  who  had  committed  a  very 
high  crime.  His  family,  who  were  in  San  Francisco  and  were  in  good  condition, 
sent  for  him  as  soon  as  he  had  left  prison,  after  having  served  twenty-five  years. 
From  the  Italian  standpoint  such  a  man,  having  served  his  sentence,  is  entitled 
to  a  passport,  but  from  the  standpoint  of  the  United  States  he  is  an  ex-convict 
and  can  not  land. 

After  the  expiration  of  the  sentence  the  ex-convict  is  sometimes  subject  to  one 
or  two  years  of  vigilance  by  the  police,  and  he  must  remain  in  the  country  as 
long  as  this  vigilance  lasts. 

Colonel  Stump,  former  Commissioner-General  of  Immigration,  came  to  Italy 
in  1897,  and  in  a  talk  with  our  minister  of  foreign  affairs  complained  about  the 
action  of  people  in  coming  to  the  United  States  without  having  penal  certificates. 
He  asked  that  our  Government  provide  all  emigrants  to  the  United  States  with 
penal  certificates — a  clear  title — and  not  to  allow  anybody  to  go  who  was  an 
ex-convict.  In  accordance  with  Colonel  Stump's  request  we  sent  to  the  prefetti 
a  circular  stating  the  kind  of  crimes  for  which  emigrants  were  excluded  from 
the  United  States,  and  urging  them  not  to  issue  passports  to  any  class  of  ex- 


a  From  1895  to  1901  Mr.  Rossi  was  chief  of  the  Italian  bureau  for  the  protec- 
tion of  Italian  immigrants  and  was  stationed  at  Ellis  Island  during  a  portion 
of  that  time.  The  bureau  went  out  of  existence  in  the  latter  year,  and  Mr. 
Rossi  bas  since  been  connected  with  the  emigration  service  in  Italy. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  215 

convicts.  There  have  been  cases  where  intending  emigrants  have  been  im- 
prisoned for  fifteen  or  twenty  days,  or  a  month,  for  some  small  offense,  for  petty 
larceny,  such  as  the  stealing  of  eggs.  In  those  cases  the  question  has  been  asked 
whether  the  prefetti  could  issue  the  passport.  There  has  been  a  good  deal  of 
perplexity  about  the  question.  So  the  question  was  asked  of  the  Commissioner- 
General  of  Immigration  in  Washington  whether,  if  a  man  had  served  a  sentence 
of  twenty  days  for  a  small  larceny  and  we  gave  him  a  passport,  he  would  be 
admitted.  The  answer  came  that  they  could  not  state.  That  they  wanted  to 
see  the  man  and  to  talk  with  him  ;  that  the  penal  certificate  must  describe  the 
kind  of  crime  he  has  committed,  and  if  he  had  served  only  fifteen  or  twenty 
days,  when  he  came  before  the  board  of  special  inquiry  they  would  determine 
whether  there  is  danger  of  his  becoming  a  criminal  or  not. 

In  Italy  there  was  arrest  and  imprisonment  for  debt  some  years  ago  (bank- 
rupts), but  now  it  is  different,  and  it  has  been  abolished,  unless  a  bankruptcy  is 
fraudulent.  A  man  can  get  a  passport  and  leave  the  country  without  paying  his 
debts;  that  is  not  a  part  of  the  examination  preliminary  to  the  issuance  of  a 
passport. 

When  an  emigrant  asks  for  a  passport  of  the  syndic,  he  sends  the  demand  to 
the  tribunal  to  examine  and  determine  whether  the  man  is  in  right  condition 
to  go,  and  then  it  goes  to  the  commander  of  the  military  district,  and  if  he 
reports  that  the  man  is  not  an  ex-convict  and  has  nothing  pending  against  him 
he  can  leave.  There  has  been  a  great  deal  of  prejudice  in  the  United  States 
against  criminals  from  Italy,  and  the  attempt  has  been  made  to  lay  the  re- 
sponsibility upon  our  Government,  but,  as  I  have  said  before,  if  Italian  crim- 
inals have  sought  entrance  into  the  United  States  it  has  been  from  foreign 
ports.  Under  the  instructions  given  to  all  the  prefetti  in  Italy  with  respect 
to  the  requirement  of  the  American  law  a  passport  is  not  issued  in  Italy  where 
a  man  can  not  comply  with  the  terms  of  the  American  law.  There  is  a  special 
article  in  the  Italian  emigration  law  which  prohibits  sending  an  emigrant  to 
a  country  unless  the  emigrant  can  comply  with  the  laws  of  the  country  to 
which  he  seeks  to  go. 

The  possibility  of  an  examination  of  intended  emigrants  in  Italy 
by  United  States  officials  was  discussed  with  Mr.  Rossi,  and  the  fol- 
lowing extract  from  the  report  of  the  Commission's  conference  with 
him  at  Rome  will  be  of  interest  in  this  connection  : 

The  CHAIRMAN.  There  are  many  people  in  the  United  States  of  the  im- 
pression that  if  there  could  be  an  American  agent  of  our  department  here  to 
advise  concerning  to  whom  passports  should  be  issued,  when  any  case  arises 
involving  moral  turpitude,  it  would  be  an  advantage.  I  wish  to  ask  whether 
such  a  scheme  would  be  practical  under  any  circumstances? 

.  Mr.  Rossi.  This  question  was  asked  me  some  time  ago  by  American  Am- 
bassador Meyer,  the  predecessor  of  Mr.  Griscom,  and  I  remember  I  4iad  a  long 
talk  about  it.  It  knew  the  American  Government  would  like  it,  especially  if 
by  a  moral  discrimination  made  at  the  port  the  necessity  of  sending  back 
emigrants  could  be  obviated.  For  instance,  when  a  man  is  physically  examined 
and  you  find  he  is  an  able-bodied  man,  competent  of  earning  a  livelihood,  if 
you  could  certify  also  to  his  moral  character,  it  would  be  an  ideal  system. 
But  for  the  moral  information  we  are  dependent  entirely  upon  the  prefetti. 
Suppose  the  man  has  been  in  different  provinces,  so  that  you  would  have  t< 
get  his  record  from  each.  In  this  and  other  cases  it  may  be  that  it  would 
take  a  long  time.  Then,  again,  suppose  you  find  an  officer  who  does  not  do  his 


s  difficult.    The  moral  character  of  .an 

mav  only  be  ascertained  in  some  measure  by  penal  certificates  before 
rivl™  tte  TassDort  If  rtfe  penal  certificate  states  that  the  intending  emigrant 
has  cSommittenuch  and  such*  a  crime,  he  is  naturally  excluded  from  em.gratmg 

^~  *^  and  that  your  own 


ficate  of  crimes  committed  a  long  time  ago. 
79524°  —  VOL  4  —  11  -  15 


216  The  Immigration  Commission. 

The  CHAIEMAN.  If  I  understand  you,  if  a  man  has  behaved  well  for  some 
years  after  the  expiration  of  his  sentence,  you  do  not  mention  i 
countries,  but  you  do  mention  it  for  the  United  States? 

Mr.  Rossi.  We  do  not  mention  it  for  any  country.    But  whenever  t 
ing  emigrant  for  the  United  States  has  not  a  clear  title,  no  matter  i: 
was  committed  fifteen  years  ago,  we  do  not  allow  him  to  go  to  your  count 
as  the  American  law  declares  that  an  ex-convict  has  not  the  right  to  < 
there  and  a  passport  can  not  be  given  him,  but  as  to  other  countries  having  B 
such  requirements  we  give  the  passports. 

ALLEGED  VIOLATIONS   OF  THE  PASSPORT  LAW. 

It  was  stated  to  members  of  the  Commission  by  various  persons  in 
Italy  that  the  law  regulating  the- granting  of  passports  was  not  car- 
ried out  to  the  letter,  but  that  ex-convicts  who  had  led  an  upright  life 
for  some  time  after  leaving  prison  would  sometimes  be  furnished  with 
passports  to  the  United  States,  notwithstanding  their  criminal  rec- 
ord. Others  claimed  that  passports  were  sometimes  furnished  to 
criminals  through  connivance  with  minor  officials.  Undoubtedly  in- 
stances of  this  nature  occur,  but  the  Commission,  after  hearing  much 
evidence  from  various  sources,  is  convinced  that  the  law  is  admin- 
istered as  thoroughly  as  is  practicable  and  in  perfect  good  faith  on  the 
part  of  the  Government. 

In  discussing  this  matter  with  a  member  of  the  Commission,  Mr. 
Homer  M.  Byington,  for  a  long  time  American  vice-consul  at  Naples, 
stated  that  the  Italian  Government  respects  our  laws  in  not  giving  to 
ex-convicts  a  passport  for  America,  but  that  they  will  give  an  ex- 
convict  a  passport  for  any  other  foreign  country.  He  said  it  is  stated 
in  the  passport  for  what  destination  the  emigrant  is  leaving,  so  that 
an  inspector  examining  the  passport  at  the  port  of  embarkation  could 
readily  take  note  of  the  same  and  could  advise  the  officials  at  United 
States  ports  concerning  it.  When  asked  whether  the  Italian  Govern- 
ment would  be  willing  to  have  an  officer  of  the  United  States  sta- 
tioned at  Naples  to  advise  our  Government  of  the  leaving  of  ex-convict 
emigrants  holding  passports  for  other  countries,  Mr.  Ityington  replied 
that  as  long  as  the  officer  was  attached  to  the  American  consulate  and 
subject  to  the  consul  it  was  his  opinion  that  the  Italian  Government 
would  have  no  objection  whatever,  so  long  as  his  work  was  tactfully 
and  inconspicuously  performed.  Mr.  Byington  further  stated  that 
such  an  officer  would  unquestionably  be  necessary  at  Havre,  where,  by 
an  investigation  of  the  emigrant  list  prepared  at  the  time  of  sailing, 
he  would  be  able  to  ascertain  the  names  of  all  the  Italian  emigrants 
and  might  call  for  their  passports.  In  this  way  any  Italian  who  had 
escaped  over  the  border  without  a  passport  would  be  detected.  He 
also  expressed  the  belief  that  passports  should  be  examined  at  the  port 
of  debarkation  in  the  United  States.  Such  frauds  as  exist  regarding 
passports,  said  Mr.  Byington,  could  only  occur  through  improper 
conduct  on  the  part  of  individual  officers  and  are  not  in  any  way 
traceable  to  the  Italian  Government,  which  has  given  orders  to  the 
contrary. 

Mr.  Byington  was  asked  the  question : 

Do  you  mean  that  minor  officials  in  the  districts  are  sometimes  susceptible  to 
bad  influence? 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 
And  his  reply  was  as  follows: 


Vpind'iC°  °La  Smal?  Sici!ian  town  stated  that  sometimes  pass- 
s  were  issued  to  convicts  who  had  served  out  their  terms  and  were 


'  "^  to  thOSe  Wh°Se  g°in     the 


did 

It  was  learned  by  a  member  of  the  Commission  at  Messina  that 
Italians  who  land  in  America  turn  their  passports  over  to 
friends  in  Italy  who  can  not  obtain  them  by  reason  of  their  bad 
This  practice  could  be  stopped  by  stamping  on  such  pass- 
ports, preferably  with  a  perforated  stamp,  the  word  "  admitted  '^and 
the  date.     Thus  the  passport  could  not  again  be  used.     No  legislation 
is  necessary  for  this  innovation. 

In  regard  to  passports  to  convicts,  the  prefetto  of  the  Province  of 
biracusa  assured  a  member  of  the  Commission  that  none  were  issued 
in  that  province  either  to  the  United  States  or  to  Canada,  and  he 
cited  the  Canadian  act  of  August  23,  1900,  which  excludes  convicts,  as 
does  the  United  States  law,  and  also  cited  the  Italian  statute,  which 
prohibits  the  giving  of  passports  to  convicts. 

An  Italian  emigration  official  in  Sicily  stated  that  people  destined 
for  the  United  States  do  not  get  passports  in  cases  where  the  laws 
of  the  United  States  exclude  them,  but  that  to  Canada  or  other 
points  anybody  can  get  a  passport,  even  those  who  have  com- 
mitted crimes.  He  said  that  when  a  man  came  to  him  with  a  pass- 
port he  did  not  go  deeply  into  the  question  of  how  it  was  obtained, 
and  that  when  a  criminal  is  going  on  a  Canadian  or  other  passport 
the  police  look  after  him  and  see  that  he  leaves.  He  also  cited  the 
case  of  a  man  who  was  landed  at  New  York  and  then  sent  his  pass- 
port back  to  a  friend  who  had  been  rejected.  The  latter  then  went 
to  New  York.  It  was  further  stated  that  there  is  a  regular  business 
of  this  kind,  passports  being  returned  to  be  used  by  some  one  else 
who  can  not  get  one.  Those  obtaining  passports  to  France,  or  some 
other  European  country,  he  said,  find  it  ve^  easy  on  reaching  some 
foreign  port  to  proceed  to  the  United  States.  This  official  stated 
that  in  his  opinion  the  majority  of  Italians  arriving  at  American 
ports  with  passports  from  any  but  Italian  ports  of  embarkation  are 
persons  with  criminal  records,  to  whom  the  Italian  Government  has 
refused  passports  for  the  United  States. 

It  was  generally  admitted  that  some  criminals  from  Calabria  had 
gone  out  clandestinely,  both  as  seamen  and  through  Marseille  and 
Havre,  but  it  was  denied,  where  investigation  was  possible,  that 
passports  were  issued  to  criminals. 

Hon.  Charles  M.  Caughey,  formerly  American  consul  at  Messina, 
in  a  letter  to  the  American  ambassador  at  Rome,  dated  May  26,  1906, 
comments  on  the  situation  in  substance,  as  follows  : 

No  man  has  any  difficulty  in  getting  passport  unless  he  still  owes  a  penal  debt 
which  must  be  paid,  and  sometimes  even  that  is  no  bar  to  his  leaving,  and  his  de- 
parture is  discovered  (?)  too  late  to  stop  him.  In  this  case,  of  course,  the  for- 
mality of  a  passport  is  dispensed  with,  and  he  reaches  New  York  either  by  being 
put  upon  ship's  articles  or  by  enrolling  himself  under  the  standard  of  the  pa- 


218  The  Immigration  Commission. 

drone.  I  have  personally  talked  with  men  who  have  represented  the  padroni  in 
Sicily,  and  have  had  placed  before  me  absolutely  convincing  proofs,  but  unfor- 
tunately I  could  not  get  possession  of  the  papers,  letters,  etc.  One  man  who  is 
now  here  was  employed  in  New  York  to  gather  the  newly  naturalized  and  take 
them  before  a  notary,  and  when  the  passports  were  received  from  Washington 
they  were  "  loaned,"  for  a  consideration,  to  the  padroni.  The  carelessness  ( if  the 
word  be  appropriate)  of  the  notaries  in  taking  the  description  of  the  applicant 
is  a  great  aid  to  the  padrone  in  indiscriminately  distributing  the  passports. 
I  cite  a  case  in  point.  A  few  days  ago  there  passed  through  my  hands  two 
passports,  Nos.  4556  and  4557,  issued  by  our  passport  bureau  to  Guiseppe  Pizzar 
Ello  and  Gaetano  Puzzarella,  brothers,  but  names  spelled  differently.  In  the 
description  both  of  these  men  are  credited  with  dark  hair,  while,  on  the  con- 
trary, both  are  gray,  in  fact  almost  white,  and  one  is  very  bald. 

Let  there  be  a  thorough  examination  of  emigrants  holding  American  passports 
before  they  land,  and  the  result,  I  feel  confident,  will  prove  that  my  assertions 
are  far  from  being  mythical.  The  naturalized  Sicilian,  when  he  finds  that  he 
can  not  get  his  passport  on  time,  has  not  the  slightest  hesitancy  in  taking  out 
an  Italian  one,  and  it  is  no  unusual  thing  to  find  him  furnished  with  both.  If 
such  a  man  got  his  just  deserts,  his  act,  I  respectfully  submit,  should  be  regarded 
as  an  ipso  facto  renunciation  of  citizenship,  and,  if  possible,  his  papers  should 
be  confiscated.  It  is  an  abuse  which,  in  my  opinion,  can  be  stopped  in  one  way 
only,  and  that  is  (if  the  arrangement  can  be  made  with  the  Italian  Government) 
to  require  the  clerk  of  each  court  which  issues  naturalization  papers  to  furnish 
the  name  to  the  Secretary  of  State,  who,  through  the  Italian  embassy,  would 
forward  it  to  the  foreign  office  at  Rome,  who  would,  in  turn,  notify  the  mayor 
of  the  city  or  commune  to  which  the  man  belongs  to  make  note  of  the  fact 
against  his  name  on  the  records.  This  method  would  be  most  effectual,  for 
in  the  smallest  commune  in  Italy  there  is  a  complete  list  of  every  man,  woman, 
and  child  claiming  residence  within  its  limits. 

In  answer  to  an  inquiry  by  a  member  of  the  Commission,  the  chief 
of  police  of  the  Province  of  Messina  said  that  if  a  convict  had  be- 
haved well  since  his  release  from  prison  after  two  years  or  so  had 
passed  a  passport  to  America  would  be  given  him.  He  explained 
that  the  emigrant  had  to  obtain  from  the  mayor  of  the  commune  in 
which  he  lived  a  "  nulla  osta  "  (no  obstacle) ,  which  he  brought  to  him. 
He  then  investigated  the  man's  condition  and  criminal  record.  If 
the  applicant  was  a  married  man  he  would  compel  him  to  bring  evi- 
dence of  the  consent  of  his  wife  to  his  leaving,  and  if  everything 
seemed  satisfactory  the  passport  was  issued.  He  said  that  he  had 
access  to  the  records  of  the  criminal  career  of  the  applicant  and  could 
ascertain  whether  he  had  been  convicted  of  a  crime  and  also  whether 
he  was  under  surveillance  by  the  police.  He  admitted  that  passports 
had  been  issued  to  some  convicts,  but  he  did  not  know  how  many. 
The  prefect  of  Messina,  however,  stated  that  there  was  an  order  re- 
stricting the  issuance  of  passports  for  emigrants  to  the  United  States 
who  hau  committed  crimes,  but  that  it  did  not  apply  to  Canada. 

EVASIONS   OF  THE  PASSPORT  LAW. 

As  already  suggested  the  chief  problem  of  the  Italian  criminal 
or  ex-criminal  who  desires  to  emigrate  is  that  of  getting  out  of  Italy 
rather  than  that  of  getting  into  the  United  States.  The  law  requir- 
ing that  persons  leaving  the  country  be  provided  with  passports,  as 
stated  by  Mr.  Rossi,  does  not  prevent  their  leaving  the  country  over- 
land, but  the  movements  of  the  people  are  so  closely  watched  in 
Italy  that  even  this  method  is  attended  with  some  difficulty.  In  any 
event  the  law  which  refuses  passports  to  classes  debarred  from  the 
United  States  is  sufficiently  effective  to  make  its  successful  evasion 
a  seemingly  difficult  matter. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  219 

Several  methods  are  employed  by  the  criminal  classes  in  leaving 
Italy  and  gaining  admission  to  the  United  States.  So  far  as  the 
Commission  was  able  to  ascertain,  the  most  common  method  is  to 
leave  overland  without  a  passport  or  to  secure  a  passport  to  some 
other  country  and  then  proceed  to  the  United  States.  Another  com- 
mon method  is  that  of  shipping  as  a  sailor  and  deserting  the  ship  at 
some  American  port.  In  the  latter  case  the  course  pursued  is  as 
follows:  An  Italian  intending  to  emigrate,  who  has  been  rejected 
by  the  Government,  either  for  disease  or  on  account  of  a  criminal 
record,  arranges  with  the  captain  of  a  small  Italian  vessel  to  engage 
him  as  a  sailor,  or  it  is  arranged  through  a  shipping  agency,  or, 
as  in  Messina,  by-  a  man  who  makes  a  specialty  of  this  sort  of  busi- 
ness. The  captain  of  the  ship  goes  to  the  captain  of  the  port  and 
says  he  wants  to  ship  the  man,  which  he  is  permitted  to  do.  At 
the  next  port  the  captain  goes  to  the  captain  of  the  port  and  takes 
the  man  with  him  and  says  he  does  not  need  the  man  longer,  upon 
which  statement  the  captain  of  the  port  gives  him  his  libretto,  or,' 
as  it  is  called  in  the  United  States,  his  discharge.  With  this  dis- 
charge the  supposed  sailor  can  be  shipped  as  a  seaman  or  in  any 
other  capacity  on  board  a  ship  of  any  nationality,  and,  either  with 
or  without  the  consent  of  the  captain  of  such  ship,  leave  the  ship 
at  the  American  port  first  touched  and  becomes  a  resident  of  the 
United  States.  It  is  also  possible  that  magistrates  or  other  proper 
authorities  in  cities  and  inland  villages  give  passports  to  criminals 
and  others  rejected  for  various  causes,  for  political  or  other  reasons^ 
as  it  is  entirely  'in  the  hands  of  the  police  authorities  of  those  places 
to  certify  as  to  the  character  of  the  persons  desiring  to  secure 
passports. 

It  appears,  therefore,  that  Italians  rejected  on  account  of  disease  or 
criminal  records  may  effect  a  landing  in  the  United  States  by  any 
of  the  following  means: 

By  securing  passports  for  Canada  and  breaking  their  journey  be- 
tween the  port  of  arrival  in  the  United  States  and  their  Canadian 
point  of  destination. 

By  securing  passports  for  France  or  other  European  countries,  or 
by  going  to  such  countries  without  passports  and  sailing  from  some 
foreign  port  to  the  United  States. 

By  securing  passports  for  South  American  countries  and  then  pro- 
ceeding more&or  less  directly  to  the  United  States. 

By  shipping  as  seamen,  firemen,  etc.,  on  ships  destined  to  the 
United  States,  using  the  method  outlined  and  deserting  at  the  first 
American  port  reached. 

By  securing  passports  as  a  matter  of  favor  from  the  authorities 

issuing  them.  ~,      ,      ,  f 

The  opinions  above  expressed  are  confirmed  by  Hon.  Charles  M. 
Caughey,  American  consul  at  Messina,  who,  in  a  statement  to  the 
Commission,  said  in  part : 

In  my  fourteen  years  of  experience,  studying  the  question  of  emigration  in 
its  kaleidoscopic  phases,  I  have  seen  numerous  changes  made  in  our  laws  all 
wU  the  aim  of  restricting  the  emigration  of  undesirable  aliens,  but  I  regret  to 
sly  that  the  -reatly  desired  end  has  not  by  any  means  been  accomplished. 
?y*  *  The  vttal  question  is,  that  notwithstanding  the  rigor  of  our  regu- 
lation^ the  verv  worst  element  of  the  Sicilian  criminal  class  finds  its  way  to 
the  United  States  there  to  increase  the  membership  of  "  mano  nero  or  the 
-  black  hand  ''To-day  I  s«e  upon  the  street  one  of  that  class  who  still  reeks 


220  The  Immigration  Commission. 

with  the  prison  taint  surrounded  by  his  boon  companions.  Suddenly  I  miss 
his  familiar  appearance,  and  when  I  ask  where  he  is  I  am  told :  "  Oh,  he  is  in 
New  York."  How  did  he  get  there?  There  is  a  certain  man  here  whose  sole 
occupation  is  to  guarantee  (and  I  regret  to  say  he  fulfills  his  contracts)  to  put 
criminals  and  rejected  emigrants  safe  beyond  the  portals  of  Ellis  Island.  How 
is  it  done?  Ask  the  captain  or  the  purser  of  any  of  the  large  liners  how  much 
he  was  paid  to  put  the  man  on  the  ship's  articles  at  Naples  or  Genoa  as  an 
infirmarian,  emigrant  steward,  coal  passer,  etc.,  and  at  New  York  does  he  not 
desert?  At  Messina  they  do  not  try  such  expedients,  for  the  captains  and 
pursers  are  afraid  since  I  reported  the  steamship  Gerty  to  Ellis  Island,  and 
the  former  was  arrested,  fined,  and  discharged  by  her  owners.  There  are 
numerous  other  ways,  which  I  shall  not  dilate  upon,  but  would  most  respect- 
fully suggest  as  a  tentative  plan  to  at  least  ameliorate  the  situation,  that 
there  be  attached  to  every  consulate  at  a  port  of  emigration  one  official,  or 
more  if  necessary,  whose  sole  duty  should  be  to  investigate  the  record  of 
every  intending  emigrant;  and  in  order  that  the  work  be  thoroughly  done,  the 
steamship  companies  should  be  obliged  to  furnish  the  consulate  with  the 
emigrants'  names  and  all  necessary  details  at  least  one  month  prior  to  the 
date  fixed  for  their  departure,  and  the  expenses  of  this  investigation  should 
be  paid  by  the  companies.  They  no  doubt  would  raise  a  hue  and  cry,  claiming 
that  such  a  rule  hampers  their  business,  etc.  To  this  I  would  reply  that  the 
United  States  Government  is  not  the  guardian  of  their  interests,  but  of  its 
own.  There  is  not  the  slightest  doubt  that  any  expense  incurred  will  be  added 
to  the  price  of  the  ticket. 

I  have  said  advisedly  that  ttiis  would  be  a  tentative  scheme,  for  I  have  no 
idea  that  it  would  be  absolutely  effective.  So  far  as  this  port  is  concerned, 
I  have  broken  up  the  old  system  of  substitution  by  causing  each  emigrant, 
after  he  has  passed  the  inspection,  to  be  conducted  personally  on  board  by  a 
carabiniere,  or  a  police  officer.  The  system  of  putting  such  men  upon  the 
articles  is  also  checked  by  the  medical  visit  to  the  crew,  but  this  does  not 
reach  the  healthy  criminal  who  finds  his  way,  not  only  in  the  crew,  but  also 
as  a  third-class  passenger,  escorted  to  the  ship  by  the  police  and  furnished 
with  a  passport  for  Canada;  but  there  is  one  method,  all  else  failing,  that 
would  be  effective.  It  is  this:  At  present  tte  responsibility  is  divided;  place 
it  all  upon  the  companies.  Let  our  vlovernment  recall  every  official  abroad  in 
the  interest  of  emigration,  except  one  of  the  Marine-Hospital  Service  to  be 
attached  to  the  embassy  of  each  country,  so  as  to  be  on  the  spot  in  case  of  an 
outbreak  of  cholera,  yellow  fever,  etc.  Let  the  disinfection  of  the  baggage  be 
absolutely  under  the  control  of  the  consulate,  the  expenses  thereby  incurred 
being  as  at  present  defrayed  by  the  companies;  let  the  companies  take  all 
the  responsibility  of  those  who  emigrate,  the  medical  visits  being  made  by  their 
own  physicians,  Ellis  Island  requiring  that  upon  every  passport  there  be  the 
photograph  of  the  emigrant,  and  that  he  or  she  bear  with  them  a  "  fede  penale," 
or  penal  sheet,  issued  by  the  questor  of  the  city,  town,  or  village  from  which 
he  or  she  comes.  I  am  confident  that  with  such  a  regulation  in  force  the  com- 
panies would  be  allies  by  necessity,  and  the  number  of  those  rejected  at  Ellis 
Island  would  be  nil,  and  the  criminal  classes  would  no  longer  contribute  to 
increase  our  population  of  Italians,  which  in  New  York  City  alone  outnumbers 
that  of  the  entire  city  of  Florence, 


CHAPTER  VTII. 
THE  EFFECT  OF  EMIGRATION  ON  ITALY. 

As  noted  elsewhere,  the  extent  of  the  emigration  from  Italy  has  not 
prevented  a  substantial  increase  in  the  population  during  recent  years. 
In  1881  the  population  was  28,460,000;  in  1901,  32,475,000;  and, 
according  to  official  estimates,  it  had  increased  to  34,270,000  on  Jan- 
uary 1,  1909.  The  percentage  in  the  population  of  persons  21  to  50 
years  of  age,  however,  fell  from  40.29  per  cent  in.  1881  to  35.59  per 
cent  in  1901,a  showing  distinctly  a  relative  loss  of  nearly  5  per  cent 
in  an  age  group  from  which  a  large  majority  of  the  emigrants  are 
drawn.  In  many  towns  or  localities  in  southern  Italy  and  Sicily  the 
Commission  was  informed  that  the  population  had  decreased — in 
some  instances  greatly — because  of  the  large  numbers  who  had  gone 
to  the  United  States  and  South  America,  and  it  would  be  surprising, 
in  view  of  the  great  emigration  of  the  past  ten  years,  if  a  census  at 
the  present  time  did  not  show  a  considerably  smaller  percentage  of 
young  men  and  women  than  were  present  in  1901. 

The  Koyal  Italian  Agricultural  Commission,  which  investigated 
migration  conditions  in  Basilicata  and  Calabria  subsequent  to  the 
Immigration  Commission,  found  that  there  had  been  a  large  decrease 
in  population  in  many  communities  visited,  and  in  every  case  this  was 
reported  as  being  due  to  emigration. 

In  several  villages  visited  by  the  Commission  the  smallness  of  the 
proportion  of  young  men  was  plainly  noticeable  and  in  some  hardly 
any  were  to  be  "seen,  the  population  being  composed  almost  entirely  of 
old  men,  women,  and  children.  Inquiry  as  to  the  whereabouts  of  the 
young  men  always  brought  the  reply  "  gone  to  America."  This 
movement  of  population  has  naturally  affected  economic  and  other 
conditions  throughout  Italy  for  the  better  or  the  worse,  according  to 
the  point  of  view.  As  will  be  seen  later,  the  reduction  of  the  labor 
supply  through  emigration  has  resulted  in  large  increases  in  wages 
among  the  laboring  classes,  and  consequently  the  condition  of  the 
nonlandholding  peasantry  has  greatly  improved.  Landowners,  both 
large  and  small,  however,  are  seriously  affected  by  the  high  wages  and 
lack  of  labor,  and  many  of  the  smaller  proprietors  have  been  ruined. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  money  sent  from  America  by  emigrants  has 
in  many  communities  lifted  the  proletariat  from  abject  poverty  to 
comparative  comfort,  and  many  returned  emigrants  have  become 
small  landowners  and  by  introducing  improved  methods  have  suc- 
ceeded. Moreover,  it  was  everywhere  apparent  that  the  returned 
emigrants,  or  "Americans,"  as  they  are  usually  called,  have  adopted 
a  much  higher  standard  of  living.  Their  houses  are  conspicuously 
better  than  those  of  the  peasants  who  have  not  emigrated,  and  domes 

ttSee  statement  of  Egisto  Rossi,  p.  214. 

221 


222  The  Immigration  Commission. 


tic  animals  are  not  housed  under  the  same  roof,  as  is  common  in 
southern  Italy.  Some  details  of  the  changed  conditions  resulting 
from  emigration  are  given  in  what  follows. 

WAGES    AND   LABOR    SUPPLY. 

It  is  admitted  by  all  who  are  familiar  with  the  situation  that  the 
enormous  exodus  of  workers  from  Italy  during  the  past  decade  has 
been  the  chief  cause  of  the  increase  in  wages  paid  for  common  labor. 
There  have  been  other  causes,  notably  the  many  successful  strikes 
among  agricultural  and  industrial  labor  unions,  referred  to  else- 
where,0 but  in  practically  every  community  visited  by  the  Immigra- 
tion Commission  the  reduction  of  the  available  labor  supply  by  reason 
of  emigration  was  believed  to  be  responsible  for  the  almost  universal 
increase  in  wages.  A  large  landholder,  who  was  a  member  of  the 
Camera  de  Deputati,5  stated  to  the  Commission  that  while  in  the  past 
emigration  may  have  been  of  service  to  Italy  by  taking  away  the  sur- 
plus population,  he  believed  it  was  not  so  now,  as  too  many  have  gone 
and  are  going.  He  frankly  admitted  that  his  point  of  view  was  to 
some  extent  commercial,  as  he  found  it  impossible  to  get  all  the  labor 
needed  for  his  estate,  and  also  was  obliged  to  pay  higher  wages  to  his 
farm  laborers.  He  said  that  formerly  he  paid  less  than  2  lire  (40 
cents),  but  at  that  time  was  obliged  to  pay  2^  and  3  lire  (50  and  60 
cents) ,  and  could  not  get  enough  men  at  these  prices. 

The  prefetto  of  the  Province  of  Siracusa  said  that  since  the  large 
emigration  began  wages  had  increased  from  1  lira  (20  cents)  to  over 
2  lire  (40  cents)  ;  that  laborers  were  hard  to  get,  and  that  all  food 
products  had  risen  in  value. 

The  sub-prefetto  of  Reggio  stated  to  the  Commission  that  in  his 
opinion  the  emigration  movement  was  too  great  for  Italy's  good  and 
that  he  regretted  that  Columbus  discovered  America.  He  said  that 
small  landowners  were  being  ruined;  that  laborers'  wages  had  risen 
and  that  they  were  hard  to  get. 

The  prefetto  of  the  Province  of  Messina  said  that  since  emigration 
began  wages  had  greatly  increased,  and  laborers  were  scarce. 

A  physician  in  the  Province  of  Messina  stated  that  the  increased 
prosperity  had  favorably  affected  the  professional  classes  as  well  as 
laborers,  as  where  he  formerly  got  a  fee  of  2  lire  (40  cents)  for  a 
professional  visit,  he  sometimes  got  5  lire  ($1)  at  present. 

As  previously  mentioned,  the  Royal  Italian  Agricultural  Commis- 
sion made  an  investigation  of  emigration  conditions  in  the  comparti- 
menti  of  Basilicata  and  Calabria  subsequent  to  the  Immigration  Com- 
mission's visit  to  Italy.  The  line  of  inquiry  followed  by  both  com- 
missions was  much  the  same  and,  through  the  courtesy  of  the  Italian 
officials,  the  unpublished  report  of  the  royal  commission  was  made 
available  to  the  Immigration  Commission.  From  this  report  is  taken 
the  following  information  respecting  wages  and  emigration  in  various 
sections  of  the  compartimenti  named : 

Albano-di  Lucania. — Population,  2,400.  About  600,  with  their  families,  have 
emigrated.  Workmen  are  lacking,  and  during  the  harvest  season  proprietors 
apply  to  peasants  coming  from  the  Province  of  Lecce.  Wages  of  day  laborers 

°See  p.  174.  6  Lower  house  of  the  Italian  Parliament. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  223 

which  eight  or  ten  years  ago  were  50  centesimi  (10  cents)  daily,  with  food  are 
now  more  than  doubled,  and  the  quest  of  day  laborers  is  always  more  difficult. 
>nmll  proprietors  claim  that  they  have  been  ruined  by  the  emigration  and  the 
consequent  augmentation  of  wages.  One  small  proprietor  said  that  once 
peasants  hired  by  the  day  were  satisfied  with  modest  food,  but  that  now  they 
pretend  to  want  first-quality  food. 

Commie  di  Pignola  di  Basilicata.—The  sindico  (mayor)  states  that  the 
population  is  continually  diminishing  in  consequence  of  emigration.  In  1881 
Pignola  had  4,000  inhabitants;  in  1901  there  were  2,557,  and  now  (1907)  only 
2,100.  Wages,  which  until  ten  years  ago  were  only  a  few  centesimi  a  day,  are 
doubled  as  a  result  of  emigration.  Now  wages  of  day  laborers  are  li  lire  (30 
cents)  a  day,  with  food,  and  even  women  earn  from  1  to  1£  lire  a  day,  according 
to  the  season.  A  proprietor  who  possesses  1,500  sheep  and  500  she-goats  says 
that  in  consequence  of  augmented  wages  he  has  difficulty  in  making  between  4 
and  5  per  cent  profit  on  a  capital  of  20,000  lire  ($4,000).  Times  are  hard 
among  laborers,  however.  Many  peasants  here  do  not  use  bread,  but  live  on 
potatoes  and  beans.  Wages  are  higher,  it 'is  true,  but  the  labor  lasts  only  three 
or  four  months  yearly. 

Potenza.—Dr.  -  -  has  purchased,  at  the  price  of  22,000  lire  ($4,400), 
200  hectares  (494.2  acres)  of  mountainous  land  which  he  cultivates  as  well  as 
possible  by  means  of  modern  systems.  Notwithstanding  great  anticipations  he 
can  not,  in  consequence  of  lack  of  laborers,  Cultivate  directly  and  must  have 
recourse  to  the  mezzadria  (partnership)  system. 

Laurenzana. — The  mayor  says  that  while  in  1881  this  district  had  a  popula- 
tion of  7,300,  in  1901  it  was  reduced  to  4,300,  and  now  (1907)  it  has  about 
3,000  inhabitants,  the  greater  part  having  emigrated,  principally  to  North 
America.  Before,  the  only  cause  of  emigration  was  misery,  now  it  is  the 
spirit  of  imitation  and  the  hope  of  savings.  He  states  that  formerly  the  small 
proprietors  let  their  land,  a  recourse  which  has  gone  now  because  of  emigra- 
tion. They  are  now  obliged  to  cultivate  their  fields  or  abandon  them.  Day 
laborers,  or  peasants,  become  every  day  scarcer,  notwithstanding  the  higher 
wages.  In  the  village  there  were  many  closed  and  abandoned  houses.  Many 
were  threatening  to  fall  in  and  others  had  been  demolished.  The  mayor  con- 
cluded his  testimony  by  declaring  that  proprietors  of  the  small  and  middle 
classes,  who  were  so  much  damaged  by  emigration,  should  be  exempted  from 
the  payment  of  the  ground  tax  for  thirty  years.  A  small  proprietor  and  tenant 
stated  that  every  year  lands  are  abandoned  for  want  of  laborers.  "  The  aug- 
mented wages  and  the  diminished  income  ruined  us  all." 

Corleto  Perticare. — Population,  4,500.  A  well-known  senator,  who  was  pre- 
fect before,  recognizes  that  the  emigration  at  first  was  useful  to  the  lower 
classes.  In  this  village  there  are  now  very  few  indigents;  everyone  pays  his 
taxes  and  "a  shepherd  lives  better  than  a  schoolmaster."  A  muleteer  earns 
no  less  than  800  lire  ($160)  yearly.  Only  the  land  proprietors,  the  small  and 
large  ones,  are  damaged  by  the  augmented  wages  and  want  of  laborers.  Every 
peasant  eats  white  bread.  But  for  the  emigration  the  population  would  con- 
tinually increase  and  the  misery  would  be  augmented. 

Viggiano. — The  mayor  states  that  the  population  is  diminishing;  that  it  was 
7,000  In  1881  and  scarcely  5,000  now  (1907).  Two-thirds  of  the  emigrants  from 
Viggiano  are  street  players  (soriatori  ambulant!)  and  they  go  to  all  parts  of 
the  world,  even  to  China  and  Alaska.  In  the  district  the  property  is  divided, 
and  every  family  possesses  an  orchard  or  vineyard,  and  the  land  is  fertile. 
Day  laborers  come  from  the  Province  of  Lecce.  Wages  vary  from  2  to  2.50 
lire  (40  to  50  cents)  per  day,  without  food.  A  large  proprietor,  who  is  a  doctor 
of  agrarian  science,  complains  of  the  scarcity  of  manual  labor,  although  wages 
have  been  doubled  in  recent  years.  He  says  that  it  is  impossible  to  find  people 
to  look  after  the  cattle,  and  that  not  even  children  will  mind  the  sheep.  Cer- 
tainly emigration  has  improved  conditions  of  living  at  Viggiano. 

Moliterno.— The  mayor  says  that  the  population  of  the  village  was  6,500  in 
1881  5600  in  1901,  and  is  still  diminishing.  The  emigration  consists  for  the 
most  part  of  young  peasants.  A  large  proprietor  says  that  in  consequence  of  a 
scarcity  of  laborers  half  of  the  land  remains  uncultivated.  Wages  of  laborers 
are  2  lire  (40  cents)  a  day,  besides  1*  liters  of  wine  and  breakfast  without 
bread.  An  old  peasant,  asked  why  so  many  people  go  to  America,  answered : 
"Because  the  tenants  obtain  too  little  from  the  land.  One  lira  and  fifty  (30 
cents),  the  wages  of  a  clay  laborer,  is  not  sufficient  to  maintain  a  large  family. 

Lo^f/ro.-Population  in  1881  about  6,000,  now  decreased  one-third  because 
of  emigration.  A  large  proprietor  said  that  day  laborers  who  earned  until 


224  The  Immigration  Commission. 

last  year  1  lira  '(20  cents)  a  day  now  ask  1.25  lire  (25  cents),  with  food. 
Women  who  were  before  satisfied  with  50  centesimi  (10  cents)  daily  now  ask 
between  60  and  75  centesiini  (12  and  15  cents).  Another  proprietor  says  the 
land  is  very  poor  and  gives  no  profit,  so  the  proprietors  do  not  find  it  con- 
venient to  employ  laborers  at  so  high  wages. 

Latronica. — The  mayor  says  that  the  population  is  decreasing;  2,300  inhabi- 
tants are  in  the  village  and  1,500  are  in  America.  Peasants  are  now  in  better 
circumstances  than  before.  Small  proprietors,  on  the  contrary,  are  ruined; 
from  their  poor  ground  they  only  obtain  enough  to  pay  the  ground  tax.  One 
proprietor  who  employs  modern  systems  of  cultivation  pays  peasants  who  work 
by  the  day  2  lire,  with  a  liter  of  wine.  He  asserts  that  ha  finds  as  many  labor- 
ers as  he  wishes,  and  that  only  those  who  pay  low  wages  complain  of  the 
scarcity  of  workers. 

Normanno. — Population,  4,500.  Has  increased  wages  of  day  laborers  to  be- 
tween 1.50  and  1.70  lire  (30  and  34  cents)  a  day,  with  meals,  and  2.50  lire  (50 
cents)  during  the  harvest.  Small  proprietors  claim  that  they  are  ruined. 

Gastrovillari. — Population,  9,900.  Between  3,500  and  4,000  have  emigrated. 
The  mayor  says  that  wages  of  day  laborers  are  now  more  than  doubled.  Man- 
ual labor  is  wanting  to  such  a  degree  that  the  municipality  was  unable  to  find 
an  assistant  to  the  street  sweeper.  Enthusiasm  for  emigration  has  become  so 
great  that  a  father  refused  the  hand  of  his  daughter  to  a  young  man  unless  he 
would  first  go  to  America.  One  proprietor  stated  that  the  scarcity  of  manual 
labor  is  such  that  he  found  it  more  convenient  to  purchase  chemical  fertilizer 
in  Naples,  as  he  found  no  men  'to  transport  the  natural  local  manure.  In  con- 
sequence of  emigration  the  most  distant  lands  have  been  abandoned,  and  stock 
grazing  has  been  given  up  for  want  of  shepherds.  The  largest  proprietor  in 
this  region  says  that  in  the  last  twenty  years  his  income  was  reduced  three- 
fourths.  Wages  have  increased  two-thirds.  During  the  sowing  the  peasants 
demand  3  lire  (60  cents)  per  day  with  meals,  and  in  the  harvest  season  5  and  6 
lire  ($1  to  $1.20)  per  day  with  meals.  He  adds  that  for  want  of  men,  women 
are  employed  in  all  kinds  of  agricultural  labor;  that  during  the  harvest  they 
earn  2  lire  (40  cents)  per  day  and  for  other  labor  between  1  and  1.25  lire,  with 
meals  in  both  instances. 

Spezzano  Albanese. — The  vice  mayor  stated  that  the  population  is  3,500,  but 
1,500  of  them  are  in  America.  Manual  labor  is  wanting  and  wages  are  aug- 
mented one-third. 

Sanftli. — Population,  4,600.  The  mayor  calculates  that  about  1,500  have  gone 
to  the  United  States.  Wages  have  increased  to  1.50  and  1.70  lire  (30  and  34 
cents)  per  day,  besides  food  and  wine,  and  yet  manual  labor  is  wanting. 

Gellico. — Population,  3,050,  of  which  1,000  have  emigrated.  The  mayor  says 
that  the  country  has  now  no  peasants.  Only  20  of  them  remained  who  worked 
by  the  day.  A  baker  says  that,  thanks  to  emigration,  the  laborers  are  now  bet- 
ter treated  by  their  masters. 

Fiori. — A  foreman  of  cowboys  said  that  he  earned  200  lire  ($40)  a  year  and 
received  12  tomoli  of  corn  and  a  ricotta  (whey  cheese)  daily.  "Until  now,"  he 
said,  "  we  have  been  quiet,  but  we  will  obtain  something  more.  America  has 
awakened  us." 

Rolliano. — Population,  8.500.  Two  or  three  thousand  are  in  America.*  The 
mayor  was  opposed  to  emigration.  He  said  that  wages  have  doubled  and  that 
proprietors  do  not  find  any  more  tenants. 

Tiriolo. — The  mayor  states  that  the  population — 4,236,  according  to  the  last 
census — has  decreased  because  of  emigration,  which  had  been  very  strong  for 
ten  or  twelve  years.  Wages  have  risen  to  between  1.30  and  1.50  lire  (26  and  30 
cents)  and  very  often  to  2  lire  (40  cents)  per  day.  Bricklayers  earn  up  to  5 
lire  per  day.  And  yet  young  laborers  are  no  more  to  be  found ;  only  old  people 
and  boys. 

Scilla.— Population,  about  7,000.  About  2,000  have  emigrated,  but  the  secre- 
tary of  the  council  states  emigration  is  now  stationary.  The  wages  of  peasants, 
which  formerly  were  3  "  carlina  r'  (i.27  lire),  are  now  2,  2.25,  and  2.30  lire  (40, 
45,  and  46  cents),  besides  wine.  Wages  of  women  have  also  increased. 

Other  instances  respecting  the  effect  of  emigration  on  wages  in 
Italy  might  be  quoted,  but  the  above  are  sufficient  to  show  that  in  the 
sections  visited  by  the  Italian  Agricultural  Commission  and  the  Im- 
migration Commission  a  relatively  large  increase  has  resulted.  The 
details  given  apply  to  the  compartimenti  of  Basilicata,  Calabria,  and 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  225 

Sicily,  all  of  which  have  contributed  largely  to  the  emigration  move- 
ment in  recent  years.  The  inquiry  in  southern  Italy  was  largely 
confined  to  these  compartimenti,  but  the  Commission  was  informed 
that  the  upward  wage  movement  due  to  emigration  affected  the  whole 
country,  although  to  a  greater  degree  in  the  south  than  elsewhere. 

Egisto  Rossi,  Royal  Italian  Commissioner  of  Emigration,  said  to 
the  Commission,  in  substance: 

The  effect  upon  wages  of  such  large  numbers  leaving  Italy  is  shown  by  the 
fact  that  for  ordinary  work  wages  have  increased  50  per  cent  Instead  of 
getting  1.50  or  2  lire  (30  cents  or  40  cents)  they  got  3  or  4  lire  (60  cents  or 
80  cents)  a  day.  For  common  labor,  if  you  take  the  time  during  the  crop 
season,  wages  have  increased  tremendously.  One  of  the  largest  proprietors 
of  land  in  the  country  about  Rome  says  that  in  order  to  get  men  to  mow  the 
wheat  he  had  to  pay  7  lire  ($1.40)  a  day,  but  of  course  that  is  during  an  ex- 
ceptional period  of  the  year.  Ten  years  ago  you  could  get  laborers  for  2  lire 
(40  cents)  a  day,  and  you  have  to  work  harder  now  to  find  the  people.  In 
Calabria  it  is  just  the  same.  You  can  not  get  the  people  even  if  you  pay  good 
wages,  and  so  the  proprietors  are  obliged  to  reduce  the  areas  under  cultiva- 
tion. Where  there  was  the  vine,  you  now  find  the  prairie,  because  for  the 
prairie  you  need  only  the  sun  and  the  rain  and  a  mowing  once  a  year.  I 
know  a  man  who  offered  to  divide  his  property  into  lots  of  50  or  100  acres, 
and  he  said :  "All  you  have  to  pay  me  for  the  land  is  the  price  you  would 
pay  in  Argentina."  He  tried  very  hard  to  get  the  people  to  stay  here.  Wages 
in  Italy  have  increased  and  are  going  to  increase  because  of  lack  of  labor. 
Public  opinion  is  now  quite  alarmed.  In  Rome  the  price  paid  for  common 
labor  and  for  mechanics  is  between  3  and  5  lire  (60  cents  and  $1),  and  some 
mechanics  get  more  than  5  lire.  In  some  factories  where  workmen  have  to 
care  for  machinery  they  are  well  paid.  In  the  country  districts  common  labor 
brings  between  1.50  and  2.50  lire  (30  cents  and  50  cents)  a  day.  This  move- 
ment has  been  helped  a  great  deal  by  the  labor  party,  which  has  organized 
in  the  country  districts  many  agricultural  leagues.  Whenever  a  proprietor  of 
land  undertakes  some  special  work  in  an  agricultural  field  he  encounters  this 
league,  which  dictates  the  scale  of  wages.  That,  together  with  the  volume  of 
emigration,  makes  it  not  at  all  surprising  that  there  has  been  an  increase  in 
wages  equal  to  50  per  cent  in  the  agricultural  field  for  common  labor. 

LOSS  TO  PROPRIETORS. 

Frequent  reference  has  been  made  to  the  statements  of  landowners 
in  southern  Italy  who  assert  that  they  can  not  profitably  cultivate 
their  holdings  because  of  the  scarcity  of  laborers  and  the  prevailing 
high  rate  of  wages.  It  was  everywhere  stated  that  many  small  pro- 
prietors had  literally  been  ruined.  This  is  undoubtedly  true,  but 
the  fact  that  the  average  wages  for  farm  labor  is  apparently  consid- 
erably less  than  50  cents  a  day  even  in  the  busy  seasons  at  least  sug- 
gested a  belief  that  the  proprietors'  real  difficulty  is  due  to  reasons 
other  than  the  wage  rate. 

Modern  agricultural  methods  are  unknown  in  a  great  part  of  Italy, 
and  the  land  although  carefully  is  not  scientifically  cultivated.  In 
some  sections  farm  machinery  is  not  used  at  all.  In  fact,  it  was 
stated  to  the  Commission  that  in  one  large  section  there  was  not  a 
single  plow,  and  that  all  cultivation  was  done  with  crude  hand  im- 
plements. Commercial  fertilizers  are  but  little  used,  and  everything 
is  done  in  a  most  primitive  way.  With  a  condition  like  this  prevail- 
ing it  is  not  surprising  that  the  proprietors  failed  to  succeed.  It  is 
the  belief  of  some  students  of  the  situation  that  nothing  but  the  in- 
troduction of  modern  methods  of  agriculture  can  solve  the  agrarian 
problem  of  Italy.  One  landowner  at  Latronico,  who  has  installed 
modern  systems  of  cultivation  and  modern  farm  implements,  and 


226  The  Immigration  Commission. 

who  pays  relatively  high  wages  stated  that  he  finds  all  the  laborers 
he  wants  and  that  it  is  only  proprietors  paying  low  wages  who 
complain. 

The  royal  Italian  commissioner  of  emigration  in  his  annual  report 
for  1904  takes  this  view,  holding  that  the  scarcity  of  labor  should 
merely  stimulate  proprietors  to  use  their  land  more  carefully,  intro- 
ducing machinery,  fertilizer,  and  rotation  of  crops,  and  paying  bet- 
ter wages.  In  that  case,  he  believes,  they  will  have  no  difficulty  in 
securing  labor  and  making  money. 

Most  proprietors  in  South  Italy  either  can  not,  because  of  lack 
of  means,  or  will  not  adopt  the  plan  outlined  by  the  royal  commis- 
sioner. Occasionally  a  landed  man  buys  modern  machinery,  thus 
keeping  his  farm  under  profitable  cultivation,  but  many  are  selling 
their  lands  piecemeal,  while  others  are  discouraged  and  their  hold- 
ings practically  go  to  waste.  This  course  seems  to  be  common  in 
Basillicata  and  parts  of  Calabria  and  Abruzzi. 

With  small  proprietors  the  matter  often  resolves  itself  into  a  ques- 
tion of  tilling  the  fields  with  their  own  hands.  Even  then  they  can 
get  along  only  with  difficulty  because  they  have  not  the  means  of 
installing  modern  implements.  One  such  declared  to  the  Royal  Ital- 
ian Agricultural  Commission  that  he  could  only  get  an  income  of  100 
lire  ($20)  from  his  estate,  while  he  had  to  pay  250  lire  ($50)  taxes; 
he  had  abandoned  50  hectares  (125  acres)  of  mountain  lands.  Some 
estates  are  sold  at  auction  to  pay  the  taxes.  Another  proprietor  said 
that  while  until  ten  years  ago  he  obtained  6,000  lire  ($1,200)  yearly 
from  renting  his  land  he  can  not  now  get  enough  to  pay  the  ground 
tax,  which  is  4  to  5  lire  per  hectare  (30  to  40  cents  per  acre),  be- 
cause now  no  one  will  either  rent  the  land  or  work  for  the  owner,  all 
preferring  to  emigrate.  A  large  proprietor  at  Castrovillari  said 
that  from  an  estate  which  twenty-five  years  ago  gave  him  24,000 
lire  a  year  ($4,800),  he  now  gets  less  than  10,000  lire  ($2,000)  a  year 
income.  Another  proprietor  in  the  same  place  said  his  income  was 
reduced  three-fourths  in  twenty  years.  Small  proprietors  in  many 
places  declare  that  peasants,  especially  the  emigrants  and  their  fami- 
lies, live  better  than  they  do.  The  Royal  Agricultural  Commission 
says  in  its  report : 

On  hearing  the  depositions  of  these  small  proprietors,  you  receive  the  im- 
pression that  they  were  accustomed  to  live  on  the  product  of  small  estates 
when  the  work  cost  50  centesimi  (10  cents)  daily  and  still  less,  so  that,  while 
they  are  cursing  against  emigration  you  must  see  that  they  were  real  parasites 
in  damaging  the  field  laborers. 

LAND    AND   RENT. 

It  was  impossible  for  the  Commission  to  make  a  thorough  study  of 
the  Italian  land  system  and  the  effects  of  emigration  upon  it,  but 
in  the  sections  visited  by  the  Commission  it  was  unusual,  until  emigra- 
tion set  in,  that  a  peasant  should  own  land.  Emigration,  carrying 
with  it  numerous  peasant  tenants  and  workmen  out  of  every  Province, 
left  few  to  rent  the  land  or  cultivate  it.  The  price  of  land  fell  to  a 
minimum,  thousands  of  acres  were  abandoned,  and  other  estates  were 
sold  to  satisfy  the  taxes.  Remote  and  barren  fields  were  deserted. 
As  soon  as  emigrants  returned  from  abroad  with  their  savings  they 
sought  investments  and  a  demand  for  land  set  in.  Irrigated  land 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  227 

near  a  village  was  naturally  preferred.  The  landlords  were  not  slow 
to  take  advantage  of  the  new  demand  and  the  prices  of  these  lands  in 
good  locations  rose  materially.  A  landowner  at  Messina  told  the 
Commission  very  frankly  that  he  had  sold  for  600  lire  ($120)  a  piece 
of  land  which  he  had  valued  at  150  lire  ($30).  "This  is  due,"  he 
added,  to  the  better  condition  of  the  country." 

Increase  in  rents  as  well  as  in  land  values  occurs  chiefly  in  towns, 
but  only  after  there  has  been  a  considerable  return  of  emigrants! 
From  this  there  results  improvement  in  business  and  in  the  general 
condition  of  the  people;  so  that  all  values,  including  rents,  are 
increased. 


USURY. 


The  usury  which  prevailed  in  south  Italy  before  emigration  has 
disappeared  in  some  places  and  is  everywhere  less  than  formerly. 
This  is  partly  due  to  the  establishment  of  postal  and  agricultural 
banks  and  mutual-aid  societies,  which  furnish  money  to  peasants  at 
low  rates,  but  probably  emigration  has  had  its  influence.  Thousands 
of  families  receive  aid  from  friends  abroad,  if  they  do  not  themselves 
emigrate,  and  the  benefit  is  not  restricted  either  to  those  who  go  or  to 
their  relatives  or  immediate  friends. 


EXPORTATION   OF  PRODUCTS. 


One  Italian  writer  on  emigration  holds  that  emigration  is  of  bene- 
fit to  Italy  by  creating  a  demand  in  America  for  Italian  products 
used  by  the  emigrants,  thus  stimulating  production.  He  recognizes, 
however,  that  this  is  largely  counterbalanced  by  the  starting  of  such 
industries  in  America,  thus  supplying  the  market  with  American- 
grown  or  American-made  products  of  the  same  sort. 


MORALITY. 


Family  disorganization  has  naturally  followed  in  some  cases  upon 
so  many  long  separations  between  husbands  and  wives.  In  some 
places  it  seems  to  have  amounted  to  very  little,  while  in  others  many 
complaints  are  made.  Sometimes  the  matter  has  economic  causes. 
A  young  man  leaves  his  wife,  perhaps  with  one  or  two  children 
dependent  on  her,  without  means  of  support,  for  a  term  of  years,  or 
even  deserts  her  entirely.  Cases  are  by  no  means  unknown  in  which 
a  man  marries  a  second  wife  in  America.  The  abandoned  wife  then 
occasionally  has  to  choose  between  prostitution  and  beggary  or 
starvation.  The  prefect  of  Cosenza  says: 

To-day  we  are  confronted  with  prostitution  among  a  class  of  women  who 
formerly,  in  spite  of  their  poverty,  were  respectable.  Then,  too,  infanticide  is 
rapidly  making  itself  felt— an  evil  unknown  here  a  few  years  ago. 

The  Commission  was  informed  that  in  some  parts  of  Italy  drunk- 
enness had  become  somewhat  prevalent  with  the  return  of  emigrants. 
As  a  rule  all  Italians  drink  wine,  but  drunkenness  is  very  rare  in  most 
places.  However,  it  is  said  that  the  habit  of  using  stronger  drink, 
acquired  in  America,  is  being  introduced  to  some  extent  by  those 
returning. 


228  The  Immigration  Commission. 

LIVING    CONDITIONS. 

While  the  proprietors  suffer  from  emigration,  the  effect  on  the 
peasants  is  very  different.  The  money  sent  home  to  relatives  by  emi- 
grants has  set  on  their  feet  struggling  peasant  families,  while  the 
higher  wages  and  great  demand  for  labor  have  helped  those  who  re- 
mained at  home.  From  many  places  in  Calabria  comes  the  report 
that  peasants  pay  their  taxes  more  quickly  and  live  better  than  do 
the  proprietors.  Those  who  formerly  could  scarcely  keep  from  star- 
vation now  often  eat  solid  meals,  with  white  bread,  and  have  meat 
more  frequently.  The  post-offices  and  banks  profit  by  the  savings  of 
emigrants,  and  sometimes  towns  are  partially  rebuilt  by  "Americans  " 
returning  home  to  live. 

The  effect  of  these  economic  changes  upon  standards  of  living,  how- 
ever, is  not  so  pronounced  as  might  be  expected.  Physical  needs  are 
better  supplied,  and  in  some  places  where  returned  emigrants  reside 
in  considerable  numbers  there  have  been  introduced  somewhat  higher 
ideals  of  cleanliness  and  hygiene  among  the  peasantry  as  a  class.  But 
where  the  number  of  returned  emigrants  has  been  small,  even  the 
better  economic  situation  has  not  yet  prompted  the  people  to  improve- 
ment in  this  regard.  For  example,  Scilla,  in  Calabria,  is  a  town  of 
7,000  inhabitants,  and  has  2,000  emigrants  in  America.  A  sufficient 
number  of  emigrants  have  returned  to  perceptibly  increase  the  value 
of  lands  near  the  village,  but  in  1907  the  Royal  Italian  Agricultural 
Commission  reported  that  nearly  all  the  houses  in  the  place  were  dis- 
reputable and  that  animals  usually  occupied  the  same  rooms  as  their 
owners,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  600,000  lire  ($120,000)  of  emigrants' 
savings  was  lying  unused  in  the  post-office.  On  the  whole,  the  im- 
provement in  conditions  of  living,  except  where  very  many  emigrants 
have  returned,  is  slight,  although  there  has  been  a  great  improvement 
in  economic  conditions. 

RETURNING   EMIGRANTS. 

The  number  of  emigrants  who  return  to  Italy  from  the  United 
States,  either  permanently  or  temporarily,  is  very  large.  According 
to  Italian  statistics  2,231,961  Italian  third-class  passengers,  prac- 
tically all  of  whom  were  emigrants,  departed  from  Italy  :rbr  the 
United  States  in  the  years  1887  to  1907,  inclusive,  and  during  the 
same  period  972,695  of  the  same  class  returned  from  the  United  States 
to  Italian  ports.  In  other  words,  436  passengers  of  this  class  re- 
turned to  Italy  for  every  1,000  sailing  for  the  United  States.  This 
movement  by  years  is  shown  in  the  table  next  presented. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy. 


229 


fom  Italy  to  the  United  States  and  arrivals  from  the 
Italian  third-class  passengers,  1881   to   1907,  *n- 


elusive 


Compiled  from  «  Bolletino  Dell'  Emigrazione"  1903-1908,  and  «  Statistica  Emigrazione  Italiana  L'  estrew. 

Io97—  1908.J 


Year. 

Departing 
from  Italy 
for  the 
United 
States. 

Arriving  at 
Italian 
ports  from 
the  United 
States. 

Number 
arriving 
for  every 
1,000  de- 
parting. 

1887  

07  091 

1888  

1889  

32,945 
25  434 

6,072 

81 
184 

1890  
1891  

47^952 

2,881 

60 

1892  

42,953 

12,695 

296 

1894  

49,765 

01      CCO 

22,912 

460 

1895  

•V7    OKI 

1896  

53  486 

20  8RR 

1897  

47  000 

oo  900 

1898  

cc  07  c 

1899  

63  156 

31  289 

4Q  C 

1900  

87  714 

31  966 

qc4 

1901  

12l'  139 

04'  A7O 

1902  

193  772 

92  907 

479 

1903  

197*855 

120  645 

BIO 

1904  

168  789 

129  231 

7fifi 

1905  

316*  797 

68  821 

217 

1906  

292  059 

121  620 

416 

1907  

283  671 

177  278 

625 

Total  

2  231  961 

972  695 

436 

According  to  this  table  the  movement  varied  greatly  in  the  differ- 
ent years,  but  in  all  but  four  instances  decreased  emigration  was 
accompanied  by  a  relative  increase  in  the  return  movement,  which 
suggests  that  as  a  rule  the  causes  which  retard  emigration  also  ac- 
celerate the  exodus  from  the  United  States.  It  is,  of  course,  impos- 
sible to  fix  the  specific  cause  of  every  fluctuation  of  the  movement 
during  the  period  considered,  but  the  effect  of  financial  and  indus- 
trial depressions  in  the  United  States  is  clearly  apparent  so  far  as 
certain  years  are  concerned.  The  most  conspicuous  instance  shown 
by  the  table  occurred  in  the  year  1894,  following  the  industrial  de- 
pression of  that  period.  In  that  year  the  outward  movement  from 
Italy  decreased  and  the  inward  movement  increased  to  such  an  ex- 
tent that  the  number  returning  was  848  to  every  1,000  emigrating. 
The  same  tendency  was  again  shown  in  1904,  immediately  following 
the  financial  depression  of  the  preceding  year. 

The  most  conspicuous  example,  however,  occurred  in  the  fiscal 
year  1908,  the  last  seven  months  of  which  witnessed  a  financial  de- 
pression in  the  United  States  which  had  the  effect  of  greatly  reducing 
immigration.  No  statistics  for  passenger  traffic  from  and  to  Italian 
ports  in  that  year  are  available,  but  United  States  immigration  sta- 
tistics show  that  from  July  1,  1907,  to  June  30,  1908,  135,247  Italian 
immigrants  were  admitted  and  167,335  aliens  of  the  same  race  de- 
parted from  United  States  ports.  Thus  departures  exceeded  arrivals 
by  32,088,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  immigration  and  emigration 
movement  was  normal  during  the  first  five  months  of  the  period. 

It  is  frequently  asserted,  however,  that  the  return  movement  of 
Italians  and  other  southern  and  eastern  European  immigrants  is  not 
permanent,  but  that  the  same  persons  come  and  go  and  come  again 


230 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


according  to  the  demands  of  the  labor  market  in  the  United  States. 
This  is  a  fallacy,  at  least  so  far  as  Italians  are  concerned,  for  data 
are  available  to  show  that  the  great  majority  of  this  race  who  return 
to  Italy  do  not  come  again  to  the  United  States,  and  consequently  the 
immigration  from  Italy  is  for  the  most  part  composed  of  persons  who 
are  coming  to  the  United  States  for  the  first  time.  From  the  preced- 
ing table  it  will  be  seen  that  from  January  1,  1899,  to  December  31, 
1907,  inclusive,  a  total  of  1,724,952  Italians  left  Italian  ports  as  steer- 
age passengers  for  the  United  States,  while  during  the  same  period 
798,435  of  the  same  class  returned.  In  these  years,  it  will  be  seen, 
463  returned  to  Italy  for  every  1,000  who  left  the  country.  During 
a  closely  corresponding  period,  July  1,  1899,  to  June  30,  1908,  accord- 
ing to  the  records  of  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Immigration,  only 
196,838  among  the  1,792,020  Italian  immigrants  admitted  to  this  coun- 
try had  been  here  previously.  It  is  clear,  therefore,  that  a  very  large 
proportion  of  the  number  returning  to  Italy  did  not  again  come  to 
this  country,  and  that  the  movement  from  Italy  to  the  United  States 
is  not  composed  largely  of  the  class  popularly  known  as  "  birds  of 
passage  "  who  make  Italy  their  home  and  America  their  workshop. 
On  the  contrary,  it  is  apparent  that  the  vast  majority  of  Italians 
coming  to  this  country  either  settle  here  or  return  permanently  to 
their  native  country. 


CAUSES  OF  THE  RETURN  MOVEMENT. 


The  reasons  why  so  many  Italians  return  permanently  to  their 
native  country  are  difficult  01  determination.  The  immediate  reason 
why  many  leave  the  United  States  is  of  course  a  temporary  lack  of 
employment,  but  this  is  spasmodic  only  and  does  not  seem  to  account 
for  the  large  number  of  Italians  who,  regardless  of  industrial  condi- 
tions, are  constantly  moving  toward  their  native  country  to  remain 
there  permanently. 

The  steamship  Canopic,  on  which  the  Commission  sailed  from  Bos- 
ton to  Naples  in  May,  1907,  carried  in  her  steerage  224  returning 
Italians,  of  whom  147  were  men,  31  women,  and  46  children.  Dur- 
ing the  voyage  members  of  the  Commission  interviewed  108  of  the 
number,' all  of  whom  were  male  wage-earners,  with  a  view  to  ascer- 
taining why  they  were  returning  to  Italy  and  whether  they  intended 
to  return  to  the  United  States.  The  reasons  for  returning  to  Italy 
were  stated  as  follows: 


Visit 61 

Illness 14 

For  family  or  to  marry 13 

Family  matters 7 

To  enter  army  or  navy 4 

Join  family— 3 


Dislike  of  the  United  States. 

Illness  in  family 

Business  reasons 

Not  reported 


Total..  _  108 


The  men  interviewed  had  been  in  the  United  States  as  follows: 
Under  five  years,  67;  five  to  nine  years,  30;  ten  years  or  over,  11. 

Seventy-three  of  the  men  stated  that  they  expected  to  return  to 
the  United  States;  24  did  hot  expect  to  return,  and  11  were  undecided. 
The  number  of  persons  interviewed  was,  of  course,  too  small  to  be 
representative  or  the  return  movement.  It  will  be  noted  that  no  one 
gave  the  lack  of  employment  as  a  reason  for  leaving  the  United 
States,  which  is  not  at  all  strange,  as  at  that  time  industrial  condi- 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  231 

tions  were  excellent,  and  the  canvass  was  made  at  a  season  of  the  year 
when  ordinarily  there  is  a  strong  demand  for  labor.  A  surprising 
feature  of  the  canvass  was  the  proportion  of  sick  persons  among  those 
returning  but  the  Commission's  investigations  in  Italy  disclosed  the 
tact  that  large  numbers  go  back  because  of  sickness,  and  that  among 
them  are  many  returning  to  their  native  country  to  die.  Of  the  14 
who  gave  sickness  as  the  reason  of  their  return  to  Italy  several  were 
afflicted  with  tuberculosis  in  a  more  or  less  advanced  stage.  Onlv 
three  were  returning  because  they  did  not  like  the  United  States,  and 
it  would  seem  that  this  could  hardly  be  regarded  as  an  important 
cause  on  the  whole  for  among  returned  emigrants  in  Italy  there  exists 
very  generally  a  real  affection  for  America.  It  is  undoubtedly  true, 
however,  that  while  most  Italians  like  the  United  States,  they  have  a 
greater  and  more  lasting  affection  for  Italy,  and  many  when  they 
have  accumulated  enough  money  to  insure  them  a  comfortable  ex- 
istence there  prefer  to  live  in  their  native  land.  This,  in  the  opinion 
of  the  Commission,  is  the  chief  cause  of  the  large  permanent  return 
movement. 

EFFECTS  OF  THE  RETURN  MOVEMENT. 

The  return  to  Italy  of  so  large  a  number  of  former  emigrants,  many 
of  whom  possess  savings  which  to  the  peasant  class  seem  like  for- 
tunes, is  having,  a  most  pronounced  effect  on  the  country  in  different 
ways.  Moreover,  the  returned  emigrants  as  a  body  are  much  more 
progressive  than  their  old  neighbors  who  have  remained  at  home, 
and  generally  their  standard  of  living  is  much  higher.  Italians 
hold  different  opinions  as  to  whether  the  influence  exerted  by  the 
returned  emigrant  is  good  or  bad,  but  the  majority  of  those  inter- 
viewed by  the  Commission  feel  that  these  repatriates,  in  common  with 
the  money  sent  home  by  emigrants,  have  been  of  inestimable  value  to 
Italy,  and  especially  to  the  southern  compartimenti.  That  a  stay  in 
America  has  wrought  a  change  in  Italian  peasants  is  a  fact  which  is 
noticeable  in  every  part  of  the  Kingdom  where  repatriates  reside, 
The  experience  of  the  Commission  in  this  respect  coincides  with  that 
of  other  observers.  John  J.  D.  Trenor,  in  a  report  to  the  United 
States  Bureau  of  Immigration  in  1906,  says : 

It  is  not  difficult  to  pick  from  among  the  lower  classes  of  Italy  individuals 
who  have  resided  in  the  United  States,  their  look  of  prosperity  being  a  reliable 
guide  in  that  respect. 

The  same  writer  observed  an  illustration  of  this  at  the  port  of 
Naples,  where  one  ship  was  disembarking  a  load  of  returned  emi- 
grants while  another  was  embarking  emigrants  for  the  United  States, 
and  commented  upon  it  as  follows : 

To  one  side  could  be  seen  the  steerage  passengers,  all  in  neat  attire,  unfasten- 
ing their  well-filled  trunks  preparatory  to  the  customs  inspection,  while  to  the 
other  side  were  the  thousand  or  more  awaiting  embarkation,  but  presenting  a 
severe  contrast  to  their  brethren  returning  from  the  States. 

In  the  parts  of  southern  Italy  visited  by  the  Commission  the 
changed  appearance  and  conduct  of  the  returned  emigrant  was  com- 
mented upon.  Some  among  the  higher  classes  regarded  the  change 
with  disfavor,  as  it  was  said  the  so-called  "Americans  "  had  lost  all 
respect  for  their  superiors.  Some  stated  that  they  were  not  so  re- 

79524°— VOL  4—11 16 


232  The  Immigration  Commission. 

spectful  to  the  landed  proprietors  and  bought  land  for  themselves, 
usually  at  high  prices. 

Among  the  peasants,  however,  there  was  no  complaint  in  this  re- 
spect, for  the  returned  emigrants  have  pointed  the  way  to  better 
things  than  the  Italian  peasant  is  accustomed  to  and  has  demon- 
strated that  they  are  attainable. 

In  many  instances  the  Commission  observed  that  the  standard  of 
living  among  repatriated  Italians  was  noticeably  higher  than  among 
the  peasants  generally.  Their  houses  were  conspicuously  better,  as 
was  the  general  appearance  of  their  premises.  The  pigs,  donkeys, 
and  chickens  had  been  banished  from  the  houses,  and  there  was  about 
their  homes  and  themselves  an  appearance  of  prosperity  which  was 
lacking  among  their  nonemigrant  neighbors. 

In  its  report  on  Basilicata  and  Calabria  the  Royal  Italian  Agricul- 
tural Commission  frequently  refers  to  the  returned  emigrant,  his 
changed  views  of  life,  and  his  effect  upon  his  countrymen.  The 
report  says  that — 

The  first  idea  of  the  emigrants  who  return  is  to  improve  their  houses.  Many 
families  that  in  times  past  have  lived  in  one  room  only,  and  perhaps  with  a 
pig,  now  have  two  or  three  rooms,  besides  a  kitchen  and  stable.  In  America 
they  have  had  their  standard  of  living  raised.  Those  who  return  from  America 
purchase  a  house  with  a  small  estate ;  when  this  is  not  sufficient  they  hire  some 
lands  or  work  on  shares.  The  "Americans"  come  back  improved,  more  clever, 
and  intelligent 

Some  specific  instances  of  the  effect  on  Basilicata  and  Calabria  of 
returned  emigrants,  and  also  of  money  sent  home  by  emigrants,  are 
mentioned  in  the  report  of  the  royal  Italian  commission  substantially 
as  follows: 

Alcana  di  Lucania. — Some  people  returning  from  America  acquire  small 
estates  in  the  surrounding  country.  At  the  post-offices  are -deposited  60,000 
lire  as  savings  of  the  so-called  Americans.  *  *  *  Returned  countrymen  do 
not  adapt  themselves  to  the  hardest  labors  to  which  they  were  subjected  in 
other  times,  except  in  the  case  they  work  on  their  own  estates.  Many  emi- 
grants, not  accustomed  to  possess  money,  after  returning  from  America  squan- 
der it.  A  young  peasant  who  emigrated  some  years  ago  to  New  York  and 
became  a  barber  had  returned  to  Albano  after  his  parents  and  sister.  The  com- 
mission asked  him  why  he  emigrated.  He  said :  "  I  earned  only  50  centissimi 
(10  cents)  a  day  in  Italy;  in  New  York  I  earned  $12  to  $14  a  week.  I  sold  my 
barber  shop  for  $500,  and  am  now  going  back  to  buy  another  one." 

Pignola,  in  Basilicata. — Many  of  the  emigrants  have  been  in  the  United  States 
before  and  need  no  help  in  buying  their  tickets  the  second  time.  The  mayor 
said:  "The  greatest  impulse  (toward  emigration)  came  from  the  example  of 
those  emigrants  who  send  money  to  their  families,  and,  returning  from  America 
after  two  or  three  years,  they  build  a  little  house  or  acquire  an  estate  near  the 
village."  He  adds  that  many  returned  emigrants  squander  their  savings. 

Polenza. — A  peasant,  after  having  worked  for  three  years  in  the  United 
States,  returned  with  1,500  lire  ($300)  and  bought  a  small  estate.  He  is  tenant 
of  a  larger  one,  but,  as  he  affirms,  the  profit  is  so  small  that  he  will  be  obliged 
to  go  back  to  America,  "  where  the  laborer  earns  much  more."  He  lives  in  only 
one  room  on  the  ground  floor  with  his  father,  wife,  two  sons,  and  a  donkey. 

Moliterno. — The  mayor  says  that  those  who  have  been  to  America  do  not  work 
as  willingly  now  as  before. 

Lagonegro. — A  large  proprietor,  on  being  asked  why  the  people  emigrate,  re 
plied :  "  They  see  their  countrymen  returning  well  dressed,  with  an  overcoat,  a 
cigar  in  the  mouth,  and  therefore  they  all  wish  to  go  away."  It  is  evident  that 
"Americans"  live  better  and  have  cleaner  houses.  Emigration  has  created  in 
Lagonegro  a  small  bourgeois  class  that  is  called  "American."  They  have  re- 
turned from  the  United  States  and  from  Argentina;  they  have  an  income  of 
from  3  to  5  lire  (60  cents  to  $1)  daily;  they  don't  work;  and  they  live  like  old 
employers  in  retreat,  with  their  only  ambition  to  become  either  councilors  of 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  233 

100  illlity  °F  foreman  of  some  labor  society-     Of  this  kind  there  are  about 


Latronico  —  The  local  emigration  is  for  the  most  part  to  the  United  States. 
The  hrst  savings  are  employed  by  the  emigrants  to  pay  their  debts  ;  afterwards 
they  build  a  nice  cottage.  In  fact,  all  improvements  of  hygiene  in  these  coun- 
tries are  due  to  emigration.  The  numerous  new  houses  in  every  village  belong 
to  the  so-called  "Americans;"  generally  they  have  one  or  two  rooms  on  the 
ground  floor  and  two  rooms  on  the  first  floor.  They  are  built  with  lime  and 
bricks.  You  don't  see  the  pigs,  donkey,  or  chickens  living  in  the  same  rooms 
with  the  proprietors.  For  animals  there  is  another  small  building  near  the 
house. 

Castrovillari.  —  The  fortunes  of  returned  emigrants  are  not  large,  never  sur- 
passing 5,000  or  6,000  lire,  but  no  one  is  willing  to  work  in  the  fields. 

Spezzano  Albanese.  —  Those  who  return  from  America  purchase  pieces  of  land. 
The  "Americans  "  buy  the  houses  and  dress  well.  The  mayor  of  San  Fill  says 
peasants  now  live  better  than  proprietors.  Those  who  return  from  America, 
accustomed  to  high  wages  and  good  living,  do  not  adapt  themselves  any  longer 
to  the  hard  labor  of  the  old  country  *  *  *.  The  great  advantage  of  emi- 
gration is  in  the  money  earned  in  America.  Three  brothers  who  left  the  coun- 
try quite  poor  earned  in  seven-  or  eight  years  in  America  between  200,000  and 
300,000  lire  ($40,000  and  $60.000).  On  their  return  to  San  Fili  they  purchased 
a  large  wood,  many  houses,  etc. 

Cellico.  —  Here  also  those  who  come  back  purchase  houses. 

San  Giovanni  in  Fiore.  —  The  larger  part  of  the  houses  are  very  dirty  ;  only  in 
the  high  quarter  of  the  town  are  there  many  new  and  clean  houses,  without  pigs, 
asses,  or  chickens  in  the  interior.  These  were  built  by  peasants  who  returned 
.from  America,  so  that  one  must  admit  that  if  a  little  civilization  has  penetrated 
into  this  large  district  it  is  certainly  exclusively  owing  to  emigration.  Those 
who  return  from  America  do  not  adapt  themselves  to  work  on  the  fields  of  other 
proprietors  ;  they  prefer  to  cultivate  the  fields  purchased  by  their  own  savings. 
Their  ambition  is,  as  soon  as  they  return,,  to  build  a  house  by  their  first  savings; 
afterwards  they  purchase  an  orchard  or  a  vineyard.  The  mayor  thinks  that 
emigration  is  the  salvation  of  the  country,  and  that  it  has  improved  economic 
Conditions.  "  The  Americans,"  he  says,  "  live  in  new  and  very  clean  houses." 
A  peasant  says  one  of  his  sons  brought  home  1,000  lire  ($200)  which  served  to 
build  the  house,  but  as  half  the  expense  is  still  to  be  paid  he  will  emigrate  again. 

Rolliano.  —  We  have  noticed  that  in  these  districts  only  the  houses  of  the  so- 
called  "Americans  "  are  wholesome. 

Soveria  Mannelli.—  Emigrants  generally  save  1,000  lire  ($200)  a  year,  says 
the  mayor.  Returning,  their  first  ambition  is  to  purchase  a  house.  Afterwards 
they  acquire  an  estate  and  cultivate  it,  so  that  they  are  never  idle.  The  new 
houses  belong  to  the  "Americans." 

Titiolo.  —  Peasants  go  to  America  and  come  back  from  there  with  the  greatest 
ease;  many  of  them  have  been  there  five  or  six  times;  they  squander  their 
money  on  travel.  "In  the  interest  of  the  nation,"  says  the  mayor,  "such  a 
wandering  ought  to  be  prevented.  A  law  ought  to  be  passed  which  would  pro- 
hibit emigration  to  those  who  had  already  been  in  America  two  or  three  times. 
In  this  way  they  would  be  obliged  to  establish  themselves  in  America  and  their 
earnings  would  be  larger." 

Gimigliano.  —  Young  people  come  back  dressed  much  better  than  rich  people. 

Settingiano.—  Among  those  who  return  many  squander  their  money,  but  in 
every  case  they  have  the  resources  to  emigrate  again.  The  secretary  of  the 
chamber  of  labor  says  very  few  of  the  400  members  of  the  labor  league  are 
intelligent  except  those  who  have  returned  from  America.  Returned  peasants 
desire  to  have  their  estates  close  by  the  villages. 

Monteleone.—  The  vice-mayor  says  that  between  1,200  and  1,500  lire  ($240 
and  $300)  is  sent  from  America  weekly.  A  large  proprietor  says  that  families, 
seeing  their  heads  depart  for  America,  are  satisfied  because  they  are  sure  to 
receive  money  from  there.  The  houses  which  were  dirty  and  neglected  are  now 
improved  The  relations  between  the  proprietors  and  peasants  have  changed 
and  there  are  some  peasants  whose  greetings  are  surly.  Those  who  return 
from  America  purchase  a  house  with  a  small  estate;  where  this  is  not  sufficient 
they  resort  to  hiring  lands,  or  to  the  partnership  system.  The  Americans 
come  back  improved,  more  clever,  and  intelligent.  A  peasant  said  to  the  com- 
mission :  "  The  Americans  have  brought  here  the  paradise. 


234 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


Taverna. — A  railway  official  says  regarding  the  many  new  and  clean  houses 
in  the  village :  "  These,  you  see,  were  all  built  with  money  that  was  earned  in 
America." 

Maida. — Returned  emigrants  have  a  capital  ranging  from  2,000  to  7,000  lire 
($400  to  $1,400). 

DISEASE. 

It  has  been  repeatedly  asserted  that  one  of  the  effects  of  the  return 
movement  of  emigrants  has  been  the  increase  in  Italy  of  certain  dis- 
eases; tuberculosis  and  syphilis  being  those  most  frequently  men- 
tioned. A  recent  writer  °  speaks  of— 

the  diseases  the  Italians  contract  here  in  America,  especially  consumption,  a 
disease  which  was  almost  unknown  in  Italy  twenty-five  years  ago,  but  is  making 
alarming  progress  among  the  southern  poor,  due  largely  to  the  returned  emi- 
grant. 

As  previously  stated,  many  Italians  return  to  their  native  land 
afflicted  with  pulmonary  tuberculosis.  This  fact  came  to  the  atten- 
tion of  the  commission  on  board  the  Canopic*  and  later  in  parts  of 
southern  Italy,  where  it  was  asserted  that  in  almost  every  village 
there  were  former  emigrants  who  had  come  home  to  die;  the  majority 
of  them  having  tuberculosis.  It  was  nowhere  said,  however,  that  re- 
turned emigrants  were  responsible  for  the  present  prevalence  of  the 
disease  in  Italy.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  Italian  mortality  statistics 
clearly  disprove  the  assertion  that  the  prevalence  of  tuberculosis  in 
Italy  is  of  recent  origin.  This  is  shown  by  the  following  table : 

TABLE   41. — Deaths   in   Italy   from   disseminated    tuberculosis    and   pulmonary 
tuberculosis  per  100,000  inhabitants,  in  specified  years,  by  compartimenti. 


Compartimenti. 


1905. 

1901-1905. 

1887-1890. 

Piedmont                                                                                        .  . 

143 

140 

160 

Liguria                       

175 

172 

198 

Lombardy                                        

167 

158 

175 

Venetia 

132 

125 

145 

Emilia                           

134 

130 

171 

Tuscany 

152 

144 

178 

Marches 

92 

90 

113 

Umbria                                

92 

92 

126 

Latium 

124 

124 

161 

Abruzzi          

74 

74 

93 

Campania                                        -  

80 

78 

105 

97 

•  95 

106 

Basilicata                 

61 

57 

66 

Calabria                                              .,  

70 

67 

74 

Sicily 

88 

84 

96 

Sardinia                       

146 

124 

134 

Kingdom                                                  

121 

116 

137 

Deaths  per  100,000  inhabitants 
in— 


The  above  table  shows  not  only  that  tuberculosis  was  prevalent  in 
Italy  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century  ago,  but  also  that  the  mortality 
rate  from  the  disease  was  considerably  greater  in  1887-1890  than  in 
1905,  the  decrease  being  from  137  deaths  per  100,000  of  the  popula- 
tion in  the  former  period  to  121  per  100,000  in  1905.  There  was  an 
increase  in  the  mortality  rate  from  116  to  121  per  100,000  between  the 

°Antonio  Mangano :  "  The  effect  of  emigration  upon  Italy,"  Charities,  Feb. 
1,  1908. 

&See  p.  230. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Italy.  235 

period  of  1901-1905  and  the  year  1905  which  may  have  been  due  in 
part  to  deaths  among  returned  emigrants.  This  is  not  apparent  from 
the  statistics,  however,  because  the  increase  was  general  throughout 
Italy  and  not  confined  to  the  southern  compartimenti,  which  furnish 
tne  largest  proportion  of  emigrants  and  consequently  are  most  af- 
fected by  the  return  movement.  Moreover,  the  highest  death  rate 
±rom  tuberculosis  in  1905  was  found  in  Liguria,  which  furnishes  a 
smaller  number  of  emigrants  according  to  its  population  than  any 
other  compartimento,  while  the  lowest  rate  was  recorded  for  the 

*?i  S-^'  ^hlch  is  one  of  the  greatest  emigrant-furnishing  sections 
ot  the  Kingdom.  It  will  also  be  noted  one  ol  the  three  compartimenti 
showing  no  increase  between  the  period  1901-1905  and  the  year  1905 
was  Abruzzi,  which  furnishes  a  larger  proportion  of  trans-oceanic 
emigrants,  than  any  other  except  Calabria.0 

If  the  death  rate  from  syphilis  may  be  accepted  as  indicating  the 
prevalence  of  that  disease,  there  is  sutecient  proof  that  Italy  has  not 
been  seriously  affected  by  returning  emigrants  in  this  regard.  Ac- 
cording to  the  records  the  mortality  rate  per  100,000  of  the  popula- 
tion from  syphilis  for  the  periods  1887-1890,  1895-1900,  and  1900- 
1905  was  as  follows:  1887-1890,  6.7;  1895-1900,  7;  1900-1905,  6. 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  death  rate  from  this  disease  was  somewhat 
larger  in  the  earliest  period  considered  than  in  1900-1905,  when  the 
return  movement  of  emigrants  was  much  more  pronounced. 

In  this  connection  it  may  be  noted  that  the  death  rate  in  the  United 
States  from  venereal  diseases  among  persons  under  45  years  was 
higher  in  1900  for  Italians  than  for  any  other  element  of  the  white 
population,  while  among  persons  45  years  and  over  group  the  Italians 
ranked  fourth. 

A  comparison  between  the  death  rate  from  venereal  diseases  among 
Italian  immigrants  and  their  children  and  native-born  persons  whose 
mothers  were  born  in  the  United  States  is  shown  in  the  following 
table : 

TABLE  42. — Death  rate  in  the  United  States  in  1900  from  venereal  diseases  per 
100,000  of  the  population  among  Italians  and  native-born  persons  of  native-' 
lorn  mothers,  by  age  groups. 


Birthplace  of  mothers. 

Under 
15  years. 

15  to  44 
years. 

45  years 
and  over. 

Italy                                                               

16.9 

1.7 

2.0 

United  States                                                   

3.8 

.4 

.8 

If,  as  previously  stated,  the  mortality  rate  from  this  class  of  dis- 
eases can  be  taken  as  an  index  to  their  prevalence,  it  would  seem  from 
the  figures  for  Italy  and  the  United  States  that  they  were  much  more 
common  among  Italians  than  other  races.  This  being  the  case  the 
United  States  is  me/re  seriously  affected  by  the  coming  of  Italians 
than  Italy  is  by  their  return. 

°See  table,  p.  143. 


PART  1II.-THE  EMIGRATION  SITUATION  IN  RUSSIA. 


237 


PART  HI,— THE  EMIGRATION  SITUATION  IN  RUSSIA, 


CHAPTER  I. 
IMMIGRATION  TO  THE  UNITED  STATES  FROM  RUSSIA, 

From  July  1,  1819,  to  June  30,  1910,  2,359,048  immigrants  giving 
the  Russian  Empire  or  Finland  as  the  country  of  their  last  perma- 
nent residence  were  admitted  to  the  United  States.  The  number  of 
immigrants  from  that  country  during  the  period  for  which  data  are 
available  were  surpassed  with  the  number  from  Great  Britain,  Ger- 
many, Austria-Hungary,  and  Italy. 

The  emigration  movement  from  Great  Britain  and  Germany  has 
been  one  of  long  standing,  while  the  movement  of  population  from 
the  Russian  Empire  as  well  as  that  from  Austria-Hungary  and  Italy 
has  only  attained  its  large  volume  in  comparatively  recent  years. 
The  above  figures  do  not  represent  the  total  immigration  from  Russia 
because  prior  to  1899  immigration  from  Poland  was  recorded  sepa- 
rately, and  a  total  of  164,696  persons  were  admitted  to  the  United 
States  from  1820  to  1899  who  gave  Poland  as  the  country  of  origin. 
What  proportions  of  these  came  from  Russia  and  from  the  Polish 
provinces  of  Austria  and  Germany  are  not  known.  Since  1899 
Poland  has  not  been  considered  as  a  geographical  entity  in  record- 
ing immigration  data. 

IMMIGRATION  BY  YEARS,   1820-1910. 

In  the  year  1820  only  14  immigrants  from  the  Russian  Empire  were 
admitted  to  the  United  States.  Less  than  200  were  admitted  in  any 
fiscal  year  until  1846,  when  248  were  recorded.  That  number  was 
not  equaled  again  until  1866,  and  it  was  not  until  1872  that  the  num- 
ber reached  1,000.  From  that  time  there  was  a  constant  increase  in 
the  movement  of  population  from  Russia  to  the  United  States.  The 
development  of  the  movement  is  shown  in  the  table  next  presented, 
which  gives  the  total  immigration  to  the  United  State's  from  the 
Russian  Empire  in  each  fiscal  year  from  1820  to  1910. 


240 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


TABLE  1. — Immigration  to  the  United  States  from  the  Russian  Empire  and  Fin- 
land for  the  years  ending  June  80,  1820  to  1910. 

[Compiled  from  Statistical  Review  of  Immigration,  1819-1910.     Reports  of  the  Immigra- 
tion Commission,  vol.  3.] 


Year. 

Number. 

Year. 

Number. 

Year. 

Number. 

Year. 

Number. 

1820.  .  . 

14 

1844 

13 

1868« 

141 

1892 

81,511 

1821 

7 

1845 

1 

1869 

343 

1893 

42  310 

1822... 

10 

1846 

248 

1870 

907 

1894  .. 

39,  278 

1823  , 

7 

1847 

5 

1871 

673 

1895 

35,907 

1824 

7 

1848 

1 

1872 

1,018 

1896 

51  435 

1825... 

10 

1849 

44 

1873  . 

1,634 

1897  .. 

25,816 

1826  

4 

1850  b 

31 

1874 

4,073 

1898 

29,828 

1827 

19 

1851 

1 

1875 

7  997 

1899 

60  982 

1828... 

7 

1852 

2 

1876  . 

4,775 

1900  .. 

90,787 

1829  

1 

1853 

3 

1877 

6,599 

1901 

85,257 

1830 

3 

1854 

2 

1878 

3  048 

1902 

107  347 

1831... 

1 

1855 

13 

1879 

4,453 

1903 

136,093 

18326... 

52 

1856 

9 

1880  , 

5,014 

1904 

145  141 

1833 

159 

1857 

25 

1881 

5  041 

1905 

184  897 

1834.  .  . 

15 

1858 

246 

1882 

16,  918 

1906 

215,  665 

1835. 

9 

1859 

91 

1883 

9,909 

1907 

258,  943 

1836 

2 

1860 

65 

1884 

12  689 

1908 

156  711 

1837... 

19 

1861 

34 

1885 

17,158 

1909 

120,460 

1838... 

13 

1862 

79 

1886 

17,800 

1910 

186  792 

1839 

7 

1863 

77 

1887 

30  766 

1840... 

1864 

256 

1888 

33,  487 

Total 

2,359,048 

1841.. 

174 

1865 

183 

1889 

33,916 

1842... 

28 

1866 

287 

1890  .. 

35,  598 

1843  

6 

1867 

205 

1891 

47,426 

Six  months  ending  June  30. 


*>  Fifteen  months  ending  Dec.  31. 


The  above  table  very  clearly  indicates  the  remarkable  growth  of 
the  movement  since  1882,  a  movement  which  reached  its  height  in 
1907,  when  no  less  than  258,943  immigrants  to  the  United  States  re- 
ported Russia  as  the  country  of  their  last  permanent  residence.  In 
fact,  the  number  admitted  in  1907  and  in  1906  as  well  exceeded  the 
total  number  admitted  during  the  fiscal  years  1820  to  1899,  inclusive. 

IMMIGRATION  BY  SEX  AND  DECADES,   1871-1910. 

The  following  table  shows  the  immigration  from  the  Russian  Em- 
pire by  decades  and  by  sex  from  1871  to  1910,  inclusive  : 

TABLE  2.  —  Immigration  to  the  United  States  from  the  Russian  Empire  and  Fin- 
land, l)y  sex  and  decades,  1871  to  1910. 


[Compiled  from   Statistical   Review  of  Immigration,   1819-1910. 
gration  Commission,  vol.  3.] 


Reports  of  the   Immi- 


Period. 

• 

Number. 

Per  cent. 

Total. 

Male. 

Female. 

Male. 

Female. 

1871-1880  

39,  284 
213,  282 
505,280 
1,597,306 

23,419 
138,540 
0202,535 
1,037,960 

15,865 
74,742 
ol24,268 
559,  346 

59.6 
65.0 
62.0 
65.0 

40.4 
35.0 
38.0 
35.0 

1881-1890                                    

1891-1900  

1900-1910  

Total                   

2,355,152 

1,402,454 

774,161 

64.4 

35.6 

•  Figures  by  sex  not  given  for  1893,  1894,  1895,  and  1«S>9. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Russia.  241 


,          T  show  clearly  the  recency  of  the  great  volume 
«1  cn.u  t0  theuUmted  States  from  the  Russian  Empire.    Un- 

L  871-1880  the  number  of  immigrants  had  not  reached  3,000  in  any 
decade.  During  1871  to  1880,  inclusive,  39.284  immigrants  were  ad- 
mitted. In  the  succeeding  decade  the  number  admitted  was  213,282. 
During  1891  to  1900  the  number  more  than  doubled,  and  in  the  last 
decade  1,597,306  immigrants  were  recorded. 

During  the  total  period  1871  to  1910,  inclusive,  64.4  per  cent  of  the 
immigration  from  the  Russian  Empire  was  of  males.  The  proportion 
of  males  was  considerably  less  than  in  the  case  of  Italy  or  Austria- 
Hungary,  this  being  due  to  the  large  proportion  of  females  among 
Hebrew  immigrants  from  Russia. 

RUSSIAN  AND  OTHER  EUROPEAN  IMMIGRATION. 

The  following  table  is  a  comparison  of  the  immigration  of  the 
Russian  Empire  and  European  immigration  as  a  whole  for  the  period 
1820  to  1910: 

TABLE  3.  —  Immigration  to  the  United  States  from  the  Russian  Empire  and  Fin- 
land compared  with  total  European  immigration  (including  Turkey  in  Asia) 
ly  decades,  1820  to  1910. 

[Compiled  form  Table  1,  pages  6-11.] 


Period. 

Total 
European 
immigra- 
tion. 

Russian  immigration. 

Number. 

Per  cent  of 
total  Euro- 
pean immi- 
gration. 

1820-1830  a 

106,508 
495.  688 
1,597,501 
2,452,660 
2,065,272 
2,272,329 
4,739,266 
3,582,815 
8,213,409 

89 
277 
551 
457 
2,512 
39,284 
213,282 
505.280 
1,597,306 

0.1 
0.1 

n 

0.1 
1.7 
4.5 
14.1 
19.4 

1831-1840  

1841-1850     .  . 

1851  1860 

1861-1870  .. 

1871-1880 

1881-1890 

1891-1900  . 

1901-1910                                                                                             .  . 

25,528,410 

2,359,048 

9.2 

Eleven  years. 


b  Less  than  0.05  per  cent. 


Prior  to  1871-1880  the  immigration  to  the  United  States  from  the 
Russian  Empire  constituted  less  than  1  per  cent  of  the  total  Euro- 
pean immigration.  Beginning  with  that  period,  however,  it  grad- 
ually becomes  an  important  element,  in  1891-1900  forming  14.1  per 
cent  of  the  total  European  immigration,  and  in  1901-1910,  19.4  per 
cent  of  the  total  immigration  to  the  United  States  from  Europe 
originated  in  the  Russian  Empire. 


242 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


NATIVES  OF  RUSSIA  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES,  1850  TO  1900. 

The  following  tables  show  the  distribution  in  the  United  States  in 
each  census  year  from  1850  to  1900  of  persons  born  in  Russia  (ex- 
cept Poland)  : 

TABLE  4. — Distribution  of  persons  of  Russian  birth  (except  Poland)  in  the 
United  States,  by  States  and  Territories,  in  the  census  years  1850  to  1900, 
inclusive. 


Geographic  division. 

1850. 

1860. 

1870. 

1880. 

1890. 

1900. 

AREA  OF  ENUMEBA.TION. 

Continental  United  States  

1,414 

3,160 

4,644 

35,722 

182,644 

423,726 

North  Atlantic  division 

825 

1,430 

2,014 

7,400 

92,896 

279,  23C 

New  England  — 
Maine 

2 

9 

18 

54 

420 

1.021 

New  Hampshire 

2 

7 

188 

722 

Vermont 

1 

7 

1 

8 

153 

377 

Massachusetts 

38 

61 

154 

462 

7,325 

26,  963 

Rhode  Island  

1 

6 

13 

98 

682 

2,429 

Connecticut 

5 

46 

34 

65 

3,027 

11,404 

Southern  North  Atlantic- 
New  York     .             

617 

1,013 

1,473 

5,438 

58,466 

165,610 

New  Jersey 

22 

38 

90 

301 

5,320 

19,745 

Pennsylvania  

139 

250 

229 

1,040 

17,315 

50,959 

South  Atlantic  division 

71 

92 

206 

452 

5,900 

16,  472 

Northern  South  Atlantic- 
Delaware  

1 

2 

3 

9 

197 

3SO 

Maryland                      .      .  . 

23 

15 

50 

213 

4,258 

11,301 

District  of  Columbia  
Virginia  

2 
8 

5 
14 

22 
39 

67 
39 

244 

407 

807 
1,242 

West  Virginia           : 

11 

19 

126 

721 

Southern  South  Atlantic- 
North  Carolina       

8 

20 

11 

11 

86 

253 

South  Carolina 

19 

19 

31 

29 

178 

316 

Georgia  

8 

11 

32 

33 

282 

1,232 

Florida                

2 

6 

7 

32 

122 

220 

North  Central  division  

285 

1,056 

1,276 

25,  031 

69,907 

107,529 

Eastern  North  Central- 
Ohio. 

84 

452 

181 

610 

4.576 

8,203 

Indiana 

6 

101 

61 

320 

576 

1,215 

Illinois  

27 

134 

306 

1,276 

8,407 

28,707 

Michigan 

25 

68 

194 

1,560 

11,889 

4,138 

Wisconsin 

71 

95 

102 

312 

2  279 

4  243 

Western  North  Central- 
Minnesota 

2 

59 

109 

2  272 

7  233 

5,907 

Iowa  

41 

40 

96 

535 

782 

1,998 

Missouri.   ... 

29 

72 

140 

340 

2  414 

6,672 

North  Dakota  

u 

1 

4 

6  493 

16  496 

/      14,979 

South  Dakota  

Nebraska 

r 

21 

27 

3  281 

5  454 

\      12,365 
8,083 

Kansas 

13 

56 

8  032 

9  801 

11  019 

South  Central  division 

179 

279 

410 

767 

2  713 

8  961 

Eastern  South  Central- 
Kentucky 

70 

38 

28 

'   63 

390 

1  076 

Tennessee  

9 

44 

74 

70 

463 

927 

Alabama  

10 

20 

36 

44 

274 

468 

Mississippi 

9 

26 

21 

76 

120 

414 

Western  South  Central- 
Louisiana.                

65 

84 

165 

158 

345 

692 

Arkansas 

6 

25 

24 

77 

87 

276 

Indian  Territory  

200 

Oklahoma  ,  

57 

2,649 

Texas.    .........  .  . 

10 

42 

62 

279 

977 

2  259 

a  Dakota  Territory  until  1900. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Russia. 


243 


?;  Pers0ns  of  Russian  Wrto   (except  Poland)   in  the 
inlusive—* Continu^          ^  Territories>  in  the  c&nsus  Vears  ™50  to  1900, 


Geographic  division. 

1850. 

1860. 

1870. 

1880. 

1890. 

1900. 

ABEA  OF  ENUMERATIONS—  Continued. 

Continental  United  States—  Continued. 
Western  division  

54 

11,228 

11,534 

Kocky  Mountain- 
Montana  

7 

25 

719 

394 

Wyoming  

10 
5 

17 

113 

124 

Colorado  

I 

1ft 

New  Mexico  

4 

Basin  and  Plateau- 
Arizona  

5 

Utah  

1 

10 

Nevada  

9 

48 

41 

QQ 

Pacific- 
Washington  

g 

21 

OAK 

Oregon  

1 

22 

fi7 

California  

48 

260 

540 

1  013 

3140 

TABLE  5. — Per  cent  of  persons  of  Russian  Urth.  (except  Poland)  in  each  geo- 
graphic division  of  the  United  States  in  the  census  years  1850  to  1900,  in- 
clusive. 


Geographic  division. 

1850. 

1860. 

1870. 

1880. 

1890. 

1900. 

Total  

100.0 

100  0 

100.0 

100.0 

100  0 

100  0 

North  Atlantic  division... 

58.3 

45.3 

43.4 

20.7 

50.9 

65.9 

South  Atlantic  division. 

5.0 

2.9 

4.4 

1.3 

3.2 

3.9 

North  Central  division 

20  2 

33  4 

27.  5 

70.1 

38.3 

25.4 

South  Central  division  

12.7 

8.8 

8.8 

2.1 

1.5 

2.1 

Western  division 

3.8 

9.6 

15.9 

5.8 

6.1 

2.7 

In  each  census  year  from  1850  to  1900  the  great  bulk  of  persons  in 
the  United  States  who  had  been  born  in  Russia  (except  Poland)  were 
in  the  North  Atlantic  and  North  Central  States.  Moreover,  in  every 
instance  except  two  New  York  has  had  the  greatest  number  of  per- 
sons who  were  natives  of  Russia.  In  1880  both  Kansas  and  Dakota 
Territory  had  a  larger  number  of  persons  born  in  Russia  than  New 
York.  The  rapid  increase  in  the  United  States  of  the  number  of 
persons  who  were  born  in  Russia  began  between  1880  and  1890.  At 
the  former  date  they  numbered  35,722,  at  the  latter  date  182,644.  In 
1900  the  number  of  persons  in  the  United  States  reported  as  having 
been  born  in  Russia  reached  423,726.  Of  the  latter  number,  165,610 
were  reported  in  New  York  State.  Other  States  having  in  1900  a 
relatively  large  number  of  persons  born  in  Russia  were  as  follows: 
Pennsylvania,  50,959;  Illinois,  28,707;  Massachusetts,  26,963;  New 
Jersey,  19,745;  North  Dakota,  14,979;  South  Dakota,  12,365;  Con- 
necticut, 11,404;  Maryland,  11,301;  Kansas,  11,019.  Six  States  show 
a  decrease  in  the  number  of  persons  born  in  Russia— Michigan,  Min- 
nesota, Montana,  Wyoming,  Nevada,  and  Oregon. 

The  great  preponderance  of  Russian-born  persons  in  New  York  is 
probably  due  to  the  large  number  of  Russian  Hebrews  who  settle  in 
New  York  City. 


CHAPTER  II. 
THE  AGRARIAN  QUESTION— MIGRATION  TO  SIBERIA. 

The  extent  of  the  migration  movement  from  European  Russia  to 
Liberia  probably  is  not  generally  realized.  It  is,  however,  one  of  the 
greatest  movements  of  population  in  all  history,  as  is  shown  by  the 

von  nnn  m  the,  §f^  ^n  months  of  the  year  1908  approximately 
^0,000  persons  left  their  homes  in  European  Russia  to  settle  in  the 
Siberian  Provinces  of  the  Empire.  This  number  is  nearly  as  great 
as  the  total  immigration  to  the  United  States  from  all  sources  in  the 
fiscal  years  1908  or  1909.  The  movement  to  Siberia  is  fostered  by 
the  Russian  Government,  and  unlike  the  emigration  from  Russia  to 
the  United  States  it  is  composed  of  true  Russians  largely  from  the 
central  Provinces  rather  than  the  so-called  "aliens"  from  the  west, 
who  so  largely  make  up  the  transoceanic  movement.  Of  course,  the 
migration  to  Siberia  is  not  comparable  with  the  emigration  from 
Russia  to  America,  for  in  the  former  case  the  removal  is  not  beyond 
the  confines  of  the  Empire,  but  nevertheless  both  serve  to  illustrate 
the  fact  that  the  migratory  spirit  prevails  in  practically  all  parts  of 
European  Russia. 

The  migration  movement  to  Siberia  serves  the  double  purpose  of 
settling  the  vast  and  sparsely  populated  Provinces  in  Asiatic  Russia 
and  of  relieving  somewhat  the  relative  overpopulation  in  the  Agra- 
rian Provinces  of  Russia  in  Europe.  The  agrarian  question  has  long 
been  an  important  economic  problem  in  Russia  and  an  understanding 
of  the  situation  is  necessary  to  a  discussion  of  the  migration  and 
emigration  of  the  Russian  peoples.  There  is  much  literature  upon 
the  subject,  much  of  which  is  the  work  of  more  or  less  extreme 
partisans.  It  is,  of  course,  both  impracticable  and  unnecessary  to 
review  or  consider  much  that  has  been  written  in  this  regard,  but 
with  a  view  to  showing  the  prevailing  situation  there  is  presented 
under  the  next  head  a  brief  condensation  of  a  series  of  lectures  de- 
livered in  the  Imperial  University  of  Moscow  by  Prof.  A.  A.  Kauf- 
man and  published  under  the  title,  "The  agrarian  question  in 
Russia."  The  Commission  is  creditably  informed  that  Prof.  Kauf- 
man is  a  leading  authority  upon  this  subject,  and  that  the  work  re- 
ferred to  is  an  excellent  presentation  of  the  question.  The  review  of 
the  work  as  prepared  for  the  Commission  follows: 

THE  AGRARIAN  QUESTION  IN  RUSSIA.8 

Five-sixths  of  the  population  of  Russia  are  peasants.  Their  eco- 
nomic condition  is  of  vital  importance  to  the  whole  country  because 
of  their  large  number  and  because  a  normal  economic  development 
of  the  Empire  is  possible  only  when  the  peasants,  as  producers  and 
as  consumers,  participate  in  the  movement. 

0  Based  on  Prof.  A.  A.  Kaufman's  "Agrarian  question  in  Russia,"  a  course  of 
lectures  delivered  in  the  Imperial  University  of  Moscow  in  1907. 

245 


246  The  Immigration  Commission. 

A  brief  discussion  of  the  emancipation  of  the  peasants  in  1861  is 
necessary  for  an  understanding  of  the  present  situation.  Economic 
and  political  reasons  had  led  to  the  emancipation.  Many  landown- 
ers had  begun  to  realize  that  serfdom  did  not  pay,  while  the  Govern- 
ment had  felt  keenly  that  as  a  tax-paying  population  the  peasants 
would  be  more  satisfactory  when  free  than  when  enslaved.  The 
Crimean  war,  furthermore,  had  created  a  widespread  discontent  in 
the  population,  and  the  Government  had  felt  that  it  was  better  to 
emancipate  the  peasants  from  above  and  thereby  win  their  loyalty 
than  to  wait  until  their  discontent  would  lead  them  to  emancipate 
themselves  from  below. 

A  considerable  difference  of  opinion  existed  among  the  landlords 
in  regard  to  the  desirability  of  granting  freedom  to  the  serfs,  but 
the  landholding  class  was  practically  at  one  in  exerting  its  influ- 
ence toward  giving  the  peasants  as  little  land  as  possible,  and  prefer- 
ably no  land  at  all.  It  was  in  the  interests  of  the  landlords  to  create 
a  class  of  land-poor  or  landless  peasants,  who  would  clamor  for 
employment  and  would  reduce  the  wages  of  agricultural  labor.  And 
since  the  details  of  the  plan  of  emancipation  were  left  to  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  landholding  classes,  whose  desire  to  leave  the  peas- 
ants as  little  as  possible  was  counteracted  only  by  the  Emperor  and 
his  representative  in  the  committee,  the  result  was  that  the  freedmen 
had,  by  about  one-fifth,  less  land  to  cultivate  after  emancipation 
than  during  serfdom. 

The  peasants  received  their  freedom  nominally  without  paying 
for  it,  and  they  received  allotments  of  land  which  the  Government 
bought  from  the  holders  and  for  which  the  peasants  were  to  make 
annual  payments  for  forty-nine  years.  The  size  of  the  allotments 
was  determined  upon  for  each  district  in  accordance  with  local  con- 
ditions, but  in  no  case  were  the  landlords  to  lose  more  than  two- 
thirds  of  their  holdings.  The  peasants  were  given  the  option  of 
taking  one-fourth  of  their  allotments  without  any  payments,  and 
about  640,000  peasants  did  this,  partly  under  duress  and  partly 
because  they  expected  to  lease  additional  land  cheaply  and  to  receive 
good  wages  for  work  on  the  landlords'  land.  But  the  peasants  were 
disappointed  in  this  respect,  because  rents  went  up  rapidly  and  wages 
went  down.  In  addition  to  this  class  of  land-poor  peasants  there 
were  the  former  personal  servants  of  the  nobility,  about  720,000  in 
number,  who  had  received  their  freedom  and  nothing  more. 

While  the  peasants  were  not  supposed  to  pa'y  for  their  persons,  the 
arrangement  was  that  they  were  to  pay  considerably  more  for  the 
first  acre  of  land  than  for  the  others,  which  practically  meant  that 
the  price  of  the  first  acre  included  a  payment  for  their  persons.  This 
system  of  payments,  furthermore,  resulted  in  an  inequitable  arrange- 
ment by  which  the  rate  was  highest  for  the  poorest  peasants. 

The  general  result  of  the  emancipation  was  that  a  considerable 
proportion  of  the  peasants  were  in  a  worse  economic  condition  than 
they  had  been  while  serfdom  prevailed. 

Since  1860  the  number  of  peasants  has  increased  from  50,000,000 
to  86,000,000,  while  the  available  land  has  increased  but  slightly,  so 
that  the  average  amount  of  land  per  person  was  decreased  materially ; 
and  furthermore  the  more  prosperous  peasants  have  had  a  large 
progeny  and  the  greater  increase  among  them  has  tended  to  reduce 
them  to  the  level  of  poverty  of  their  poorer  neighbors. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Russia.  247 


•  n  Slight  increase  in  the  productivity  of  the  land 

860,  but  it  has  not  kept  pace  with  the  growth  of  population, 
and  at  the  same  time  the  prices  of  agricultural  products  have  de- 

nied so  that  peasants  are  obliged  to  sell  more  of  their  products  to 
realize  the  cash  needed  for  their  taxes  and  other  necessary  expenses, 
and  less  remains  for  their  own  consumption.  The  result  is  very 
general  underfeeding.  The  peasants  live  very  largely  on  bread  and 
potatoes  and  the  average  amount  consumed  by  them  falls  far  short 
of  what  is  estimated  as  the  necessary  minimum  for  the  maintenance 
of  health  and  vigor. 

And  yet  the  demands  on  the  peasant  are  growing;  his  dependence 
on  factory-made  goods  increases,  and  the  system  of  indirect  taxation 
continually  augments  the  burden  which  the  poor  have  to  bear  in  order 
to  support  the  Government.  The  actual  poverty  of  the  peasants  arid 
their  mode  of  life  are  such  that  a  description  sounds  like  an  exag- 
geration, and  during  lean  years,  which  occur  about  three  or  four 
times  in  every  decade,  there  are  widespread  famines.  Gastric  and 
other  diseases  have  taken  firm  root  among  the  underfed  peasants,  and 
their  condition  is  pitiful  in  the  extreme. 

Being  unable  to  make  a  living  from  their  land  and  having  no  oppor- 
tunity, under  the  existing  methods  of  agriculture,  to  use  to  advantage 
the  labor  of  all  the  members  of  a  family,  many  peasants  seek  employ- 
ment away  from  their  homes.  The  demand  for  agricultural  labor 
has  declined  in  recent  years,  and  the  peasants  now  generally  go  to 
the  cities  to  work  as  drivers  and  carriers,  or  in  factories,  on  steam- 
ships, and  in  railroad  construction.  They  engage  for  the  most  part 
in  seasonal  work,  and  leaving  in  the  spring  they  return  in  the  fall 
with  perhaps  $10  or  $15  of  savings  representing  the  addition  to  their 
budget  from  their  outside  labor.  The  risk  connected  with  such  work 
is  great;  having  no  accurate  information  the  peasants  often  wander 
about  in  search  of  employment;  their  hours  of  work  when  they  find 
employment  are  long,  from  twelve  to  fifteen  hours,  and  the  food  and 
surroundings  are  miserable.  After  an  absence  of  from  three  to  six 
months  these  peasant-laborers  often  return  home  with  impaired 
health,  and  in  the  meantime  their  crops  have  often  suffered  because 
frequently  only  old  men,  women,  and  children  remain  behind  to 
cultivate  the  land. 

Siberian  colonization  has  often  been  thought  of  as  the  best  way  of 
relieving  the  agrarian  situation  in  Russia.  Emigration  to  Siberia 
has  been  taking  place  in  considerable  numbers  for  more  than  a 
quarter  of  a  century.  The  attitude  of  the  Government  toward  this 
movement  has  changed  several  times,  but  since  1893,  when  the  con- 
struction of  the  Siberian  Railroad  began,  the  Government  has  been 
encouraging  Siberian  colonization.  In  recent  years  the  agrarian 
uprisings  have  added  another  motive  to  the  Government's  desire  of 
relieving  the  peasants.  In  1907  about  a  half  a  million  peasants 
migrated  to  Siberia.  This  movement  often  results  in  a  benefit  to 
the  emigrants,  but  even  that  is  not  always  true;  nearly  20  per  cent 
of  the  colonists  return  to  Russia  ruined  and  about  as  many  remain  in 
Siberia  as  hopeless  failures.  The  best  land  in  Siberia  is  largely 
occupied  at  present,  and  the  current  of  emigration  in  that  direction 
can  not  increase  materially.  At  best  the  exodus  comprises  about  one- 


79524°— VOL  4—11 17 


248  The  Immigration  Commission. 

fourth  to  one-third  of  the  annual  increase  in  population,  and  there- 
fore, of  course,  does  not  decrease  the  density  of  the  settlement  in 
European  Russia.  Under  the  circumstances  Siberian  colonization 
can  not  be  considered  as  offering  a  solution  to  the  agrarian  situation. 

The  purchase  of  land  by  the  peasants  through  the  land  bank 
has  done  something  in  the  way  of  increasing  peasant  landholding 
but  it  does,  not  affect  a  sufficient  proportion  of  the  population  to  be 
considered  as  a  solution,  even  in  part,  of  the  ominous  problem  of  land 
poverty. 

The  situation  may  be  summed  up  as  follows :  The  peasants  are  poor 
and  are  becoming  poorer  every  year;  their  landholdings  decrease  as 
the  population  grows,  and  there  is  not  enough  land  in  Russia  now 
to  support  her  population  adequately  while  the  yield  of  the  land  re- 
mains as  low  as  it  is  now.  In  the  yield  per  acre  of  wheat,  of  oats,  of 
rye,  and  of  hay,  Russia  is  far  and  away  at  the  bottom  of  the  list  of  all 
civilized  countries.  Poor  harvests  are  more  common  in  Russia  than 
elsewhere  and  the  difference  between  fat  and  lean  years  is  much 
greater  there  than  in  other  parts  of  Europe. 

And  yet  Russia's  climate  is  fairly  good,  and  her  soil  is  of  more 
than  average  fertility.  The  reason  of  the  low  productivity  of  Rus- 
sia's soil  is  to  be  found  in  the  antiquated  methods  of  cultivation  used 
by  the  peasants.  The  implements  used  are  primitive  and  irrational, 
the  system  of  crops  is  calculated  to  exhaust  the  land.  Russia's  land 
is  still  cultivated  on  the  principle  that  exhausted  lands  can  be  aban- 
doned and  others  found,  while  the  increase  of  population  makes  a 
more  \ntensive  and  economical  system  of  agriculture  imperatively 
necessary.  If  the  peasants  spent  part  of  the  effort  which  they  use 
in  trying  to  obtain  new  land  to  cultivating  their  own  allotments  in 
a  more  satisfactory  manner  a  great  step  forward  would  be  accom- 
plished. In  some  of  the  portions  of  the  Far  East  Russian  colonists 
fail  and  starve  on  allotments  five  and  six  times  as  great  as  those  on 
which  their  neighbors,  the  Chinese  and  Koreans,  prosper. 

The  peasants  can  hardly  be  expected  to  do  otherwise  than  per- 
severe in  their  traditional  methods  of  land  cultivation  as  long  as 
their  level  of  education  and  intelligence  remains  as  low  as  it  is  at 
present.  The  proportion  of  persons  at  school  and  the  per  capita 
expenditure  for  education  are  lower  in  Russia  than  in  any  other 
civilized  country.  Besides  the  peasant's  ignorance  and  isolation 
impede  his  development;  no  cooperation,  no  common  action  is  per- 
mitted to  him,  and  the  burden  of  taxation  continually  increases, 
leaving  less  and  less  margin  for  attempts  at  improvements.  The 
decline  of  prices  on  cereals,  partly  through  American  competition, 
and  the  growth  of  the  factory  system  which  has  destroyed  home 
industry  and  made  the  peasant  dependent  on  manufactured  goods, 
without  offering  him  employment  in  return,  have  also  contributed  to 
the  peasants,  misery  and  consequent  inertia. 

There  is  no  possible  solution  of  Russia's  land  problem  unless  the 
productivity  of  the  soil  increases;  there  is  not  enough  land  in  Russia 
now  to  support  her  population  as  long  as^the  poor  crops,  caused  by 
primitive  methods,  persist,  and  yet  the  average  amount  of  land  per 
person  is  greater  in  Russia  than  in  most  other  European  countries. 
A  campaign  of  education,  together  with  encouragement  of  all  at- 
tempts at  cooperation,  is  essential  for  an  improvement  of  the  condi- 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Russia. 


249 


tions  of  Russia's  peasantry.  An  increase  in  the  holdings  of  the 
poorest  peasants  may  be  necessary  to  help  the  peasants  pull  through 
he  pi  esent  acute  crisis,  but  education  and  modern  agricultural 
methods  and  machinery  are  the  only  means  which  will  place  Russia's 
peasants  on  the  road  to  economic  advancement. 

MIGRATION     TO     SIBERIA. 

As  stated  by  Mr.  S.  Janovsky  in  an  article  printed  elsewhere  in 
this  report"  there  has  been  an  uninterrupted  migration  of  settlers 
trom  European  Russia  to  Siberia  ever  since  its  annexation  to  the 
fcmpire.  In  the  first  half  of  the  nineteenth  century  the  Government 
itself  organized  the  transportation  of  State  peasants  from  the  prov- 
inces where  land  was  scarce  to  Siberia.  During  the  transportation 
the  Government  supplied  them  with  provisions,  cared  for  the  sick, 
and  previous  to  their  arrival  at  their  destination  prepared  to  provide 
them  with  bread,  hay,  cattle,  and  agricultural  implements.  Various 
privileges  were  likewise  granted  them.  Under  this  system  of  organ- 
ized migration  about  320,000  persons  were  transported,  not  all, 
however,  to  Siberia,  as  part  of  the  movement  was  directed  to  south- 
east Russia,  where  there  was  also  an  abundance  of  land. 

In  addition  to  the  organized  migration  of  State  peasants  there 
was  an  independent  movement  the  volume  of  which  is  not  known. 

The  early  state-aided  migration  to  Siberia  was  not  continued  and 
practically  the  whole  movement  to  that  region  ceased  until  about  1880, 
when  coincident  with  the  transoceanic  emigration  of  a  considerable 
number  of  Russian  peasants  the  migration  to  Siberia  was  resumed. 
The  following  figures  show  the  migration  to  Siberia  from  European 
Russia  from  1881  to  1908: 

TABLE  6. — Migration  to  Siberia  from  European  Russia  from  18S1  to  1908,  by 

years. 

[Compiled  from  figures  published  in  the  Journal  of  the  Russian  Department  of  Justice, 

April,  1909.] 


Year. 

Number. 

Year. 

Number. 

1881 

36,  000 

1895... 

120,000 

1882 

33,  000 

18%  

6200,000 

1883 

(a) 

1»97                                      

63,000 

1884 

(a) 

1898 

6206,000 

1885 

(a) 

1899  

6200,000 

1886 

(a) 

1900  

219,000 

1887 

25,000 

1901                            

120,000 

1888 

36  000 

1902 

111,000 

1889 

40,000 

1903  

115,000 

1890 

49,000 

1904  

47,000 

1891 

87  000 

1905                 

44,000 

1892 

92  000 

1906                                  

219,000 

1893 

64,000 

1907  

577,000 

1894 

65,500 

1908  

c  720,  000 

Data  not  available. 


Estimated. 


From  January  1  to  November  1,  1908. 


From  the  above  table  may  be  gained  a  fairly  accurate  idea  of  the 
very  large  proportions  which  the  movement  to  Siberia  has  assumed  in 
recent  years.  In  1895  it  numbered  120,000  persons  and  in  the  fol- 


fl  See  p.  251. 


250  The  Immigration  Commission. 

lowing  year  about  200,000.  In  1907  it  had  exceeded  half  a  million, 
and  in  the  eleven  months  of  1908  for  which  data  are  available  the 
migration  reached  its  greatest  volume,  720,000  persons  being  re- 
corded. "The  movement,  it  will  be  noted,  has  been  subjected  to  con- 
siderable fluctuations,  dropping  in  1904  to  47,000,  whereas  in  the 
previous  year  it  had  numbered  115,000.  However,  except  for  the 
three  years,  1903  to  1905,  the  migration  of  the  peasants  to  Siberia 
has  exceeded  the  total  migration  to  the  United  States  from  the  Rus- 
sian Empire. 

Further  reference  to  the  movement  to  Siberia  will  be  found  in 
Mr.  S.  Janovsky's  article  on  Russian  Law  and  Emigration  in  the 
chapter  following. 


CHAPTER  III. 
RUSSIA'S  ATTITUDE  TOWARD  EMIGRATION. 


theBn°;nn!p  f^f  kin%  the.  Rfs^n  law  does  not  recognize  the  right  of 
e  people  to  leave  Russia  for  the  purpose  of  taking  up  a  permanent 
residence  in  another  country.  At  times  this  attitude  has  been  modi- 
fied somewhat  and  at  the  time  of  the  Commission's  visit  to  Russia 
Government  had  under  consideration  a  proposed  law  involving 
the  legalization  and  control  of  emigration.  However,  so  far  as  the 
Commission  is  5  advised,  no  definite  action  in  this  regard  has  been 
taken.  Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  Russia  does  not  recognize  the 
right  of  her  people  to  leave  the  country  except  temporarily  there  has 
been  a  large  movement  of  population  from  the  Empire  to  foreign 
countries  in  recent  years.  In  fact,  Russia  now  ranks  as  one  of  the 
three  great  emigrant-furnishing  countries  of  the  world,  and  if  the 
movement  from  European  Russia  to  Siberia  be  taken  into  account  it 
is  by  far  the  most  important  emigration  source. 
•  In  order  that  the  legal  status  of  emigration  from  Russia  may  be 
clearly  understood  there  is  presented  as  a  part  of  this  report  a  trans- 
lation of  an  article  by  Mr.  S.  Janovsky  entitled  "  Russian  law  and 
emigration."  This  article,  which  follows  in  full,  was  published  in 
the  journal  of  the  Russian  department  of  justice  for  the  month  of 
April,  1909,  and  the  Commission  is  assured  upon  high*  authority  that 
it  is  an  excellent  presentation  of  the  matter  : 

RUSSIAN  LAW  AND  EMIGRATION. 
I. 

Until  very  recently  the  Russian  people  manifested  no  interest  whatever  in 
the  subject  of  emigration.  No  attention  was  shown  to  it  by  either  science,  public 
opinion,  or  the  legislature.  And  this  was  perfectly  natural.  Until  the  beginning 
of  the  eighties  of  the  last  century  there  was  almost  no  emigration  from  Russia. 
The  figures  of  the  United  States,  whither  the  largest  number  of  European  emi- 
grants go,  show  that  the  emigration  from  Russia  in  the  years  between  1820 
and  1870  amounted,  on  the  average,  to  a  few  dozen  persons  per  year.  In  1871 
this  emigration  for  the  first  time  exceeded  1,000  persons,  thus  beginning  to 
show  a  marked  increase.  Ten  years  later,  in  1881,  the  number  had  increased 
to  10,655.  Ever  since  that  time  the  flow  of  emigration  has  been  constantly 
growing,  carrying  out  of  Russia  tens  of  thousands  of  emigrants  every  year. 
But  during  the  period  preceding  the  year  1900  the  number  of  emigrants  had 
only  once  (in  1892)  reached  81,500,  while  it  generally  fluctuated  between  20,000 
and  60,000  per  year.  Thus  in  proportion  to  the  total  population  of  Russia  the 
emigration  until  the  very  end  of  the  nineteenth  century  represented  but  an  in- 
significant quantity  (not  more  than  one-third  or  one-half  pro  mille). 

But  even  this  insignificant  emigration  finds  no  direct  justification  in  the 
economic  conditions  prevailing  in  Russia.  With  its  vast  possessions  in  the 
north  and  east  of  Europe,  and  particularly  in  Siberia  and  Central  Asia,  Russia 
under  normal  conditions  can  not  be  considered  as  a  country  of  emigration. 
On  the  contrary,  she  ought  to  be  rather  a  point  of  attraction  for  foreign  na- 
tions, and  thus  be  a  country  of  immigration.  This  was  exactly  the  point  of 
view  of  the  Russian  Government,  when  it  undertook  a  whole  line  of  special 
measures  in  order  to  encourage  immigration  of  foreigners  into  Russia.  We 
can  mention  in  this  connection  the  Mennonites,  whose  immigration  into  Russia 

251 


252 


The  Immigration  Commission. 


commenced  in  1787.  In  general  during  the  reign  of  Catherine  II  the  immigra- 
tion of  foreigners  into  Russia  assumed  extremely  large  proportions.  The 
immigrants  were  granted  religious  freedom,  exemption  from  taxation  for  a 
certain  number  of  years,  freedom  from  conscription,  and  a  sufficient  quantity 
of  land.  Only  in  1819  was  an  Imperial  decree  issued  prohibiting  the  importa- 
tion of  foreigners  into  Russia. 

The  Government  was  soon  thereafter  brought  face  to  face  with  another  mi- 
gration. Owing  to  the  increase  in  population,  a  scarcity  of  land  began  to  make 
itself  felt  in  some  of  the  provinces  of  Russia.  The  peasants  commenced  to 
migrate  in  quest  of  vacant  lands.  They  were  particularly  attracted  by  the 
eastern  territories  of  European  Russia  and  Siberia,  which  they  deemed  a 
promised  land.  In  fact,  there  was  an  uninterrupted  migration  of  settlers  to 
Siberia  on  foot  ever  since  its  annexation  to  Russia.  In  the  first  half  of  the 
nineteenth  century,  the  Government  itself  organized  the  transportation  of 
state  peasants  from  the  provinces,  where  land  was  scarce,  to  the  southeast  of 
European  Russia  and  to  Siberia.  In  the  new  places  portions  of  land  were  be- 
ing parceled  out  to  the  peasants — in  the  steppes  not  more  than  15,  and  in 
the  fields  not  more  than  8  dessiatines  (1  dessiatine  is  equal  to  2.7  English 
acres)  per  person.  "  In  the  course  of  their  transportation  the  Government 
supplied  them  with  provisions,  removed  difficulties,  cared  for  the  sick,  and 
before  their  arrival  at  the  places  of  their  new  settlement,  the  agents  of  the 
Government  prepared  to  provide  them  with  bread,  hay,  cattle,  and  agricultural 
implements."  a  The  settlers  were  also  being  supplied  with  money  and  were 
being  granted  various  privileges.  Under  these  conditions  320,000  persons  were 
transported  to  Siberia  in  the  years  1831  to  1836. 

Besides  the  organized  emigration,  there  was  also  a  spontaneous  migration 
of  the  population.  Its  size  was  different  at  different  times.  Thus,  toward  the 
end  of  the  seventies  the  number  of  emigrants  from  the  Provinces  of  Ufa  and 
Orenburg  exceeded  100,000.  The  Government  made  many  attempts  to  check 
the  independent  emigration,  but  the  movement  continued  notwithstanding. 

Disregarding  the  migration  from  certain  Provinces  of  European  Russia  into 
others,  and  taking  up  only  the  migration  into  the  "  Russian  colony  " — Siberia — 
then  the  magnitude  of  this  migration,  resembling  in  a  great  many  respects 
migrations  among  other  nations,  could  be  characterized  by  the  following  data : 

Following  the  Cessation  of  the  emigration  organized  by  the  Government  the 
movement  of  settlers  into  Siberia  had  almost  come  to  an  end.  It  is  only  since 
the  beginning  of  the  eighties — i.  e.,  since  the  time  when  the  Russian  emigra- 
tion, in  the  proper  meaning  of  the  word,  had  for  the  first  time  reached  large 
proportions — that  the  migration  to  Siberia  was  resumed.  It  is  interesting  to 
compare  the  magnitude  of  these  two  phenomena — i.  e.,  the  emigration  to  the 
East,  to  Siberia,  and  the  West,  to  the  United  States. 


Year. 

To  North 
America. 

To  Siberia. 

Year. 

To  North 
America. 

To  Siberia. 

1881 

10,700 

6  36,  000 

1895... 

36  000 

120  000 

1882                                    .   - 

22,000 

b  33  000 

1896 

51  500 

c200  000 

1883 

12  000 

1897 

26  000 

63  000 

1884                         

17,000 

1898  

30  000 

d  206  000 

1885 

17,000 

1899 

61  000 

c200  000 

1886 

18  000 

1900 

9l'oOO 

e  219  000 

1887                             .   . 

31,000 

25,000 

1901  

85  000 

120  000 

1888 

33.  500 

36,000 

1902 

107  000 

111  000 

1889                      

34,000 

40,000 

1903  

136  000 

115  000 

1890 

36,000 

49,000 

1904   .. 

145  000 

47  000 

1891 

47.000 

87,000 

1905 

185  000 

44  ooo 

1892       .   . 

81.500 

92.000 

1906  

216  000 

219  000 

1893 

42,000 

64,000 

1907 

259  000 

577  000 

1894  

39,000 

65,500 

1908  (Jan.  1-Nov.  1) 

720  000 

a  A.  Kaufman  on  migration,  Encycl.  diet. 

&  I.  Hourwich:  Emigration  of  peasants  to  Siberia.     Moscow,  1889. 

c  About. 

d  For  the  years  1898  and  1899,  according  to  figures  in  Great  Enc. 

«  D.  V.    Emigration  for  1908.    Viestnik  Finansov,  1909,  No.  5. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Russia.  253 

The  constantly  increasing  wave  of  emigration  finally  forced  the  Government 
to  take  a  serious  view  upon  the  question  arid  substitute  the  occasional  measures 
and  separate  ukases  by  a  special  bill  regulating  migration,  which  was  enacted 
into  law  June  13  1889  According  to  this  law,  "migration  is  permissible  with 

t  preliminary  leave  from  the  community,  but  not  otherwise  than  with  the 
preliminary  permission  of  the  ministers  of  the  interior  and  imperial  domain 
provided  that  plausible  grounds  therefor  are  presented  (there  is  no  definition  in 
the  law  as  to  the  character  of  the  grounds)  and  that  there  are  vacant  parcels 
The  law  establishes  mainly  the  conditions  and  the  order  of  settle- 
ment in  the  new  places.  It  also  provides  privileges  extended  to  the  settlers: 

:-st,  exemption  from  certain  payments  and  taxes,  and,  second,  extension  of 
time  to  perform  military  service— in  European  Russia  for  two  years  and  in 
Asiatic  Russia  for  three  years.  Government  agents  were  put  in  charge  of  the 
process  of  transportation,  the  aid  to  the  settlers,  and  their  protection  on  the  way. 

In  order  to  conduct  a  constant  supervision  over  the  emigration,  a  special  office 
had  been  organized,  with  the  rights  of  a  bureau,  and  subordinated  to  the  de- 
partment of  the  interior.  The  subject  of  emigration  awoke  great  public  inter- 
est. Different  writers,  Yadrinzev,  Issaev,  Golovatshov,  Sushtshinsky,  and 
others  familiarized  the  public  with  the  conditions  of  the  emigrants  and  with 
the  suffering  which  they  were  undergoing  on  the  way,  which  caused  hundreds 
of  deaths  among  them.  To  furnish  help  to  the  emigrants,  private  committees 
had  been  organized  in  the  central  points— Perm,  Tyumen,  Tomisk,  Irkutsk; 
and  an  association  to  furnish  assistance  to  emigrants  was  organized  in  St. 
Petersburg. 

Thus,  while  the  migration  to  the  east  aroused  interest  not  only  of  the  Govern- 
ment but  also  of  the  public,  the  emigration  to  the  west,  on  the  contrary,  attracted 
no  attention  whatever.  However,  as  we  have  seen,  the  latter  has  assumed 
of  late  considerable  proportions.  About  200,000  persons  leave  Russian  territory 
annually  to  seek  more  favorable  conditions  of  life  elsewhere.  Many  of  them 
perish  before  ever  reaching  the  distant  shores  of  their  destination.  But  the 
hardship  and  privation  which  the  majority  suffer  are  so  great  that  many  among 
them  would  have  gladly  abandoned  the  intention  to  emigrate  had  they  only  known 
the  conditions  of  the  journey.  One  of  t£e  saddest  parts  of  emigration  is  the  ticket 
traffic  carried  on  by  the  "  agents."  The  emigrating  mass  consists  mostly  of 
ignorant  peasants  and  burghers.  They  are  unable  to  accomplish  their  purpose 
unassisted.  The  vast  majority  among  them  have  never  before  left  their  village 
or  borough,  and  now  they  have  to  undertake  a  journey  over  thousands  of  miles 
of  land  and  sea,  carrying  with  themselves  all  their  belongings,  and  frequently 
accompanied  by  wife  and  children.  How  is  it  to  be  done?  How  shall  they 
reach  the  port  of  embarkation?  How  much  will  the  journey  cost?  What  is 
to  be  done  with  the  luggage;  what  shall  they  leave  and  what  take  along?  How 
shall  they  obtain  a  passport?  These  and  a  number  of  other  questions  are  in 
the  majority  of  cases  beyond  the  intelligence  and  experience  of  the  emigrant, 
and  to  meet  the  demand  a  numerous  class  of  middlemen — "  agents  " — sprang 
into  existence.  They  act  as  a  medium  between  the  emigrants  and  the  steamship 
companies  engaged  in  the  transportation  of  emigrants  from  the  European  ports 
to  America,  Africa,  and  other  parts  of  the  earth.  The  functions  these  middle- 
men perform  are  of  all  sorts  of  form  and  nature,  and  they  have  always  and  in 
every  country  carried  on  a  most  merciless  exploitation  of  the  emigrants.  The 
"  agents  "  use  every  opportunity  to  rob  the  emigrants ;  they  sell  them  steamship 
tickets  at  an  exorbitant  price ;  cheat  them  in  the  exchange  of  their  money  for 
foreign  money;  keep  them  for  weeks  in  the  ports  of  embarkation  waiting  for  a 
steamer;  and  ship  them  off  in  crowded  apartments  together  with  cattle  and 
horses. 

But  their  principal  occupation  consists  in  procuring  a  foreign  passport  or  in 
helping  them  to  secretly  cross  the  frontier.  Every  year  scores  of  emigrants 
fall  under  the  bullets  of  the  frontier  guard,  and  still  the  clandestine  traffic  goes 
on  as  usual. 

When  similar  irregularities  and  abuses  crept  out  with  regard  to  the  eastern 
emigration  the  Government,  as  we  have  indicated  in  the  preceding  lines,  inter- 
vened:; but  the  emigration  west  has  until  this  very  day  remained  without  any 
control  whatever.  It  is  to  the  composition  of  the  emigrating  mass  that  we  must 
look  for  the  explanation  of  this  indifference  on  the  part  of  the  Government. 
Out  of  the  200  000  emigrants  about  half  are  Jews,  and  the  other  half  consis 
of  Poles  Lithuanians,  Finns,  and  Germans.  While  the  element  emigrating  east, 
to  Siberia,  is  composed  of  genuine  Russians,  the  emigration  west,  abroad,  con- 


254  The  Immigration  Commission. 

sists  of  the  so-called  alien  element.  "  Laissez  faire,  laissez  passer  "  is  the  maxi- 
mum of  justice  which  one  would  expect  from  the  Government  with  regard  to 
this  situation.  A  small  percentage  of  the  emigrants  consists  also  of  Russians ; 
these  are  mainly  the  Dukhobors  and  other  sectarians.  Neither  did  the  migra- 
tion of  the  latter  element  serve  as  sufficient  reason  for  the  Government  to  take 
notice  of  this  phenomenon ;  consider  it  from  the  standpoint  of  state  interests 
and  adjust  to  it  the  antiquated  legal  provisions. 

II. 

Emigration  is  a  thing  unknown  to  the  Russian  law.  According  to  the  strict 
meaning  of  the  statutes  which  deal  with  the  question  of  leaving  the  country, 
emigration — i.  e.,  the  leaving  of  the  country  for  an  indefinite  period  of  time, 
frequently  forever,  with  the  purpose  of  settling  in  a  foreign  country — is  pro- 
hibited by  law-  Emigration  is  an  offense  punishable  under  sections  325-327  of 
the  penal  code,  which  provide  penalties  for  illegally  leaving  the  fatherland. 
The  following  acts  are  considered  to  be  offenses  under  the  law  referred  to : 

(1)  The   entering   into    foreign    service   abroad    without  permission   of   the 
Russian  Government. 

(2)  The  adoption  abroad  of  a  foreign  citizenship. 

(3)  Failure   to   return   from   abroad   in   compliance   with   the   call   of   the 
Government. 

(4)  Sojourn  abroad  after  the  time  fixed  by  law  has  expired  without  sufficient 
reasons  for  such  a  prolonged  stay. 

The  penalty  for  these  offenses  consists  of  forfeiture  of  civil  rights  and  expul- 
sion forever  from  the  country  (pars.  1^3)  or  of  having  the  delinquent  declared 
a  permanent  absentee,  whereupon  his  estate  is  turned  over  to  the  board  of 
guardians. 

The  contents  of  these  sections  of  the  penal  code  clearly  demonstrate  the 
incompatibility  of  the  existing  laws  with  the  subject  of  emigration  and  the 
unavoidable  conflict  between  the  two.  The  duration  of  the  emigrant's  stay 
abroad  depends  primarily  on  the  realization  of  those  economic  aims  which  he 
pursued  at  the  time  when  he  left  his  country  and  not  on  the  limitations  as  to 
his  sojourn  prescribed  by  law.  On  the  other  hand,  after  having  settled,  he  very 
frequently  becomes  a  citizen  of  the  foreign  country  where  he  has  succeeded  in 
improving  his  conditions  of  life.  Thus  emigration  must  be  treated  as  an  illegal 
abandonment  of  one's  country.0 

However,  in  the  above  classification  of  the  kinds  of  absence  from  the  country 
which  are  treated  as  illegal  we  find  no  reference  to  emigration,  but  this  is  per- 
fectly natural.  No  matter  how  the  makers  of  the  penal  code  were  opposed  to 
emigration,  they  could  not  provide  a  penalty  for  it  once  they  recognized  the 
legality  of  going  abroad,  even  though  they  surrounded  it  by  all  sorts  of  diffi- 
culties. In  its  general  features  emigration  may  not  be  different  from  going 
abroad,  the  animus  emigrandi  not  being  always  easy  to  establish;  and  this  is 
the  very  reason  why  no  penalty  was  provided  for  emigration.  How  strong  the 
opposition  of  the  law  is  to  emigration  can  be  seen  from  section  326,  which  estab- 
lished the  right  of  the  state  to  cut  at  pleasure  the  stay  of  the  citizen  abroad; 
and  this  is  the  very  measure  which  deprives  the  subject  of  the  possibility  to 
settle  legally  in  a  foreign  country. 

If  emigration  to  a  foreign  country  is  prohibited  by  law,  then,  according  to  the 
general  rule,  every  assistance  extended  to  one  in  the  commission  of  this  illegal 

°For  a  better  comprehension  of  the  attitude  of  the  law  toward  emigration, 
we  deem  it  wise  to  state  the  opinion  of  the  Government  as  expressed  in  one  of 
its  acts,  which  formed  the  basis  for  the  above-mentioned  legislation.  The  act 
referred  to  is  the  ukase  of  April  17,  1834,  "  concerning  the  limitation  upon  the 
right  of  sojourn  of  Russian  subjects  in  foreign  lands."  It  contains  the  follow- 
ing passage :  "  Under  our  laws  citizens  belonging  to  the  nobility  or  to  other  free 
classes  are  permitted  to  go  abroad  furnished  with  the  established  passports;  but 
they  have  never  been  permitted  to  leave  their  fatherland  and  willfully  to  settle 
in  foreign  lands.  However,  the  information  gathered  discloses  the  fact  that 
there  were  and  are  cases  where  persons  having  obtained  passports  to  go  abroad 
established  there  their  residence  for  an  indefinite  time  and  have  thus  willfully 
converted  their  leave  of  absence  into  emigration.  This  results  in  harm  to  their 
property  at  home,  in  squandering  their  incomes  outside  the  State,  in  burdening 
their  inherited  estates  with  debts,  and  in  the  breaking  up  of  the  ties  which  bind 
them  to  their  home  and  country." 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Russia.  255 


ep  therein'  becomes  an  offens*  Punishable 

narH^fiPr?  £?  ^  ?*  *U  the  accessories  ^  such  an  act  the  law  singles 
it  particularly  those  that  instigate  the  commission  thereof  Section  328  nun- 
ishes  with  forfeiture  of  special  rights  and  exile  or  imprisonment  under  sub- 
division  5  of  section  31  all  those  •'  who  will  instigate  any  of  the  subjects  of 
the  Empire  to  emigration  abroad."  Thus  instigation  to  emigration  is  from  an 
accessory  part  in  the  principal  offense  made  to  constitute  a  leparate  andTnd  ° 

of  i£  f^*£?™FyS£?l  {t  iS  not  affected  b^  the  Decisions  of  the  Senate 
of  18*1  (iso  1309)  and  1873  (No.  445)  and  others  to  the  effect  that  instigators 
are  punishable  only  in  the  event  where  the  person  instigated  commits  the  crime 
to  the  commission  of  which  he  was  instigated."  Instigation  to  emigration  is 
punishable  independent  of  the  results  which  it  accomplishes 

This  section  (328)  might  very  well  remain  in  force  even  after  emigration 
should  be  legalized.  No  state  is  in  a  position  to  permit  within  its  borders  a 
free  agitation  for  emigration.  Emigration  from  a  political  standpoint  is  unde- 
sirable. It  is  usually  the  result  of  unfavorable  economic  conditions  prevailing 
in  a  country,  with  which  it  is  difficult  for  the  population  to  struggle.  But  the 
hardship,  danger,  and  risk  connected  with  emigration,  as  well  as  the  natural 
conservatism  of  the  mass,  keep  it  within  certain  limits  and  make  it  adjust  itselt 
to  the  resources  of  the  country  whither  it  directs  itself.  But  the  activity  of 
agents,  canvassers,  and  instigators  may  operate  to  swell  the  current  of  emigrants 
beyond  the  necessary  limits  and  break  the  natural  equilibrium  between  supply 
and  demand  of  labor  in  the  country  which  receives  the  emigrants.  In  accord- 
ance with  the  opinion  of  the  imperial  council,  which  had  received  the  imperial 
sanction,  and  was  promulgated  April  26,  1906,  section  328  was  amended  to  read 
that  the  prescribed  penalty  shall  be  inflicted  upon  one  "  who  will  spread  among 
the  population  obviously  false  information  concerning  the  advantage  of  emigra- 
tion abroad,  with  the  purpose  of  inducing  it  to  abandon  the  place  of  its  perma- 
nent residence."  This  new  phraseology  of  section  328  limited  the  responsibility 
of  the  agents  to  cases  where  information  is  spread  and  such  information  is 
knowingly  false.  All  other  ways  of  agitation  for  emigration  are  thus  recog- 
nized as  not  against  the  law.  In  our  opinion,  as  expressed  in  the  preceding 
lines,  the  new  tenor  of  section  328  is  not  in  consonance  with  the  correctly  under- 
stood interests  of  the  population. 

Under  our  law  a  citizen  can  leave  the  country  only  for  a  certain  period  of 
time.  Emigration,  in  so  far  as  it  means  the  leaving  of  the  country,  is  governed 
by  this  rule.  The  second  part  of  the  passport  law,  edition  of  1903,  is  devoted 
to  the  matter  of  temporary  leaves  abroad,  and  is  entitled  :  "  Foreign  passports, 
permission  to  cross  the  frontier,  and  frontier  communication."  (Sees.  164-244.) 
This  part  consists  of  five  chapters.  Chapter  I,  "  The  issuance  of  passports  for 
leave  abroad,"  defines  the  authorities  who  issue  foreign  passports  (governors- 
general,  governors,  and  chiefs  of  police),  to  whom  they  are  issued  ("to  Russian 
subjects  of  either  sex  upon  reaching  the  age  of  25,"  sec.  170),  and  in  what  order. 
(Sees.  165-169.)  The  general  rules  established  by  the  law  are  modified  by  a 
whole  line  of  exceptions.  Thus  a  special  set  of  rules  has  been  established  for 
the  following  classes  with  regard  to  their  going  abroad: 

(1)  Sailors. 

(2)  Clerks  and  laborers  who  go  on  boats  or  on  rafts  down  the  rivers.     (Sec. 
180.) 

(3)  Those  that  go  to  the  Holy  Land  to  worship.     (Sec.  181.) 

(4)  Clergy.     (Sees.  182-183.) 

(5)  Landed  proprietors  of  the  western  Provinces.     (Sec.  184.) 

(6)  Landed  proprietors  of  the  Provinces  of  Bessarabia.     (Sec.  185.) 

(7)  Permanent  residents  of  Poland.     (Sec.  186.) 

(8)  Pilgrims,  Moslems.     (Sees.  187-188.) 

(9)  Residents  of  the  far  distant  regions:  Transcaucasia,  Transcaspian  terri- 
tory, and  Siberia.     (Sees.  189-191.) 

(10)  Foreigners.     (Sees.  192-193.) 

The  cost  of  a  foreign  passport,  as  provided  in  Chapter  II,  is  15  rubles  for 
every  six  months  ;  out  of  this  sum  50  kopecks  go  to  the  Crown  for  printing  the 
blanks-  9  rubles  50  kopecks  to  the  pension  fund,  and  5  rubles  represent  a 
temporary  tax  in  favor  of  the  Russian  Red  Cross  Society.  Citizens  of  certain 
categories  are,  however,  permitted  to  obtain  passports  upon  payment  of  oO 
kopecks  for  the  blanks  and  5  rubles  for  the  benefit  of  the  Red  Cross.  _ 

0  Penal  sts  tute,  edition  of  N.  S.  Taganzev. 


256  The  Immigration  Commission. 


Chapter  III  states  that  the  period  of  permitted  sojourn  abroad  is  limited  to 
five  years.  In  order  to  have  this  time  extended  an  authorization  must  be  ob- 
tained from  the  provincial  authorities. 

Chapter  IV  deals  with  the  crossing  of  the  frontier  on  the  way  aoroad  and  on 
the  way  home. 

Chapter  V  is  devoted  to  frontier  communications  and  contains  special  rules 
concerning  the  crossing  of  the  frontier  by  residents  of  the  neighboring  provinces. 

Of  these  chapters  the  first  three,  in  so  far  as  they  treat  of  foreign  passports, 
have  a  bearing  upon  the  subject  of  emigration.  Emigration  means  first  of  all 
the  leaving  of  one's  country  and  in  this  respect  it  must  be  subjected  to  all  the 
legal  provisions  pertaining  thereto.  But  there  is  hardly  any  part  in  the  code 
of  laws  which  is  less  capable  of  practicable  application  to  the  question  of  emi- 
gration than  the  second  part  of  the  passport  law.  The  whole  code  hardly  con- 
tains so  many  obsolete  and  ambiguous  provisions,  so  many  contradictions,  as 
this  part.  Antiquated  rules,  which  are  in  obvious  contradiction  with  late  en- 
avtments,  stand  side  by  side.  For  example,  section  170  declares  categorically 
that  "  foreign  passports  may  be  issued  to  Russian  subjects  of  either  sex,  only 
upon  their  having  reached  the  age  of  25,"  while  Chapter  II  of  the  same  part, 
which  treats  of  the  form  of  foreign  passports  and  of  the  fees  charged  for  the 
latter,  provides  that  "  upon  payment  for  the  printed  blanks  only,  foreign  pass- 
ports are  issued  to  *  *  (7)  children  below  10  years  of  ago."  Every  per- 
son is  entitled  to  a  passport  provided  that  there  are  no  logal  objections  to  it, 
i.  e.,  "  if  no  legal  claims  have  been  filed  against  those  that  go  abroad  by  private 
creditors  or  Government  oflicers  or  officials "  (sec.  167),  while  the  following 
sections  still  reiterate  that  those  who  go  abroad  for  medical  treatment  must 
produce  a  doctor's  certificate,  and  "  one  who  goes  abroad  to  receive  an  inheri- 
tance must  furnish  proof  thereof."  The  proviso  to  section  170  solemnly  declares 
that  "  Russian  subjects  of  the  male  sex  from  10  to  1.8  years  of  age  are  granted 
leave  to  go  abroad  irrespective  of  the  causes  which  prompt  such  a  leave." 

Owing  to  the  peculiar  character  of  the  law,  the  practice  is  devoid  of  any 
uniformity.  Every  Province  has  it  own  order  of  issuing  foreign  passports.  In 
certain  Provinces,  as  for  instance  Czernigov,  Mobile v,  Yekaterinoslav,  every 
family  going  abroad  must  pay  a  passport  tax  of  15  rubles  for  every  grown 
member  thereof.  This  practice  is  undoubtedly  in  utter  contradiction  with  sec- 
tions 189,  200,  and  others,  which  require  a  payment  for  the  foreign  passport 
and  not  a  tax  upon  every  individual  person;  as  to  section  200  it  explicitly 
states  that  the  cost  of  a  passport  is  15  rubles,  irrespective  of  the  number  of 
persons  noted  therein.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  members  of  one  family, 
when  going  abroad  at  the  same  time,  do  not  receive  separate  passports,  but  are 
entered  into  the  passport  of  the  head  of  the  family  (according  to  the  tenor  of 
sec.  204  and  in  compliance  with  sec.  11  of  the  passport  law),  they  must  not 
be  subjected  to  the  payment  of  special  taxes.  This  is  the  point  of  view  adopted 
by  the  provincial  authorities,  with  the  exception  of  the  authorities  of  the 
mentioned  three  Provinces,  who  entertain  a  distinct  view  on  this  question.  An- 
other instance,  according  to  section  194,  passports  issued  in  the  frontier  Prov- 
inces are  valid  for  three  weeks,  within  which  time  the  holder  of  the  passport 
has  the  right  to  go  abroad,  as  against  the  three  months'  validity  of  passports 
issued  in  all  other  Provinces.  The  practice  has  changed  this  rule;  in  the 
Province  of  Kovno,  Courland,  and  others,  situated  along  the  frontier,  a  pass- 
port is  valid  for  three  months.  In  violation  of  section  164,  foreign  passports 
are  in  practice,  being  issued  not  by  governors-general,  but  by  governors.  Life 
itself  demanded  such  a  decentralization.  As  to  its  other  demands,  they  Ptill  re- 
main unsatisfied.0  According  to  section  207,  as  indicated  above,  the  time  of 
legal  sojourn  abroad  is  limited  to  five  years.  In  case  it  is  necessary  to  remain 
there  beyond  that  period,  the  law  prescribes  that  a  petition  be  sent  to  the  head 
of  the  respective  Province.  The  granting  of  such  a  petition  is  within  his  dis- 
cretion. In  practice,  however,  a  rule  has  become  established  that  the  time  of 

0  When  the  Russian  steamship  companies  opened  direct  communication  be- 
tween Libau  and  America,  and  the  passengers  carried  from  that  port  reached 
the  number  of  60,000  per  annum,  the  governor  of  Courland  transferred  that 
branch  of  his  office,  which  was  in  charge  of  issuing  foreign  passports,  from 
Mitau,  which  is  the  seat  of  the  Province,  to  Libau.  This  change  was  made  in 
order  to  meet  the  demands  of  the  emigrants,  but  it  is  hardly  possible  to  find  a 
justification  for  it  in  the  law. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Russia.  257 


tohpament  S  a0^1^*6  Person  bel°g  only  subjected  upon  his  return 
spent  abroad  PassP°rt  tax  at  the  rate  of  15  rubles  for  every  six  months 

III. 

We  have  set  forth  just  *.  few  examples  in  order  to  show  how  unequal  the 
if  Jfi  ™  V  he»om?non.  "*teh  it  is  supposed  to  regulate,  i.  e.,  to  the  going 
of  citizens  abroad.  Its  inadequacy  asserted  itself  with  still  greater  force 
C°nfr0nted  with  the  *reater  Phenomenon  of  the  preset  Tifl 


In  western  Europe  the  legislation  concerning  emigration  regulates  to  a  con- 
siderable extent  the  following  phases  thereof.  «  Recognizing  the  freedom  to 
emigrate,  the  law  imposes  certain  restrictions  thereon  with  regard  to  certain 
categories  of  citizens.  Furthermore,  the  law  defines  the  rights  and  obligations 
of  the  steamship  companies  which  are  engaged  in  the  transportation  of  emi- 
grants, prescribes  the  rules  controlling  the  contracts  of  transportation  between 
emigrants  and  the  companies,  and  the  rights  and  duties  of  the  agents  at  the 
time  such  contracts  are  entered  into.  The  central  features  of  these  legislative 
acts  are  the  rules  intended  for  the  protection  of  the  emigrants  on  their  way 
and  particularly  during  the  sea  voyage. 

Finally,  in  some  countries  the  law  points  out  in  detail  the  legal  consequences 
of  emigration,  endeavoring  to  reconcile  the  apparent  alienation  of  the  emigrants 
from  their  country  and  the  impossibility  to  fulfill  all  the  duties  toward  it  with 
the  striving  toward  the  maintenance  of  the  ties  between  the  political  body  and 
the  separate  individuals. 

Let  us  examine  the  conditions  confronting  the  Russian  emigrant  with  regard 
to  these  questions. 

To  begin  with,  the  Russian  law  makes  it  very  difficult  for  a  Russian  subject 
to  leave  his  native  land  in  a  lawful  manner,  to  say  nothing  of  emigration,  which 
is  absolutely  illegal.  The  authority  to  issue  foreign  passports,  as  we  have 
mentioned  above,  is  centralized  in  those  cities  which  are  the  seats  of  the 
provinces.  Therefore,  in  these  places  the  difficulties  are  little  known.  But  it 
is  the  rural  or  town  resident  in  the  district  to  whom  they  make  themselves 
felt.  The  obtaining  of  a  foreign  passport  in  these  places  is  a  matter  of  several 
months  and  of  great  expense.  For  instance,  a  resident  of  a  borough  who 
decided  to  go  to  America  must  first  obtain  for  himself  a  local  burgher  passport. 
Having  lived  in  his  native  town,  he,  up  till  this  time,  needed  no  passport  what- 
ever. Then,  he  must  procure  a  certificate  to  the  effect  that  there  are  no  objec- 
tions to  his  going  abroad.  According  to  section  167,  the  local  authorities  are 
obliged  to  issue  such  certificates,  provided  that  no  legal  claims  have  been  filed 
against  the  applicant  by  either  private  creditors  or  Government  offices  or  offi- 
cials. All  this  would  seem  to  be  very  simple.  In  reality,  however,  the  inter- 
vention of  three  or  four  offices  is  required  in  order  to  establish  the  fact  of  non- 
existence  of  objections.  This  fact  must  first  be  certified  by  the  representative 
of  the  class  to  which  the  applicant  belongs,  as,  for  instance,  the  elder  ef  the 
borough,  and  then  only  is  the  certificate  issued  by  the  police.  This  is  the 
beginning  of  the  endless  vexations  of  the  emigrant.  The  petition  requesting 
the  issuance  of  the  certificate  of  nonexistence  of  objections  is  first  detained  by 
the  police  constable,  then  it  goes  to  the  police  lieutenant,  and  finally  to  the 
police  chief  of  the  district.  Expedition  is  not  an  absolute  virtue  of  these 
officials,  and  the  poor  emigrant  is  compelled  to  wait  several  weeks  until  the 
document  is  issued  to  him.  Besides  the  loss  of  time  there  is  also  connected 
with  it  a  loss  of  money,  revenue  stamps,  and  sometimes  expenses  on  traveling 
to  the  lieutenant  or  to  the  chief  to  expedite  the  matter,  etc.  In  the  cases 
where  the  applicant  does  not  reside  in  the  place  where  he  is  registered,  the 
delay  is  still  greater.  In  such  a  case  the  police  before  issuing  the  certificate, 
that"  there  are  no  objections  to  the  applicant's  going  abroad,  sends  an  inquiry 
to  the  police  authorities  of  the  place  of  registry.  A  correspondence  ensues 
which  lasts  for  many  months.  In  some  places  the  custom  is  to  make  the  inquiry 
by  telegraph,  the  cost  of  which  (3  rubles)  is  collected  by  the  police  from  the 
applicant.  In  these  cases  the  issuing  of  the  certificate  is  expedited.  The 
imperial  ukase  of  October  5,  1906,  "repealing  certain  limitations  upon  the 
rights  of  rural  residents  and  other  persons  belonging  to  the  former  taxabl 

a  S.  Janovsky.  Emigration  from  a  legal  standpoint  ;  same  publication  March, 
1008. 


258  The  Immigration  Commission. 

classes  "  had  among  other  sections  of  the  passport  law  also  repealed  sections 
46,  48,  52,  and  53,  which  provided  that  subjects  belonging  to  the  taxable  classes 
must  apply  for  a  passport  at  the  places  in  which  they  were  registered,  and  in 
such  cases  they  were  being  subjected  to  the  payment  of  various  imposts. 
Under  section  5  of  the  ukase  permission  is  granted  to  obtain  passports  in  the 
place  of  residence  or  domicile,  the  latter  being  determined  by  the  place  of  em- 
ployment, occupation,  trade,  or  ownership  of  real  property.  Thus  the  bond  of 
such  persons  with  the  place  of  registry  has  become  entirely  abolished.  Still 
there  are  even  at  present  police  offices  which  do  not  issue  certificates  of  non- 
existence  of  objections  otherwise  than  upon  a  preliminary  communication  with 
the  authorities  of  the  place  of  registry. 

The  described  procedure  may,  however,  in  certain  respects  be  treated  as 
normal,  for  in  some  cases  it  is  considerably  more  complicated.  Take  for  in- 
stance the  case  of  a  woman  emigrating  with  her  children  to  her  husband,  it  being 
of  common  occurrence  among  emigrants  that  the  head  of  the  family  emigrates 
all  alone,  and  upon  settling  in  the  new  place  sends  for  his  family.  In  addition 
to  the  usual  procedure  of  obtaining  a  passport  and  a  certificate  of  nouexistence 
of  objections,  and  of  payment  of  15  rubles  and  all  other  expenses,  the  woman 
must  also  procure  from  her  husband  an  authorization  to  obtain  a  foreigii 
passport.  But  owing  to  the  fact  that  the  resident  of  some  borough  while  emi- 
grating to  America  hardly  ever  thinks  of  these  legal  requisites  which  are 
seldom  known  to  him,  the  woman  as  a  rule  has  no  such  document,  and 
hence  a  painful  situation  is  created  for  the  poor  woman  who  is  thus  unable 
to  procure  a  passport. 

It  is  therefore  no  wonder  that  all  these  difficulties  surrounding  the  process 
of  obtaining  a  foreign  passport,  especially  when  the  applicant  is  a  peasant  or 
a  resident  of  some  obscure  borough,  brought  into  being  a  special  type  of  middle- 
men who  take  upon  themselves  the  task  of  procuring  all  the  papers  necessary 
for  the  crossing  of  the  frontier.  There  are  also  middlemen  (agents)  in  western 
Europe,  who  bring  the  emigrants,  scattered  all  over  the  country,  into  communi- 
cation with  the  steamship  companies.  But  there  their  activity  is  under  strict  con- 
trol and  its  scope  is  clearly  defined,  so  that  the  work  of  the  agents  is  confined 
exclusively  to  the  selling  of  tickets;  while  in  Russia  the  activity  of  the  agents 
is  by  no  means  limited  to  the  selling  of  steamship  tickets,  their  main  function 
consisting  of  furnishing  the  emigrants  with  passports.  The  agents  procure 
for  the  emigrant  all  the  necessary  documents,  but  in  view  of  the  above-men- 
tioned fact  that  it  is  not  always  easy  to  procure  them,  resort  is  had  to  private 
dealings  with  the  police,  the  officials  of  the  provincial  office,  etc.  If  difficulty  is 
encountered  in  obtaining  a  lega*!  passport  for  the  emigrant  in  his  native  town, 
or  if  the  police  authority  of  the  place  of  the  emigrant's  residence  refuses  to 
issue  a  certificate  of  nonexistence  of  objections,  then  the  agent  does  not  hesi- 
tate to  register  the  emigrant  in  another  district,  and  hence  to  obtain  there  a 
passport.  In  such  a  case  the  police  of  the  district  of  course  offer  no  opposition 
to  the  emigrants  going  abroad. 

If  it  becomes  impossible  to  obtain  a  passport  the  agent  undertakes  to  convey 
the  emigrant  across  the  frontier  without  one.  To  effect  this  purpose  there  are 
entire  organizations  of  agents  who  bribe  the  soldiers  forming  the  frontier 
guard,  and  with  their  benignant  noninterference  they  succeed  in  conveying  the 
emigrants,  usually  at  night,  across  the  frontier.  Sometimes  the  agents  use  for  this 
purpose  the  so-called  "  legitimation  "  certificates.  These  certificates  are  issued 
to  residents  of  the  frontier  localities  for  the  purpose  of  allowing  them  to  go 
abroad  for  a  short  period  of  time.a  Through  the  instrumentality  of  the  agents, 
who  have  the  necessary  connections  thereto  with  the  proper  institutions  or 
officials,  the  emigrants  are  entered  in  the  local  registers  of  the  population,  thus 
being  made  to  appear  as  residents  of  the  frontier  localities,  and  in  consequence 
thereof  acquire  the  right  of  having  issued  to  them  a  "  legitimation  "  certificate 
enabling*  them  to  cross  the  frontier. 

These  are  the  conditions  under  which  the  Russian  emigrants  leave  their 
country.  The  law,  while  extending  to  a  certain  degree  its  operation  over  the 
act  of  leaving  the  country,  absolutely  ignores  all  the  other  phases  of  emigra- 
tion. The  activities  of  the  steamship  companies  engaged  in  the  transportation 
of  emigrants  are  free  from  any  legal  regulation  whatsoever.  It  is  the  good 
fortune  of  the  emigrant  that  the  countries  of  immigration — England  and 

a  Section  239  of  the  passport  law  and  section  829  of  the  code  of  custom 
houses  and  regulation. 


Emigration  Conditions  in  Europe:  Russia.  259 


-%?***  Sin°e  .^bushed  a   Government  control  over  the 
T      «  wltVegai'd  to   the  maintenance  of  the  emigrants  during 
l«        tv    ,°^y  I***1?86  of  the  stringent  demands  of  the  English  and 
ci      CUP  fm  th  *  hat  ft?  RUriaP  steamers  foun<*  themselves  compelled  to  exer- 
-SJ  ti        the^health  and  safety  of  the  emigrants  during  the  passage  and  to 
pnn  ide  them  with  a  minimum  of  comforts 


n^tf.ff  ^  Of,a^y  Provisions  controlling  the  officers  engaged  in  the 
of  tickets  of  the  different  steamship  companies.     When,  owing  to  the 

nintd,ehmigratT'  S2Jh  °ffiCerS  Sprang  into  existence,  it  became  necessary 
to  Ming  them  within  the  scope  of  the  law  governing  brokerage  offices,  the 
opening  of  which  is  regulated  by  the  amendment  to  section  46  of  the  com- 
mercial code.  (Code,  Vol.  XI,  pt.  2,  edition  1903.)  As  it  is  known,  this  amend- 
ment provides  for  the  opening  of  offices  to  engage  "  in  the  making  of  purchases 
and  sales  for  private  persons  as  well  as  arranging  loans  of  money  rentin" 
houses,  and  supplying  private  employers  with  various  kinds  of  persons."  The 
permission  to  open  such  an  office  is  granted  by  the  minister  of  the  interior. 
The  offices  are  divided  into  such  that  transact  business  with  citizens  residing 
outside  the  place  where  the  offices  are  situated,  through  correspondence,  and 
others. 

The  founders  of  offices  of  the  first  category  must  furnish  security  in  the  sum 
of  15,000  rubles  to  secure  the  satisfaction  of  claims  that  might  be  brought 
against  them.  The  founders  of  offices  of  the  second  category  must  furnish 
security  in  the  sum  of  7,500  rubles.  The  offices  of  the  first  category  have  the 
right  to  open  branches  everywhere;  but  if  more  than  three  branches  are 
opened,  the  office  must  furnish  security  in  the  sum  of  4,000  rubles  for  each 
branch  so  opened,  above  the  permitted  three. 

At  first  several  merchants  from  Libau,  who  in  the  eighties  of  the  last  cen- 
tury were  engaged  in  selling  tickets  of  the  English  and  German  lines,  availed 
themselves  of  the  above-outlined  concessions.  These  merchants  had  for  a  long 
time  monopolized  the  trade,  and  only  in  later  years  has  the  department  of  the 
interior  permitted  other  offices  to  do  business  in  Libau  and  other  cities. 

The  statute  concerning  brokerage  offices  enabled  a  certain  number  of  agents, 
engaged  in  enlisting  emigrants  and  selling  them  tickets,  to  legalize  their 
activity.  Those  agents  who  did  a  more  extensive  business  formed  relations 
with  the  offices  at  Libau  and  other  cities  and  became  legalized  as  their  branches. 
In  reality  they  remained  perfectly  independent;  but  in  order  not  to  arouse  the 
suspicion  of  the  authorities,  and  also  for  the  purpose  of  better  advertising 
themselves,  they  adorned  their  offices  with  signs:  "Branch  of  the  -  —  , 
authorized  by  the  Government  office  of  so-and-so,  for  the  sale  of  steamship 
tickets  to  America,  Africa,  etc." 

It  is  self-evident  that  this  "  legalization  "  was  absolutely  insufficient  to  bring 
order  into  the  business.  Unlike  our  laws,  the  laws  of  western  Europe  do  not 
treat  the  business  done  by  emigration  offices  alike  with  the  usual  business  done 
by  offices  engaged  in  the  purchase  and  sale  of  different  wares.  Enterprises, 
which  deal  with  tens  of  thousands  of  men,  who,  in  the  majority  of  cases  are 
poor  and  ignorant,  and  who  entrust  themselves  to  them  with  their  lives  and  all 
they  possess,  ought  not  to  be  left  without  the  most  stringent  control  on  the 
part  of  the  Government.  In  the  different  countries  of  western  Europe,  the 
Governments,  before  the  issuing  of  a  license  to  a  steamship  agent,  make  a  pre- 
liminary investigation  as  to  the  moral  qualifications  of  the  future  agent;  the 
activity  of  the  agents  is  thoroughly  regulated  by  the  law  and  is  under  strict 
control  of  the  Government,  which,  in  case  of  necessity,  may  revoke  the  issued 
license.  There  is  of  course  nothing  similar  thereto  in  our  statute  on  brokerage 
offices.  It  must  also  be  remembered  that  only  a  small  number  of  agents,  who 
are  doing  an  extensive  business,  have  obtained  a  legal  status,  while  the  activity 
of  the  vast  majority  of  those  who  are  scattered  all  over  the  southern  and 
western  parts  of  Russia  are  absolutely  under  no  legal  control.  They  work 
secretly,  and  the  transaction  into  which  they  enter  with  the  ignorant  emigrants 
are  subject  to  no  control  whatsoever.  As  a  rule  they  are  not  even  in  writing, 
so  that  the  appetite  of  the  agent  is  given  full  sway.  The  only  law  which 
has  relation  to  the  agents  is  the  previously  mentioned  section  328  of  the 
penal  code,  which  prescribes  a  penalty  for  instigation  to  emigration.  But 
utterly  fails,  especially  in  its  new  form,  to  cover  all  the  multifarious  kind! 
activity  of  the  agents—  that  peculiar  institution  which  has  grown  out  of  the 
conditions  created  by  a  conflict  between  the  unfolding  process  of  life  and  the 
legal  forms  fallen  into  desuetude. 


260  The  Immigration  Commission. 

Just  a  few  words  remain  to  be  said  with  reference  to  the  consequences  ol 
emigration  in  so  far  as  this  can  be  ascertained  from  the  legislation  actually  in 
force.  Emigration  as  a  legal  phenomenon  being  ignored  by  the  State,  it  is  but 
logical  that  the  latter  does  not  deem  it  necessary  to  define  its  rights  and  duties 
toward  those  of  its  citizens  who  &re  forced  to  emigrate.  The  State  takes  no 
notice  of  the  emigrant,  neither  when  he  secretly  or  openly  crosses  the  frontier, 
nor  even  when  he  settles  in  foreign  country.  The  first  time  when  it  sees  in 
him  an  offender  is  when  he  either  refuses  to  return  to  his  native  country  upon 
being  called  by  the  Government  (sec.  326,  penal  code),  or  when  he  decides  to 
strengthen  his  relations  with  the  foreign  country  and  become  a  subject  thereof. 
(Sec.  325.)  But  until  one  of  these  facts  occurs,  the  emigrant  continues  to  be 
regarded  as  a  Russian  subject  temporarily  sojourning  abroad.  We  can  not 
accept  the  view  of  Professor  Martens,  who  claims  that  "  under  the  laws  of  many 
of  the  states  (Austria-Hungary,  Denmark,  Sweden,  and  others),  and  according 
to  the  practice  of  the  Russian  Government  with  regard  to  this  question,  the 
emigrants,  by  virtue  of  the  very  fact  of  their  leaving  their  native  country,  cease 
to  be  subjects  thereof."  °  To  prove  the  truth  of  his  contention,  Professor 
Martens  cites  two  cases  where  the  Russian  Government  refused  to  come  to 
the  help  of  emigrants,  who  found  themselves  in  distress  in  foreign  lands.  In 
the  first  case,  the  emigrants  were  German  colonists  from  the  Province  of  Sara- 
tov, who  emigrated  to  Brazil  in  1878  in  order  to  escape  military  service,  and  to 
a  certain  extent  also  because  of  false  information  as  to  the  riches  of  the 
country.  In  the  other  cases  the  emigrants  were  Jews,  who  ran  from  the 
massacres.  The  only  deduction  which,  in  our  opinion,  can  be  made  from  the 
stated  facts  is  that  the  Russian  Government  does  not  extend  sufficient  protection 
to  its  citizens  abroad.  This  can  be  illustrated  by  a  great  many  other  examples, 
and  still  the